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State Committee Daughters of the Confederacy. 






1915 * 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1903. 


Chairman Publishing Committee South Carolina Daughters of the Confederacy, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

All Rights Reserved. 



Introduction 3 

Report of the Work of the Women of South Carolina During the Con- 
federate War 7 

A Sketch of the Work at Greenville. . . . Mrs. Jane Carson Brunson 26 
Bethany Hospital and Soldiers' Aid Association, Edgefield County, 

Mrs. C. P. Poppenheim 67 

Black Oak Soldiers' Relief Association Minutes 56 

Correspondence of Mr. Richard Caldwell, Commissary-General of 

South Carolina 76 

Correspondence of Mrs. M. A. Snowden 7° 

General Work 121 

Minutes of the Ladies' Relief Association of Fairfield 

Mrs. Robert Ellison 36 

Proceedings of Soldiers' Relief Association n 

The Hospital at Florence Dr. P. B. Bacot S3 

Woman's Work at Abbeville Mrs. Joseph Marshall 69 

Woman's Work at Beaufort Mrs. C. O. Barnwell 34 

Woman's Work at Camden 

Miss Emma C. Reynolds, Mrs. John Johnson 64 

Woman's Work at Cheraw Mrs. Virginia C. Tarrh 28 

Woman's Work at Eutawville Miss Anna S. Sinkler 58 

Woman's Work at Grahamville Miss S. S. Seabrook 63 

Woman's Work at Hopewell and Mars Bluff. Mrs. Martha J. Harlee 30 

Woman's Work at Marion Mrs. Ellen L. Gregg 30 

Woman's Work at Marlboro Mrs. D. D. McColl 35 

Woman's Work at Pendleton 

Mrs. Mary Simpson Williams, Miss Anne Simpson 31 

Woman's Work at Sumter 5-1 

Woman's Work at Union Miss F. M. Blamyer 55 

Women's Associations in South Carolina for the Relief of Soldiers 21 

"The Days That Are Dead" Mrs. Lee C. Harby 156 

A South Carolina Girl's Recollections of the First Year of the War. . . . 

Mrs. Martha B. Washington 168 

Coast Women in the War Mrs. Virginia C. Tarrh 175 

Our First Confederate Flag Miss A. S. Thomas 178 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas Mrs. Grace C. Cochran 181 

Some of My Reminiscences of the War Mrs. Virginia C. Tarrh 190 

A Southern Household During the Years i860 to 1865 

Miss Ellen S. Elmore 195 
Tales of a Grandmother ; or. Recollections of the Confederate War . . 

Mrs. Margaret Crawford Adams 209 

Why I Am a Daughter of the Confederacy .... Mrs. Eleanor S. Ivey 225 

Some Heroic Women Mrs. James H. White 228 

Table of Contents. 

Reminiscences of the Confederate War Mrs. W. B. Dunlap 231 

A Sketch of Life During the War Between the States 

Mrs. Anna Cureton Stevens 232 

The Trials of a Confederate Officer's Wife in 1864 

Mrs. Charlotte Palmer Capers 235 

The Last Bazar Miss Grace Elmore 247 

Experiences During the Civil War Mrs. Mary Janney Leaphart 247 

Two Equipages Mrs. Thomas Taylor 250 

Personal Experiences with Sherman's Army at Liberty Hill 

Mrs. C. P. Poppenheim 254 

Burning of Columbia Madame S. Sosnowski 261 

A Confederate Girl's Diary Mrs. Clark Waring 272 

The Burning of Columbia An Ursidine Nun 288 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent by Sherman 

Mrs. Sara Aldrich Richardson 298 

When Columbia Burned Mrs. Harriott H. Raven cl 319 

The Sack of Columbia Mrs. S. A. Crittenden 328 

Recollections of the Burning of Columbia Mrs. Fannie E. Allen 334 

A Southern Woman's Recollections A Southern Woman 336 

Mrs. Lottie L. Green's Experience Mrs. Lottie L. Green 338 

The Response to the Negroes' Call Miss Grace Elmore 342 

When Sherman Passed Through Lancaster Mrs. J. H. Foster 344 

Reminiscences of Sherman's Raid Mrs. M. V. Green 351 

In the Track of the Raiders Mrs. Lulah Ayer Vandiver 356 

Recollections of the War Mrs. Sylvester Bleckley 360 

With Stoneman's Raiders Mrs. Sylvester Bleckley 366 

The Yankee Raid Through Anderson Mrs. R. C. Hoyt 369 

Incidents of the Anderson Raid Mrs. Olive Cochran Minor 372 

Reconstruction Mrs. Thomas Taylor 376 

History of the Orangeburg County Monument Association 386 

Index by Localities 390 

Index by Surnames 393 


Mrs. Amarintha Snowden (Charleston) Opposite 6 

Mrs. John McKenzie (Columbia) Opposite 80 

Mrs. D. J. McCord (Columbia) Opposite 144 

Mrs. Jane Fisher (Columbia) Opposite 208 

Mother Theresa (Charleston) Opposite 288 

Mrs. Sarah Watts (Charleston) Opposite 368 


Carlo Botta, the Italian historian, in his History of the War for 
Independence, says : "In that fierce struggle, the War of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, the women of Carolina presented an example of 
fortitude more than manly. I know not the history, ancient or 
modern, which has recorded a story of devotion exceeding or equal- 
ing that exhibited by these heroic beings to their American country. 
Far from considering the epithet a reproach, they gloried and ex- 
ulted in the name of Rebel women. * * * Their example was 
inspiring, and it is owing principally to the firmness of these 
patriotic Carolinians that the name, as well as the love of liberty, 
was not extinguished in the Southern States." 

In the not distant future, let us hope that some foreign historian, 
reading this record of facts, and touched by the witchery of the 
theme, may, like Botta, tell another continent, in another tongue, 
how the descendants of those Carolina women of the Revolution, in 
the third and fourth generation, "presented an example of fortitude 
more than manly." But he will have to add that, while the heroines 
of the first Revolution lived to exult with their surviving sons and 
brothers in a victory glorious and complete, the South Carolina 
Women of the Confederacy saw their cause go down in gloom and 
defeat; that cause which, throughout all the horrors of the Recon- 
struction era, they regarded and still hold in "boundless love and 
reverence and regret." 

The purpose of this book is to record, in part, the work of South 
Carolina women during the W r ar for Southern Independence, not 
only in making banners, "binding her warriors' sash," and those 
offices which the cold-blooded materialist classes as "sentimental"; 
but woman as a potent factor in furnishing food and clothing for the 
men on the battle line, and for the wounded and dying in the hospital. 

It is confidently expected that this book will furnish abundant ma- 
terial not only for the poet and novelist who would forcibly portray 
"the strength and beauty of woman's devotion," but for the statis- 
tician and political economist who seeks to explain how the armies 

4 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of the Confederate States could for over four years win many vic- 
tories and hold Richmond and Charleston against tremendous odds 
on land and sea, the Northern ports all the time drawing freely upon 
Europe for men and supplies. 

The Commissary and Quartermaster Departments of the new gov- 
ernment, the first year of the war, were unable to clothe and feed the 
armies of the South, and probably the majority of the soldiers had 
not the means to furnish their own uniforms. When the commis- 
saries and quartermasters had organized their departments in 1862, 
1863 and 1864, the supplies of food, clothing, and medicine scarcely 
ever equaled the demand, and during the last year of the war cracked 
corn was the chief support of many a starving regiment. It may 
be questioned if the war could have been prolonged for four years 
but for the constant and untiring aid of the women of the South. 

An officer, closely identified with South Carolinians, who doffed 
the garb of a minister of God to wear the Confederate uniform, 
describes the work of the women of the South in terms which, in the 
minutest detail, will be amply verified by letters and reports in this 
book. He says : "Houses were stripped of their blankets and carpets 
that the shivering soldier might be protected against the winter's 
cold. Delicately nurtured women, unaccustomed to labor, toiled the 
livelong day for the soldier. The morning dawn lighted them to 
their labors, and the midnight lamp witnessed their close. The 
factories being inadequate to the emergency, the handloom was 
made to supply the deficiency. The spinning wheel again uttered its 
once familiar music as it was turned by hands accustomed only to 
the instruments of the drawing room. Fairy fingers, used -alone to 
toy with delicate embroidery, boldly seized and made the coarse gar- 
ment of the soldier. The ordinary pursuits of life were interrupted 
and ordinary associations ceased." 

No "Sanitary" or "Christian Commission," heavily endowed by 
leading capitalists or government funds, brought nourishing food 
and medicine to the wounded or fever-stricken Confederate. South 
of the Potomac, it was the mission of woman to attempt, and in 
hundreds of thousands of cases to successfully perform, this self- 
imposed and unprecedented task. 

Introduction. 5 

There can be no question of the need for such a work as this, in 
justice to those who are gone, and that those who come after us may 
rightly estimate the character and services of the womanhood of 
South Carolina during 1861-65; but a brief account of the origin of 
this book may be of interest. Mrs. Thomas Taylor, as early as 1896, 
had urged upon Wade Hampton Chapter, Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, of Columbia, the importance of collecting the photographs 
and records of women who had been active in Confederate work 
during the war, and, assisted by zealous co-workers, gathered valu- 
able data regarding the establishment of Wayside Homes at the State 

At the Convention of the State Division, held in Abbeville in 1897, 
on motion of Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe, a committee was appointed 
"to collect statistics of Woman's Work in the War." Mrs. Smythe 
was appointed chairman and, with two other members of the com- 
mittee — Mrs. W. W. Williams, of Greenville, and Mrs. James Evans, 
of Florence — immediately began the work. These ladies diligently 
and persistently sought throughout the State for records, and invited 
reports from those who had taken active part in soldiers' relief work. 
The section of this book relating to Hospital and Soldiers' Relief 
Societies is proof of the assiduity and rare judgment of Mrs. Smythe 
and her associates, and a cursory perusal of their report is sufficient 
to prove its value to the future historian. 

At the Convention in Greenville, in 1899, Mrs. Thomas Taylor 
was elected President of the South Carolina Division. By resolution, 
offered by Miss Bythewood, of Greenville, a State Division his- 
torical committee was created "to collect historical material with 
reference to publishing the same" — Miss M. B. Poppenheim, Chair- 
man. During the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, Mrs. Taylor gave 
close attention to this enterprise, believing that the invaluable ser- 
vices of the women as a factor in the war should be demonstrated 
as a part of the power of the commonwealth. The subject was kept 
before the Chapters, and in each Annual Convention was presented 
in the President's address as an important consideration. 

At the Convention held in Sumter, Mrs. Taylor, the retiring Presi- 
dent, recommended the appointment of "a committee, who should 

6 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

petition the Legislature to appropriate a sufficient sum of money to 
enable the Daughters of the Confederacy to publish the records of 
the South Carolina women, these records being necessary for the 
presentation of a complete history of the war." Mrs. James Conner, 
the President, appointed Mrs. Thomas Taylor as Chairman of such 
committee, with power to act. Circumstances making it imprac- 
ticable to call together the representatives of the Chapters, Mrs. 
Taylor, accompanied by Mrs. J. W. Flinn, in January, 1902, ap- 
peared before the joint committee of the two chambers and, with the 
hearty cooperation of Senator J. Q. Marshall, of Richland, success- 
fully proved to the satisfaction of the committee that the House 
and Senate, "in the State's interest, might consider the question 
whether it were worth the expenditure of the State's money to enable 
the association of her daughters to put into the country's history the 
story of her womanhood as it was displayed in the war." The com- 
mittee agreed to recommend, and the Legislature subsequently con- 
firmed, the appropriation of $500 for the purchase of 300 copies, 
which should be distributed to schools and institutions. 

The editing committee appointed by the President — Mrs. James 
Conner — in 1902, consisted of Mrs. Thomas Taylor, Chairman; Miss 
M. B. Poppenheim, Mrs. August Kohn, Miss M. B. Washington, 
and Mrs. A. T. Smythe, and to the excellent editorial judgment and 
unremitting labors of this committee, and that appointed under Mrs. 
Smythe's resolution in 1898, the merit and value of this work are due. 

The committee is indebted to Mr. A. E. Gonzales, of The State, 
who has offered every facility, advantage and aid at his command, 
and to Mr. August Kohn, of The News and Courier, whose judg- 
ment and advice have been of material assistance. 

Holding in lifelong recollection the constancy and devotion of 
those "South Carolina Women in the Confederacy" who are dead, 
the writer of this introduction would say to each and every survivor 
of that noble band : 

Forgive this feeble script which doth thee wrong, 
Measuring with little wit thy lofty love. 

Yates Snowden. 

Report of tKe Work of tne 

Women of South Carolina During tKe 

Confederate War. 

At the Annual Convention of the South Carolina Division, Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, held in Abbeville in December, 1898, a com- 
mittee was appointed to collect statistics and facts in regard to the 
work of the women of this State during the Confederate War. 

This committee consisted of the following members : 

Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe, Charleston. 

Mrs. James Evans, Florence. 

Mrs. W. W. Williams, Greenville. 

It was intended that the report of the committee should embrace 
the work done by the women at their homes, whether in towns or on 
plantations, in soldiers' relief associations and in hospitals. 

Their report is now presented to you, and is necessarily very in- 
complete and unsatisfactory in many ways. This incompleteness 
comes from no want of effort on the part of the committee, as they 
have done everything in their power, by correspondence and other- 
wise, to elicit the desired information. Many of their letters were 
never answered, but such answers as were received were valuable 
and interesting. 

As before reported, it has been impossible to find files or even many 
stray numbers of newspapers published during the war, except the 
Charleston Mercury and the Charleston Courier, of which complete 
files are kept in the Library of that city. 

Because of this, our information as regards the lower districts is 
fuller. In fact, a complete history of the relief associations of 
Charleston could be had, but much has been omitted. 

Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe. 
Mrs. James Evans. 
Mrs. W. W. Williams. 

8 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The State of South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 
20, i860. In the Charleston Mercury of January 3, 1861, we see the 
following : 

Charleston Mercury, January 3, 1861. 

"The Surgeon-General respectfully and gratefully acknowledges 
the patriotic response of the ladies to the suggestion to supply band- 
ages. They are rapidly coming in. They should be two and one- 
half and three inches wide, and six yards long. The ladies of Colonel 
Jacobs' family have the honor of having made the first contribution." 

One of the "ladies of Colonel Jacobs' family" is Mrs. Philip Wine- 
man, of Charleston, who remembers well the making of those band- 

While no time was lost in making preparations, the following edi- 
torial shows how little the terrible events and necessities of the 
coming days were generally realized : 

Charleston Mercury, January 3, 1861. 

"We suppose that everybody knows by this time that all the good 
ladies of Charleston are busy preparing creature comforts for the 
gallant men who are keeping watch and ward on the ramparts and 
breastworks which defend our city. 

"We might enumerate a host of good things which we have been 
the happy instruments of transmitting to worthy recipients — good 
things of every imaginable kind, from mattresses to lint. For the 
last named articles we hope that our volunteers may have no special 
use, unless it be to stuff the mattresses." 

That some hearts were less confident, and felt the need of help 
and support, is shown by a gentle suggestion from a "devoted daugh- 
ter of South Carolina" {Mercury, January 4th) of daily prayer 
meetings. So it is seen that the women began early with prayers 
and work that were never to cease for four long, weary years. 

Charleston Mercury, January 5, 1861. 

A day later we read that : 

"The Columbia ladies are receiving contributions for the purpose 
of aiding in furnishing members of the rifle company with such 
articles of uniform and equipment as may be necessary, at short 
notice. Several ladies have agreed to make up the uniforms, and 
are now engaged in the patriotic work. All honor to the ladies of 

The Work at Charleston. 9 

The ladies of Savannah had already made sacks to be filled with 
straw, and sent to the forts for beds. 

The Quartermaster-General, L. M. Hatch, acknowledges many 
articles for his department ; among others, bed sacks from Miss 
Toye, and a Palmetto flag for Fort Morris, from the ladies of Mr. 
Hugh E. Vincent's family. 

Charleston Mercury, January 8, 1861. 

Surgeon-General Gibbes tenders his thanks for a contribution to 
his department from "an old lady born the day Charleston was sur- 
rendered to the British — May 12th, 1780." 

Charleston Mercury, January 9, 1861. 

F. F. Warley, of the Darlington Guards, thanks "three ladies" 
for an "appreciated gift" to that company, then on Sullivan's Island. 

New Orleans Delta, January 14, 1861. 

The Mercury copies the following extract from a letter of the aged 
widow of Gen. Nathaniel Green to one of her descendants in New 
Orleans : 

"Rather than hear that Fort Moultrie was taken from South Caro- 
lina, I would have myself dragged there, and sit on the parapet till 
the last gun was fired." 

Charleston Mercury, January 16, 1861. 

Another woman writes of herself as "a poor, weak woman who 
can do nothing for her country unless to nurse the sick and wounded, 
which I would do to the best of my ability. * * * My boys are 
healthy, strong fellows. I wish they were old enough to do duty." 

Charleston Mercury, January 18, 1861. 

Surgeon-General Gibbes thanks a lady of Charleston for two dozen 
undershirts for the Richland Rifle Company. 

Charleston Mercury, January 18, 1861. 

Some women ingeniously turned their minds at once to the home 
manufacture of articles for ladies' dress, as for instance Miss Nixon 
advertises home-made furs — "a variety of articles of excellent 

About this time, the natural desire of the women to be doing 
found relief in making and giving flags to the forts, or to those com- 
panies in which they were chiefly interested. 

Charleston Mercury, January 19, 1861. 

The ladies of Charleston sent a flag to the Hon. D. F. Jamieson, 
the "Minister of War," which was made to be opened for the first 
time on Fort Sumter. 

io South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, January 23. 1861. 

The Fairfield Volunteers thank "several ladies of Charleston for 
acceptable gifts," while the Palmetto Guard are "indebted to ladies 
of Summerville." 

The cadets at Fort Morris return thanks to ladies for hoods, 
gloves, lint, bandages, etc. 

Charleston Mercury, January 30, 1861. 

Surgeon-General Gibbes thanks Mrs. John Bryce, of Columbia, for 
liberal contributions of lint and linen, and acknowledges the receipt 
of $5.00 from a lady, for purchase of surgical instruments. 

Charleston Mercury, February 12, 1861. 

The Rev. A. Toomer Porter asks ladies willing to work gratui- 
tously for the soldiers to apply to him. He assures them that they 
need feel no fear of interfering with those who work for a support. 
"There is work enough for all." 

Charleston Mercury, February 25, 1861. 

Mr. James Tupper presents, in the name of a young lady of 
Charleston, a stand of colors, to the First Regiment of Rifles. 

Charleston Mercury, March 6 and 11, 1861. 

Surgeon-General Gibbes acknowledges the receipt of $40.00 from 
a lady of South Carolina, living in New York ; $20.00 from a lady in 
Charleston ; and $5.00 from a young lady ; and calls for more band- 
ages, on account of the large number of troops ordered out; and 
returns thanks for $261.00, given by a lady, for the purchase of sur- 
gical instruments. 

Charleston Courier, May 8, 1861. Copied from Columbia, S. C. 

"We learn that the ladies of the little town of Pendleton, hearing 
that some of the volunteers were in need of uniforms, have offered 
to make 500 uniforms, in five days, if needed. This is practical pa- 
triotism, and shows the spirit animating the fair daughters of the 
upper districts. Besides this, they have raised a subscription for a 
handsome flag, to be presented to Captain Kilpatrick's company, now 
encamped here, and another for a company in Pickens District, 
under the command of Capt. J. L. Shanklin." 

Charleston Courier, May 29, 1861. 

The readiness of the women to help in any way is showed by their 
offer at this date to make cartridges. As flannel and other material 
became scarce, dresses and other woolen garments were cut up to 
make woolen bags for cannon cartridges. These, as well as the 
small cartridges, were made in large numbers by women. Many 

Soldiers' Relief Association. ii 

rough, strong bags had also to be made, to be rilled with sand, and 
used in constructing and mending fortifications. Later on, when 
the bombardment had become heavy, telegraphic orders for these 
bags would be sent to Columbia and, no doubt, to other towns, and the 
women would work night and day, and when necessary on Sunday, 
to complete them. 

Charleston Mercury, June n, 1861. 

A suggestion is made that "mothers, wives, sisters, and sweet- 
hearts" should begin to knit socks for soldiers. 

This work had already been begun and, as time passed, every one 
knitted, some women becoming such adepts that a pair of socks, or 
even three feet, became their daily task. 

Charleston Courier, June 18, 1861. 

Thanks are returned for "a lot of vegetables, kindly contributed 
for the use of the troops, by Margaret Noisette" (a colored woman). 

Charleston Mercury, July 17, 1861. 

"The ladies of Augusta, Ga., are preparing sick tents, to be sent to 

Charleston Mercury, July 18, 1861. 

Our Western sisters were much more enterprising in some ways, 
for we see an extract from a Vicksburg paper giving an account of a 
Woman's Home Guard, "all good shots, and good riders." 

On July 2 1 st was fought the first Battle of Manassas, and from 
that times dates the systematic, organized work of Southern women. 

Charleston Mercury, July 23, 1S61. 

On July 23d there is a call for families to prepare and set aside 
blankets for the use of soldiers. 

Proceedings of Soldiers' Relief Association. 

{Preserved by Mr. Richard Caldwell, and given by his daughter to the D. of C, of Charleston .) 

The ladies of the Calhoun Monument Association had met on July 
20th for the purpose of effecting an organization to work for the 
soldiers. A call was issued for a general meeting, with the follow- 
ing result : 

Charleston Mercury, July 24, 1861. 

"The good work of raising help for our gallant volunteers goes 
bravely on. Notwithstanding unfavorable weather, a large attend- 
ance of ladies took place at the Depository, Chalmers street, in ac- 
cordance with previous notice, Dr. Bachman presiding. The meet- 
ing was addressed by a number of the clergy of this city. 

12 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"The objects of the association were stated by the Chair, and con- 
tributions invited. One hundred and twenty names were handed in 
as members, and cash donations of $700, which, with previous dona- 
tions, make the sum of $1,200. We refer to advertisement of the 

"There was also a full attendance at Trinity Church yesterday, 
all eager to get to work. Contributions filled the doorway. Boxes 
upon boxes of comforts for the poor sick soldiers have been con- 
tributed, and Dr. E. Bissell kindly offered to go to Virginia to take 
these gifts. 

"A committee will be at the Young Men's Hall, in King street, 
corner of Hasell, this morning, from nine to eleven, to receive con- 
tributions. Boxes close at 12 m. 

"Another meeting will be held today at the Young Men's Hall, 
when the ladies who have been cutting out will supply work to those 
who wish to help. 

"The meeting yesterday was opened with prayer by the Rev. Dr. 
Girardeau, who requested the ladies to spend the rest of the day 
collecting sheets, bandages, underclothing and books." 

On the same day appears the first advertisement of the Soldiers' 
Relief Association, of Charleston, which from that time never ceased 
its work until the evacuation of the city. 

"The Depository, in Chalmers street, Charleston, will be open 
today, and on every Wednesday, to receive contributions from those 
who desire to aid our sick and wounded soldiers. Old sheets, pillow- 
cases, undergarments, old or new, linen or cotton rags, housekeeping 
stores, rice, barley, arrowroot, flaxseed, tea, sugar, brandy, wine, 
especially blackberry, etc., are desired. These will be forwarded to 
Virginia immediately. 

"Let every family in the city aid in providing for the relief of our 
defenders. Any contributions will constitute membership in the 
association. Ladies wishing to aid are invited to meet at the Deposi- 
tory every day from 10 a. m. to 2 p. m., and from 4 p. m. to 7 p. m. 
Work will be provided for those who will undertake it. 

"President — Mrs. George Robertson. 

"Vice-President — Mrs. Wm. Snowden. 

"Corresponding Secretaries — Miss Laura Porter and Miss 

"Secretary and Treasurer — Miss E. P. Hayne. 

"Other ladies have cheerfully consented to act as Managers in 
their respective Wards." 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 13 

Charleston Mercury, July 24 and 26, 1861. 

The following list of Managers is published : 
ward 1. 

Miss Brown South Battery, corner Church street 

Mrs. J. Snowden 7 Church street 

Mrs. R. Screven Water, near Church street 

Miss Blake 10 Water street 

Mrs. Dewar 39 Church street 

Mrs. T. Tupper 52 Tradd street 

Mrs. C. DeSaussure 26 Meeting street 

Mrs. F. Y. Porcher 13 East Battery 

Mrs. D. Stoeking Meeting and Chalmers streets 

ward 2. 

Mrs. H. W. Conner 23 Meeting street 

Mrs. Fred Fraser Tradd and Legare streets 

Mrs. Brownfield Anson street 

Miss Joye King street 

Mrs. Nagel New street 

Mrs. Cowlam Gravely 5 Short street 

Mrs. R. W. Bacot Tradd and King streets 

Miss Mary Simons 10 Tradd street 

Miss Ann Bacot 5 Orange street 

ward 3. 

Mrs. Wiltberger 23 Laurens street 

Mrs. H. Wigfall 293 East Bay 

Mrs. Trescot 4 Anson street 

Mrs. Laval 12 John street 

Mrs. James Gibbes Meeting and George streets 

Mrs. Myers Wentworth street 

Miss J. Elliott 10 George street 

Mrs. Dr. Robertson 1 Maiden lane 

Mrs. Simons 

Mrs. Moffett 198 East Bay 

ward 4. 

Mrs. Fitch 12 Smith street 

Mrs. Gray Rutledge street 

Mrs. Just 34 Hasell street 

Mrs. Graeser 256 King street 

Mrs. W. Johnson 74 Wentworth street 

Mrs. H. Price Queen and Meeting streets 

Mrs. Lynch and Wentworth 

Mrs. Wineman Smith and Bull streets 

Mrs. M. Lee Bull, near Pitt street 

Miss Horlbeck Meeting and Calhoun streets 

Mrs. D. Ingraham Beaufain street 

Mrs. Jos. Walker 52 Wentworth street 

Mrs. D. Leixas Pitt street 

14 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Miss J. Robb Rutledge street 

Miss O. M. Robertson Smith street 

Mrs. S. S. Miles 6 Green street 

WARD 5. 

Mrs. M. Mathieson Alexander street 

Miss K. Lee Alexander street 

Miss C. Gadsden Wentworth street 

ward 6. 

Mrs. Bachman Rutledge street 

Miss E. Chisolm Rutledge street 

Miss A. M. Lucas Rutledge street 

Mrs. Pickens Smith Coming street 

Mrs. Charlotte Walker Calhoun street 

Mrs. Bennett Lucas Calhoun street 

Mrs. Bentham Vanderhorst street 

Mrs. Dr. Carrere 37 Radcliflfe street 

Mrs. Dr. Geiger Ashley and Doughty streets 

Miss McKensie Ashley and Doughty streets 

Mrs. F. Blum St. Philip street 

Mrs. Bowman 

Mrs. J. Cunningham Smith street 

ward 7. 

Miss Weston Hampstead 

Miss Tucker Hampstead 

Miss Windsor 18 Drake street 

Miss Rose Torre Hampstead 

ward 8. 

Miss Whilden Ashley street 

Miss Wagner Rutledge street 

Mrs. Wash. Ancrum Bee street 

Mrs. Tisher Bee street 

Mrs. Allan Rutledge street 

Miss C. Smith Rutledge street 

"Persons desiring work apply to any of these ladies." 

Charleston Mercury, July 25, 1861. 

A notice of the meeting of the Ladies' Association in Aid of Volun- 
teer Soldiers, held at the South Carolina Hall. The hall was over- 
flowing. Nearly $1,000 collected. Officers were elected, but the 
list was not ready for publication. Objects of this association, to 
procure proper clothing for volunteers, who in many instances are 
in need of the veriest necessities. 

Ladies' Auxiliary Christian Association. 15 

The same paper has the following : 

"help for soldiers. 

"While our sons and brothers are exposing their lives upon the 
plains of Virginia for our safety, and while many are languishing 
in hospitals on beds of pain and suffering, it is gratifying to know 
that our wives, sisters and mothers are laboring so zealously in their 
attempts to provide help for the soldiers. It has been again verified 
that the ladies are the most energetic portion of every community, 
as the work they have performed in twenty-four hours has been 
truly marvelous. 

"A preparatory meeting of the members of the Ladies' Christian 
Association Auxiliary to the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and many other ladies of the city, was held on Tuesday, when first 
steps were taken, and by yesterday at two o'clock they had prepared 
enough luxuries and necessaries for soldiers to fill twelve cases, and 
valued at over $1,000. These were immediately dispatched to Vir- 
ginia in the care of Dr. E. H. Bissell. 

"Up to dark last evening the ladies had cut out, and given out to 
be made, over 400 garments, and will today resume their work. A 
meeting of the ladies will be held at ten o'clock today at the Young 
Men's Hall, for the purpose of more thorough organization, appoint- 
ment of committees, etc. Merchants and others have responded 
nobly to the call, and fabrics have been sent in valued at nearly 
$2,000, while over $1,000 in money has been subscribed. The goods 
have been forwarded by Adams Southern Express, through their 
agent — Woodward — free of charge. It is the intention of the ladies 
to send forward all articles in charge of some responsible person who 
will attend faithfully to their proper and judicious distribution." 

Charleston Mercury, July 26, 1861. 

"The Ladies' Auxiliary Christian Association is now thoroughly 
prepared to furnish whatever aid may be required by our sick and 
wounded soldiers. 

"The committees are organized and working efficiently. Those 
appointed to cut out and fit work will meet daily at the rooms of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, in King Street, opposite Beau- 
fain. Several ladies will be in attendance at the same place every 
day from ten to twelve in the morning, and from six to seven in the 
afternoon, to receive contributions, distribute work and materials to 
those wishing to contribute labor, and to receive the garments which 
have been made. 


South Carolina Women in the Confeder.- 

"Money is needed to purchase materials and to pay transportation 
expenses, but donations of old sheets, pillow cases, undergarments, 
morning gowns, rice, barley, wine, blackberry brandy, jellies, jams 
or any nourishing articles for a hospital will be thankfully received. 
The following ladies have been appointed the Committee on Dona- 
tions, to whom the contributions may be sent, as well as to the officers 
of the association : 

Miss Mary Campbell, President. 

Mrs. Wm. J. Johnson, Vice-President. 

Mrs. Dr. Pettigrew. 
Mrs. B. R. Carroll. 
Mrs. Venning. 
Mrs. E. M. Grimke. 
Mrs. Limbecker. 
Mrs. Frank Pelzer. 
Mrs. David Bell. 
Mrs. Cuttino. 
Mrs. Benj. Evans. 
Mrs. Browning. 
Mrs. Wm. A. Courtenay. 
Mrs. W. Walter Smith. 
Mrs. Wm. Greer. 
Mrs. Fleetwood Lanneau. 
Mrs. Jas. K. Robinson. 
Mrs. S. T. Potter. 
Mrs. Samuel Burrows. 
Mrs. James Copes. 
Mrs. Pickens Smith. 
Mrs. Paxton. 
Mrs. J. C. Smith. 
Mrs. Dr. Mood. 
Mrs. Palmer Lawrence. 
Mrs. Henry Venning. 
Mrs. T. W. Bliss. 
Mrs. Currell. 
Miss S. S. Gantt. 
Miss Mary Moffett. 
Miss M. W. Hagan. 
Miss C. E. Gadsden. 
Miss Mary Robinson. 
Miss K. A. Tupper. 
Miss G. Moore. 





S. Perronneau. 


M. Seabrook. 




E. Johnson. 


H. Parker. 


M. J. Legare. 


M. J. Ross. 



Misses Whitney. 


Marian Robertson. 


Euphemia Gordon. 


Rosa Dibble. 


Rebecca Armstrong. 


Olivia Sass. 

Misses Wilkie. 






Wm. J. Smith. 


H. Sollee. 


T. O. Bennett. 


E. Q. Rell. 


J. B. Bissell. 




S. Cogswell. 


Margaret Will. 


S. G. Courtenay. 


Jas. Gilliland. 


Wm. Dillingham. 


Thos. Smith. 




Wm. Bell. 



Mrs. Gibson. 

Mrs. Maria Lebby. 

Mrs. Z. Davis. 

Mrs. Thos. Mathews. 

Mrs. Greenfield. 

Mrs. Dr. Carrere. 

Mrs. C. H. Simonton. 

Mrs. A. J. Salinas. 

Miss Martha Buist. 

Miss Elizabeth Hammond 

Miss S. J. Robinson. 

Miss Sallie Davis. 

Miss Carrie Webb. 

Miss Alice Mathews. 

Miss H. L. Hall. 

Miss H. Miller. 

Miss Rosa Clifford. 

Miss Harsey. 

Miss Douglass. 

Miss Elizabeth Dewees. 

Misses Nelson. 

Miss S. Adger. 

Miss Laval. 

Miss Jessie Kirkwood. 

Miss Wilbur. 

Miss Wotton. 

Miss Burgess. 

Miss Mary Walsh. 

Miss Catherine Stuart. 

Miss Catharine Murrell. 

Misses Bee. 

Miss Eliza Johnson." 

Charleston Mercury, July 27, 1861. 

A notice that Dr. Logan will go on to Richmond in charge of 
articles sent by Ladies' Auxiliary Christian Association. 

Ladies' Auxiliary Christian Association. 


Charleston Mercury, July 29, 1 861 . 

Additional names are published of the committee of the Ladies' 
Auxiliary Christian Association. 

Mrs. Charles Graves. 
Mrs. H. Mitchell. 
Mrs. John Martin. 
Mrs. L. Chapin. 
Mrs. Theo. Jeffords. 
Mrs. Jos. T. Caldwell. 
Mrs. D. Dibble. 
Mrs. Jas. M. Caldwell. 
Mrs. Doucin. 
Mrs. L. Eason. 
Mrs. Ellen M. Heidt. 
Mrs. Geo. W. Williams. 
Mrs. John Bowie. 
Mrs. Rich. Butler. 
Mrs. L. Wheeler. 
Mrs. James Steedman. 
Mrs. J. W. Stoy. 
Mrs. Walsh. 
Mrs. Wm. Laval. 

Mrs. Alexander. 
Mrs. E. E. Courtenay. 
Mrs. C. E. Chichester. 
Mrs. L. B. Whitney. 
Mrs. Dr. Brims. 
Mrs. Thayer. 
Mrs. Whilden. 
Mrs. Dr. Cain. 
Mrs. C. H. Ingraham. 
Mrs. O. A. Bowen. 
Mrs. John Dukes. 
Mrs. Wm. Vardell. 
Mrs. Thomas Smith. 
Mrs. O. L. Dobson. 
Mrs. Titus Bissell Jr. 
Mrs. T. R. Walsh. 
Miss A. A. Rodger. 
Miss Lydia Mowry. 
Miss Eliza Dukes. 

Mrs. E. DeTreville. 
Mrs. Dr. Honour. 
Mrs. Wm. Harrall. 
Mrs. T. A. Whitney. 
Miss Bates. 
Miss Enslow. 
Miss C. Stuart. 
Miss Martha Buist. 
Miss S. L. Gantt. 
Miss E. Hammond. 
Miss M. Moffett. 
Miss S. J. Robinson. 
Miss M. Von Hagen. 
Mrs. James Lamb. 
Mrs. A. S. J. Perry. 
Mrs. A. S. Johnson. 
Mrs. W. Lambert. 
Mrs. Trapier. 
Mrs. W. W. Hughes. 

Charleston Mercury, July 29, 1861. 

"Another large shipment was made on Saturday by the Ladies' 
Auxiliary Christian Association, consisting of ten cases, containing 
a variety of articles for the use of our soldiers now lying in hospitals 
at Richmond, Charlottesville, Culpeper, Louisa and Manassas. They 
were placed under special care of Dr. Legare. 

"The ladies will continue their labors as long as the wants of our 
soldiers require, which will doubtless be to the end of the war. A 
meeting will be held tomorrow afternoon at 5 o'clock, by order of the 
President, Miss Mary B. Campbell." 

Charleston Mercury, July 30, 1861. 

There is a notice that boxes containing articles for the wounded 
had been sent on from Summerville. 

Charleston Mercury, July 31, 1861. 

"Helena, a small station on the Greenville Railroad, recently con- 
tributed the sum of $90 for the relief of soldiers in Virginia. Among 
the contributors were a number of negroes, who were as anxious to 
add their mite as any one." 

Charleston Mercury, August i, 1861. 

"The treasurer of the Association for the Relief of Families of 
Volunteers acknowledges the receipt of $10 from Miss A. S. Porcher, 
the superintendent of a society of schoolgirls." 

18 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, August i, 1861. 

"Richmond papers notice the arrival of Dr. Isaac Branch and wife, 
Mrs. Dr. Turner, and J. M. Latimer, of South Carolina, who will 
act as volunteer nurses. They brought with them fifty boxes of 
hospital supplies." 

Charleston Mercury, August 3, 1861. 

An account of a little girls' entertainment for the benefit of 
wounded soldiers at Mme. Togno's, 46 Meeting street. A collation, 
prepared by themselves, to which they invite all ladies and gentlemen 
on their way to and from the Battery. Two evenings of the week, 
Friday and Saturday, from six to ten. 

Mme. Togno's was at that time the fashionable boarding school 
of Charleston. 

The young girls of the State did their full share of work for the 
soldiers, not only by assisting their mothers, but by originating so- 
cieties and entertainments of their own, planned and carried out by 

Letter from Miss S. E. Waring, written in 1899. 

We are told of an entertainment in Charleston, gotten up by two 
little girls very early in the year '61. Seeing the earnestness of the 
children, housekeepers interested themselves, and a large sum of 
money was made. 

It is claimed, though modestly, and with the acknowledged possi- 
bility of a mistake, that the first entertainment of a musical kind 
given for Confederate purposes was suggested and carried out by a 
few Columbia girls. 

Letter from Miss Grace Elmore, written April 8, 1S98. 

"Miss Garnett, a music teacher in Columbia, and a valued friend 
of all the best people, had a class of young girls, none over sixteen, 
who, under her direction, gave the first concert that I ever heard of 
in the Confederacy. It was given between the 15th of June and the 
18th of July, 1861. It was intended that the proceeds should be 
used in sending supplies to Hampton's Legion, then in the field in 
daily expectation of a battle. The girls were Susan Preston, Rosa 
Elmore, Annie Hampton, Kate Bauskett, Helen Niernsee, and Sallie 
Hampton. They would have no help from any but those of their 
own age, but finding that not one of them could sing, they asked me 
to join them for that purpose only. 

"All arrangements were made entirely by these girls. The con- 
cert was given in the chapel of the Methodist College, and the result 

Ladies' Clothing Association. 19 

was $150.00 in silver, and Miss Garnett, I remember, kept the money 
tied up in a silk stocking till called for by the girls. I think a part 
of it was used in sending a box to the Legion after the first Battle 
of Manassas. I believe the remnant of the $150.00 was the first 
money put into the Treasury of the Young Ladies' Hospital Asso- 
ciation, from which sprang the Wayside Hospital." 

Charleston Mercury, August 6, 1861. 

Entertainments for the purpose of making money were promptly 
given all over the State. We see in the newspaper that the Charles- 
ton Brass Band, F. Muller, leader, offers to give a concert at White 
Point Garden for the ladies' societies. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary mentions another shipment of boxes to Vir- 
ginia, "the most valuable yet." 

Charleston Mercury, August 7, 1861. 

The Ladies' Relief Association speaks of the before mentioned 
concert, and says that the amount of money received from it will 
be immediately sent to Virginia. 

On the same date we see the following notice from the 

"ladies' clothing association. 
"Mr. Editor: Having been informed that the object of our asso- 
ciation is misunderstood, permit me, through your columns, to ex- 
plain. This society, to avoid confusion, shall be designated as the 
Ladies' Clothing Association for Troops in Active Service. This 
association is for the purpose of purchasing materials, cutting and 
making warm undergarments for our troops in active service, not 
confined to those of this city, but the soldiers of South Carolina. 
We are industriously employed, and invite the aid of ladies and gen- 
tlemen of the country and city. 

"There will be a committee of gentlemen who will distribute the 
clothing judiciously. 

"We solicit donations of money and materials from the State at 

"Such ladies as were unable to subscribe on the 25th ult., from 
the large assemblages, are requested to send in their subscriptions 
and donations, which will be gratefully received by 
"Miss Hester T. Drayton, President, 

"No. 2 Ladson Court. 
"Miss Hess D. Drayton, Vice-President, 

"No. 2 Ladson Court. 
"Miss Emily Rutledge, Secretary and Treasurer, 

"West End Calhoun Street. 

20 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"Art. I. This association shall be called the Ladies' Clothing As- 
sociation for Troops in Active Service, and shall meet monthly. 
The subscription shall be fifty cents per quarter, or $2.00 per year, 
payable in advance, and whatever amount of labor each lady is able 
to give. Donations of any amount, either of money or material, 
from gentlemen as well as ladies, will be gratefully received and ap- 
plied to objects of the association. 

"Art. II. The management of the association shall be entrusted to 
a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer and twelve 
managers. The President shall preside, preserve order, and see that 
the rules are carried out. She shall also give all orders on the 
Treasury, and the casting vote, when required. Vacancies in the 
Board may be filled by President and Board at their regular meet- 

"In case of sickness or absence of President and Vice-President, 
the Board may select one of their members to preside, and fulfill the 
duties of President. 

"Art. III. The Secretary and Treasurer must take charge of the 
books and accounts, keeping a journal of each meeting, also taking 
charge of and accounting for all money received and paid out. The 
books and accounts to be open for the inspection of the managers at 
every monthly meeting, and annually to the members at the anni- 

"The Treasurer must have written order for the payment of all 

"Art. V. After a sufficient quantity of clothing shall be com- 
pleted, the captains of various companies shall be invited to make 
known to the President, by writing, the number of men in their 
command who require aid of the association, when it will be placed 
in the hands of a committee of gentlemen for distribution. Work 
given out on Wednesdays until 3 p. m. by Miss Hess D. Drayton, 
No. 2 Ladson Court ; Mrs. E. M. Fuller, St. Philip street, four doors 
above Morris street ; and Miss C. E. Gadsden, corner Charlotte and 
Alexander streets." 

Having seen the account of the organization and first work of 
three societies in Charleston, it should be realized that at the same 
time, a little earlier or later, similar societies were being formed all 
over the State, not only in the larger towns, but in villages, and even 
in country neighborhoods, where neighbors met together at stated 

Relief of Soldiers. 21 

times to distribute and return work for the soldiers and to pack 
boxes of clothes and provisions to be sent to Virginia either direct 
or through the larger societies. 

Almost immediately, the Hospital Aid Association of South Caro- 
lina was formed by gentlemen of the State. Of this Dr. M. LaBorde, 
of Columbia, was President. The Rev. Robt. W. Barnwell was es- 
tablished at Charlottesville, Va., in charge of the work there, and to 
him were sent all articles for the sick and wounded soldiers of South 

The various societies throughout this State sent their supplies to 
him, to be distributed as needed. 

We give here a list of names of such of these women's societies as 
we have been able to collect by a close scanning of the newspapers 
available. Of course, and greatly to our regret, many names are 
missing from the list. 

Where possible, we give the names of Presidents or other officers, 
or, failing these, of any ladies mentioned in connection with the work 
of a society. 

It should be recorded that, after the war, in many places these 
relief associations became memorial associations, caring for the dead 
as they had done for the living. 

■Women's Associations in South Carolina for the 
Relief of Soldiers. 

Date of Name of 

Organization. Association. Officers, Etc. Location. 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. Steedman, Pres Aiken 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. E. Bradley, Pres Claremont 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. R. R. Yongue Orangeburg 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. S. Williams Society Hill 

Soldiers' Relief John's Island 

Mrs. Ellen Gregg Marion 

Aux. Soldiers' Relief. . Mrs. Tracy, 

Miss S. S. Seabrook, Pres'ts. 

Miss Phoebe Morral, Sec. 

Mrs. T. E. Screven, Local. . . .Grahamville 

Aux. Soldiers' Relief Wadmalaw 

Aux. Soldiers' Relief. . Mrs. Wm. Sinkler, Pres Eutawville 

Mrs. Catherine Palmer, 1st Div. 

Mrs. Thos. W. Porcher, 2d Div. 

Mrs. James Gaillard, Sec. and 

Mrs. T. W. Porcher was presi- 
dent later. 

2.2 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Date of Name of 

Organization. Association. Officers, Etc. Location. 

Aug. 14, Black Oak Soldiers' Re- Mrs. Morton Waring, Pres. . . .Black Oak 
1861. lief Mrs. J. S. Porcher, Vice- Pres. 

Aug. 9, Mrs. T. F. Porcher, Sec. and 
1861. Treas Pinopolis 

July 19, Ladies' Aid Mrs. Perry Duncan, Pres. . . .Greenville 

1861. Mrs. Pinckney McBee, Vice-Pres. 

1861. Soldiers' Relief Presidents in order of service: 

Mrs. D. J. McCord Columbia 

Miss Hampton. 

Mrs. Campbell Bryce, Sec. and 

Mrs. Rufus Johnson. 

1861. Ladies' Hospital Presidents in order of service: 

Mrs. George Howe Columbia 

Mrs. John Bryce. 
Mrs. J. P. Adams, Sec. 
Mrs. Wm. Wallace, Treas. 

July 26, Young Ladies' Hospital. .Miss Preston, Pres Columbia 

1861. Miss Isabella D. Martin, Sec. 

Miss E. Goodwyn, Treas. 

Ladies' Clothing Mrs. D. J. McCord, Pres. . . .Columbia 

Ladies' Industrial. . . .Mrs Levy, Pres Columbia 

Young Girls Mrs. Monteith Columbia 

Mrs. Lauchlin. 

Miss C. Veal. 

Aug. 3, Aux. Soldiers' Relief. . .Mrs. Ladd, Pres Summerville 

1861. Mrs. J. S. Stewart, Sec. and 


Aug. — , Soldiers' Relief Mrs. James Hemphill, Pres Chester 

1861. Mrs. A. Q. Dunnovant, Vice-Pres. 

Mrs. A. G. Stacey, Vice-Pres. 
Mrs. S. W. Mobley, Treas. 
Miss M. E. McKee, Cor. Sec. 
Mrs. J. J. McLure, Rec. Sec. 

1861. Soldiers' Aid Mrs. W. W. Harlee, Pres Mars Bluff 

and Hopewell 

Aug. 27, Soldiers' Relief Miss H. M. Trapier, Pres. . .Georgetown 

1861. Mrs. P. C. J. Weston, Vice-Pres. 

Miss S. T. Atkinson, Cor. Sec. 
Miss Anna White, Rec. Sec. 

Relief of Soldiers. 23 

Date of Name of 

Organization. Association. Officers, Etc. Location. 

1861. Soldiers' Relief Mrs. W. W. Graham Williston 

Young Ladies' Aid Winnsboro 

July 20, Soldiers' Relief Mrs. Geo. Robertson, Pres. . .Charleston 

1861. Mrs. Wm. Snowden, Vice-Pres. 

Miss E. Hayne, Sec. and Treas. 
Miss F. M. Blamyer and 
Miss L. Porter, Sees. 

July 23, Ladies' Aux. Christian. . Miss Campbell Charleston 

1861. Mrs. Leonard Chapin, Presi- 

idents in order of service. 

July 23, Ladies' Clothing Miss Hester T. Drayton, Pres. .Charleston 

1861. Miss Hess D. Drayton, Vice-Pres. 

School Girls Miss A. Porcher Charleston 

1861. Ladies Mrs. Gregg Marion 

Mrs. Mclntyre. 

Soldiers' Aid Mrs. Thompson New Hope, 


Soldiers' Aid Mrs. Lemon Jackson Creek, 

Soldiers' Aid Mrs. Winter St. James Goose Creek 

1861. Ladies' Aid Presidents in order of service : 

Miss Harriet Chesnut Grant. . . .Camden 

Miss Sally Chesnut. 

Mrs. Walker, Vice-Pres. 

Miss L. Salmond, Treas. 

Miss E. C. Reynolds, Sec. 

Miss Harriet Lang, Sec. 

Ladies Woodville 

Soldiers' Relief Hamburg 

Aid Society Carmel, 

Anderson District 

Mrs. J. A. Fripp Legareville 

Ladies' Aid Mechr nicsville 

1861. Ladies Pinegrove 

1861. Ladies Mrs. Walker, Vice-Pres Kershaw 

1861. Soldiers' Aid Mrs. M. E. Godfrey Cheraw 

Soldiers' Aid Barnwell 

1861. Allgood Society Spartanburg District 

Soldiers' Aid Pendleton 

Ladies' Aid and Relief Marlboro 

24 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Date of Name of 

Organization. Association. Officers, Etc. Location. 

1861. Ladies Florence 

Ladies Mizpah 

Ladies Christ Church 

Volunteers' Aid Beech Island 

Ladies' Relief Darlington 

Juvenile Summerville 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. R. H. Inabinet, Vice-Pres.Edisto Fork 

Soldiers' Rest A. F. Dickson, Treas Orangeburg 

Mrs. Salley. 
Mrs. Albergotti. 

Sabbath School Relief. .Mrs. R. A. Carlisle, Sec. . . .Spartanburg 

Aux. Relief Mrs. Julius DuBose, Pres. . . .Pineville 

Mrs. R. Couturier, 1st Dir. 
Mrs. H. M. Snowden, 2d Dir. 

Ladies' Aid Oak Lawn, 

St. Pauls Parish 

Ladies' Aid Miss N. McLauehlin Newberry 

Ladies' Aid Sumter 

Ladies' Aid Bishopville 

Ladies' Sewing Mrs. Wm. C. Wardlaw, Pres. .Liberty Hill 

Soldiers' Relief Allendale 

Baptist Edisto 

Soldiers' Aid Hills Church 

Ladies' Aid Miss M. E. Boyd Newchapel 

Ladies' Aid Timmonsville 

Mar. 12, Soldiers' Rest (Branch Mrs. Catharine Lee, Pres Camden 

1862. of Ladies' Aid). . . .Mrs. Bonney, Treas. 

Ladies' Hospital Mrs. J. A. Bradley, Pres Chester 

Miss H. E. Henry, Sec. 

Soldiers' Relief Mrs. John C. Peay, Pres. . . .Longtown, 

Fairfield District 

Ladies' Aid Mrs. M. P. Mayes Brick Church, 

Sumter District 

Soldiers' Relief Beaufort 

Soldiers' Relief Bluffton 

Ladies' Aid Anderson 

Ladies' Relief Miss S. W. Henderson Walterboro 

Ladies' Hospital M. E. Y. Powelson Plantersville 

Relief of Soldiers. 25 

Date of Name of 

Organization. Association. Officers, Etc. Location. 

1862. Soldiers' Relief Mrs. W. H. Wallace, Pres Union 

Mrs. Jeter, Treas. 

Miss F. M. Blamyer, Sec. 

Soldiers' Aid Mrs. Armstead Burt, Pres Abbeville 

Mrs. Thos. Perrin, Vice-Pres. 

Knitting Society Mrs. J. W. Marshall, Pres. . . .Abbeville 

Mrs. W. H. Parker, Vice-Pres. 

Hospital Mrs. Robt. Wardlaw, Pres. . . .Abbeville 

Mrs. M. C. Tilman, Pres. . .Calhoun Mills, 
Abbeville District 

Mrs. Squire Giles Monterey, 

Mrs. Chas. Haskell. Abbeville District 

Mrs. Tilman. 

Hospital Mrs. Johnson, Pres Grahamville 

Miss S. E. Seabrook, Vice-Pres. 

Bethany Relief Edgefield 

Betheden Aid Newberry 

Soldiers' Relief Sullivans Island 

Palmetto Girls Charleston 

Ladies' Aid Cokesbury 

Soldiers' Aid Cedar Springs 

Soldiers' Aid Dantonsville 

Soldiers' Aid Enoree Mill 

Hospital Club Anderson 

Ladies' Relief Indian Town 

Lamont Grahams 

Soldiers' Aid Lowndesville 

Home Guard Mountain Creek 

Soldiers' Aid Manning 

Ladies' Aid Milford 

Military Aid Laurens District 

Soldiers' Aid Oakland 

Palmetto Aid 

Rehoboth Aid Edgefield 

States' Rights Charleston 

Upper Three Runs 

Warrenton Aid Abbeville 

Wadsworth Aid 

Waterloo Ladies' 

26 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

A SKetch of the WorR at Greenville. 

Paper by Mrs. Brunson, written in 1899. 

When the South felt that she was gradually losing that for which 
she had fought in the war with Great Britain, she raised her stand- 
ard for States' Rights, and her men and boys rallied with the greatest 
enthusiasm to its defense. We all felt that the South had been un- 
justly treated, and we hoped to withdraw from our sister States in 
peace, but we did not intend to be governed by the North as if the 
United States were a monarchy. 

So our homes were saddened by the departure of most of our men, 
and the women began to work for them. 

The "Butler Guards" left Greenville early in April, 1861. Soon 
after, the "Brooks Troop" followed, both going to Virginia. Other 
companies from Greenville County also went. 

The ladies of our town met at McBee's Hall, and the basement of 
the Baptist Church, to sew for soldiers. Country neighbors also 
formed sewing circles, and some of the old ladies were so expert as 
to be able to knit as they walked or rode along. Miss Ann McCall, 
a descendant of Isaac Hayne, of Revolutionary fame, had inherited 
a set of gold needles, and I doubt if she could have counted the socks 
she knit. Her fingers fairly flew, and she never stopped to count. 

Mr. Bussy, an old English tailor, would cut and assist in making 
fatigue suits for two companies from town. The ladies and girls 
put pin-cushions, soap and handkerchiefs in the pockets of these 
clothes, and then they were packed and sent on. 

I think it was twice a year that a member of the Butler Guards 
would come on with measurements for the men's clothes, and then 
the ladies would work hard until these uniforms were finished. 

The woolen socks were most acceptable to the infantry, as they 
were soft to their feet while marching. Good knitting is quite an art 
among old ladies. Boxes filled with hams, sausages, dried beef, 
butter, bread, dried fruit, pickles, etc., were sent on to the soldiers by 
their families. Cloth was woven by small hand looms, both cotton 
and wool. Miss Rydes, a country lady, spun and wove a nice gray 
woolen cloth and sent it on to General Beauregard as a present. He 
wrote her a very courteous and grateful letter for the acceptable suit 
of clothes. 

Good boots and shoes were made in Greenville, and other parts of 
the South, for soldiers. There was a tanyard in the town of Green- 
ville which had long shipped leather to New York, and now worked 
exclusively for home people, making fine leather of goat and calf 

The Work at Greenville. 27 

Ladies of Greenville made nice buckskin gloves, also knit many 
gloves and scarfs for men of the cavalry and artillery. I could go 
into the woods now and find the same kinds of leaves with which we 
colored the wool and cotton. Indigo was planted and used for color- 
ing both wool and cotton. A mixture for gray cloth was, one-third 
of blue wool, one-third of black, and one-third of white, carded to- 
gether, spun by hand and woven on a slate-colored chain of cotton 
thread, making a fine cloth for the loved ones who stood on guard 
through storms of sleet and snow. Maidens found, in chests and 
drawers, a few skeins of scarlet wool, to crochet and knit stripes in 
scarfs for young friends in artillery service. 

The flocks of sheep seemed to grow patriotic, giving us fine wool. 
A family from Rappahannock County came to Greenville County as 
refugees, bringing a large flock of sheep. Those sheep produced ele- 
gant wool. Captain Willis, the owner, had received a wound in the 
arm, and had to retire from service for a while. His wife wrote and 
distributed religious tracts to soldiers, showing that she had a heart 
filled with reverence to God and kindness to her fellow creatures. 

Churches in the South had services several times a week, and 
earnest prayers ascended on high for the safety of our armies, and 
for consolation to those who had lost their dear ones. Women had 
been told of their grandmothers' loyalty and industry during the war 
with England, and were trying now to show the same love to their 

Such confidence we felt in our soldiers ! If one, six, or more men 
sought shelter and food at private houses while passing through 
town, they were invited in and entertained. We greatly admired the 
people of Virginia for their kindness to the soldiers. Many times 
have we been told of the bonny-clabber, bread, butter, etc., given to 
our friends by the ladies of Virginia. We could but exclaim, with 
the negroes : "Ole Virginny neber tire." 

Housekeepers gave away their blankets to any soldiers who needed 
them. Men of experience and age were appointed in neighborhoods 
to distribute provisions to the wives and children of men who had 
to labor with their own hands for the support of their families, but 
were now in the army. Dr. Buist, a Presbyterian minister, went 
every afternoon to the Greenville and Columbia depot to meet the 
train. Quickly the conductor handed him a newspaper, and he read 
it so that a large crowd of anxious people could hear every word. 

Gen. M. C. Butler's mother had seven sons in service. Col. Wm. 
Butler at one time commanded at Fort Sumter. She heard at the 
depot that her youngest child had lost an arm, and fainted. No one 

28 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

saw her but two young girls, who were with her in her carriage. 
They took her home, where she soon revived and set to work sewing 
and doing everything in her power for needy soldiers. 

Frequently she took feeble looking men in her carriage and had 
them driven to their homes, or to the hospital. Her brother had 
fought the Battle of Lake Erie. 

The first hospital in Greenville was in the Male Academy. Mrs. 
W. Pinckney McBee was president. To that building all sick and 
wounded soldiers were carried and personally attended by the ladies 
of the Soldiers' Relief Association and the kind physicians of the 
town. • Nice, clean beds and good food were provided, and servants 
to assist in caring for them. Quilts were made and kept washed 
for the use of the hospital. Committees of ladies relieved each 
other. Housekeepers were notified when their turn came to provide 
meals. Good milk, and any delicacy a soldier fancied, was provided, 
if possible. 

All over the South, ladies met trains, provided with baskets of 
food and hot, steaming rye coffee for traveling soldiers. 

When the Confederate Government established a hospital in the 
Marion House in Greenville, the ladies assisted there in caring for 
sick and wounded men, visited them, and provided nice food for 
them, taking it to the bedside themselves. One lady was highly 
amused at the request of a sick man, who asked her to bring him 
some "tater custard." She went to the doctor and got permission 
and then provided the man with the most dainty looking sweet 
potato custard, which he ate with great relish. 

Ladies scraped lint off old linen, rolled bandages of soft, white 
cloth, and sent them on to the Richmond Hospital. 

All the land devoting itself to the army ! Such an inspiration of 
patriotic devotion to the defenders of our homes ! I look back to it 
with admiration. 

(Signed) Jane Carson Brunson. 

February 2, 1899. 

Woman's WorR at Cheraw. 

Written by Mrs. Virginia C. Tarrh, of Cheraw, October 6, 1898. 

Cheraw, South Carolina, although a place small in size, was equal 
to all the demands made upon its patriotism, and these demands 
continued from the first of the struggle unto the bitter end. 

Soon after the fall of Sumter, when the best and bravest were 
making ready to go, the women established a society for making 

The Work at Cheraw. 29 

clothes for the soldiers. Mrs. Inglis, the wife of Chancellor Inglis, 
one of the signers of the Ordinance of Secession, took a most active 
part as president. I seem to see her giving out different articles to 
the numerous applicants waiting for them, and her mafd sitting at a 
little distance, knitting industriously for these same soldiers. 

Mrs. Inglis' daughter-in-law, whose husband gave his life for his 
country, and who was a Philadelphian, worked most indefatigably 
for the South during the entire struggle. 

A friend of mine went for her weekly share of sewing and, being 
very apt with her needle, took the arduous task of making a soldier's 
coat. The next time, when she returned with it finished, some of 
the more experienced found she had put the sleeves in hind part 
before; but the novice most good-naturedly took it home to make 
alterations. Every woman learned to knit — even little girls — and I 
recall one friend, now the wife of a veteran, who learned to spin and 
weave, and who turned her knowledge to good advantage. 

I recollect, too, to have seen two ladies, each knitting a pair of 
stockings, at the same time — that is to say, with two feet of the socks 
set up on the same needles together. One of these ladies was the 
sister of General Maxcy Gregg, and was staying in Cheraw at the 

At first we had no need of a hospital, so a committee of two ladies 
was appointed to go each week to the hospital in Florence. Miss 
Harriet Black was the matron there, and the physicians in charge 
were Dr. Dargan, of Darlington, and Dr. Bacot, of Florence. 

Towards the end, however, when many sick and wounded were 
at our doors, we converted our Town Hall into a hospital, and gave 
every comfort in our power — our time and our presence. 

Entertainments took place every now and then, mostly participated 
in by the young people, and many of them refugees far from home ; 
but in this way they could best aid the suffering soldiers. 

Nor was the women's work done when the fighting was over. As 
soon as possible, we began to raise funds for a monument to those 
who had died, and this we accomplished after several years of 
labor — but it was a labor of love, and the monument stands now in 
the cemetery of the Episcopal Church, to mark the resting place of 
manv a Confederate soldier. 

30 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Woman's WorK at Hopewell and Mars Bluff. 

Written by Mrs. W. W. Harlee, 1899. 

There is very little that I can remember about the "Ladies' Aid 
Society," of which I was president, and which was carried on during 
the War of the Confederacy, for the benefit of the Southern soldiers. 

I can only recollect that such a society existed and flourished and 
had many zealous adherents in the Hopewell and Mars Bluff neigh- 
borhood, and that there was great enthusiasm in the work ; that it 
met at regular intervals at Hopewell Session House, and we made 
chiefly underclothing and knitted socks. 

Boxes full of these were sent to the companies commanded by 
Capt. Robt. Singletary and Col. Richard Howard. 

Twice we held entertainments to raise money for the soldiers — 
one, an exhibition of tableaux, was held in the house at Mars Bluff 
Depot, and the second was a fair, held in the "Goodwin house," as it 
was then called, having been occupied by Colonel Goodwin's family. 
Mrs. Goodwin was the sister of the poet Timrod, who was often a 
pleasant guest of the neighborhood. The family moved to Columbia 

This fair was quite a success, the articles for sale having been 
contributed by the ladies of the neighborhood; and we still have in 
our household a writing-desk purchased on that occasion. 

(Signed) Martha J. Harlee. 

Woman's WorK at Marion. 

Dictated by Mrs. Gregg, 1S99. 

When the company from Marion was organized, Mrs. Sophia 
Mclntyre and I assumed the responsibility of having the uniforms 
of the entire company made. 

We secured the services of a very reliable and competent tailor, 
who took the measurements and cut the garments. The ladies of 
the town and surrounding country cheerfully rendered their services 
in making them, and in a very short time the company was well uni- 
formed, and presented a very creditable appearance. 

My eldest daughter, Nannette, now Mrs. W. F. Carter, of Macon, 
Ga., solicited aid in procuring socks and blankets for the company. 

When they disbanded and returned home, the men were in very 
destitute circumstances; and many of them, far distant from their 
homes, and unable to reach them for want of means, remained in 
Marion for some time. By request of my son William (one of the 
company), a dinner was given them. Mrs. Thomas Evans and I 

The Work at Pendleton. 31 

undertook this deserved compliment to the patriotic sons of Marion 
and, ably assisted by the ladies in and around the town, we spread a 
sumptuous feast, which was greatly enjoyed by the soldiers. 

Marion was always found ready and willing to do what she could 
for the noble sons of whom she is proud, who went to the front to 
fight for what they believed was right, and still feel is a just cause. 

(Signed) Ellen L. Gregg, 

Marion, S. C. 

Woman's WorR at Pendleton. 

Written by Mrs. M. S. Williams, 1901. 

In the year 1861, we, the ladies of Pendleton, met at the old 
Farmers' Hall and organized a Soldiers' Aid Society. Miss Harriet 
E. Maxwell was elected President; Mrs. F. P. (Elizabeth Adger) 
Mullally, Treasurer, and Miss Mary Simpson, Secretary. We met 
every week and transacted business in the way of shipping supplies 
to the Fourth Regiment, to Jenkins', and to others, I forget which, 
now. Transportation, etc., became so confused as the war went on 
that we were advised by Mrs. Martin, of Columbia, to send all sup- 
plies to Columbia. There they were received (probably by the 
"Central Committee"), assorted, and all intended for one especial 
regiment or person were put in boxes or packages and sent directly 
to their proper destination. This simplified matters very much. 

Hard by the railroad station at Pendleton was a little room, or 
rather, a house of one room, in which Miss Mary Hunter, an aged 
lady, had taught many of our fathers their A B C's. She retired 
and left the house vacant. The Aid Society captured it and had 
beds, couches, etc., put into it, with kettles for heating water. An 
old-fashioned country fireplace, with a generous fire burning, was 
always ready to welcome the suffering and hungry soldier returning 
from the seat of war, who had no one to come to the train for him. 

When the gentlemen of the District heard what our plans were 
they entered into them with true zest and offered their carriages for 
the purposes we had in view. 

Just fancy the handsome carriages of Mrs. Latta, the Adgers (a 
legion of them), Mrs. Calhoun, and many others, at the door of this 
little Wayside Hospital, taking our suffering soldiers to their homes, 
poisoned with gangrene and eaten up by vermin ! 

This little hospital was kept up until poverty closed its door, for 
we had at last not so much as a pot of cowpeas to send down. Alas ! 

(Signed) Mary Simpson Williams. 

32 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Extracts from an article written by Miss Anna Simpson, of Pendleton, published in The 
News and Courier, 1885, and afterwards in a book called "Our Women in the War." 

"* * * As I look back now, it seems strange that wardrobes 
should have been so speedily exhausted. * * * I think the solution 
of the mystery, however, will be found in the fact that girls in their 
teens will grow. * •* * At first, old trunks and bureau drawers, 
top shelves in out-of-the-way closets were ransacked, and antiquated 
garments, long since cast aside as worthless, or laid away as relics 
of our mothers' and grandmothers' younger days, were brought out 
to light. * * * Each feeling of regret was hushed and swallowed 
up in the necessity of the hour as these articles were lifted from their 
various hiding places, and then, with right good will and persever- 
ance, ripped up, sponged and pressed, turned upside down, inside 
out, twisted and stretched and pieced, and, finally, converted into 
most respectable articles of apparel. None of your shabby genteel 
affairs, either, for we would have the girls of the day understand 
that, sorely pressed as we were, we felt quite as much appreciation 
of the neat, tidy girl, as they, who now have every material to supply 
their needs, and money wherewith to buy. * * * Children grew 
apace. * * * Our village stores were emptied and deserted. * * * 
Our armies in the field became grand realities. * * * All resources 
were cut off. Our government could poorly provide food, clothing 
and ammunition for its armies. Then it was that our mothers' wit 
was tested, and did in no sort disappoint our expectations. 

"Spinning wheels, looms and dye pots were brought into requi- 
sition. Wool of home production was speedily converted by loving 
hands into warm flannels and heavy garments, with soft scarfs and 
snugly-fitted leggings to shield our dear boys from Virginia's wintry 
blast and fast- falling snows. * * * Later on, societies were formed 
to provide supplies for the general demand. * * * Every available 
fragment of material was converted into some kind of garment. 
After the store of blankets in each home had been cheerfully given, 
carpets were utilized in their stead, and portioned out to the suffering 
soldiers. Wool mattresses were ripped up, recarded, and woven 
into coverings and clothing. Bits of new woolen fabrics left from 
former garments were raveled, carded, mixed with cotton, spun, 
and knitted into socks. Old and worn garments were carried 
through the same process. Even rabbits' fur was mixed with cotton 
and silk and appeared again in the form of neat, comfortable gloves. 

"Begging committees went forth (and, be it truthfully said, the 
writer never knew of one being turned away empty-handed) to 

The Work at Pendleton. 33 

gather up the offerings from mansion and hamlet, * * * soon to be 
packed and forwarded with all speed to the soldiers. 

"And who can tell what pleasure we took in filling boxes with sub- 
stantial and such dainties as we could gather for the hospitals. Old 
men and little boys were occupied in winding thread, and holding 
'brooches,' and even knitting on the socks when the mystery of 
'turning the heel' had been passed. 

"The little spindle wheel, turned by a treadle, became a fascination 
to the girls, and with its busy hum was mingled often merry strains 
of patriotic song. 

"During all that time, when every woman vied with the other in 
working for soldiers, there were needs at home too urgent to be dis- 
regarded. These, too, had to be met, and how, was not long the 
question. * * * We replaced our worn dresses with homespun, 
planning and devising checks and plaids, and intermingling colors 
with the skill of professional designers. * * * The samples we 
interchanged were homespun of our last weaving. Our mothers' 
silk stockings of ante-bellum days were unraveled and transformed 
into the prettiest of neat-fitting gloves. The writer remembers never 
to have been more pleased than she was by the possession of a trim 
pair of boots made of the tanned skins of squirrels. 

Our hats, made of palmetto and rye straw, were pretty and be- 
coming. * * * Our jackets were made of the father's old-fashioned 
cloaks, * * * those of the style represented in the pictures of Mr. 
Calhoun doing splendid service by supplying all the girls in the 
family. * * * We even made jewelry of palmetto intermingled 
with hair, that we might keep even with the boys, who wore pal- 
metto cockades ! * * * For our calico dresses, if we were fortunate 
enough to find one, we sometimes paid one hundred dollars, and for 
the spool of cotton that made it, from ten to twenty dollars. 

"The buttons we used were often from a gourd, cut into sizes re- 
quired, and covered with cloth. •* * * On children's clothes, per- 
simmon seeds in the natural state, with two holes drilled through 
them, were found both neat and durable. 

"The things we ate and drank came in, too, for a prominent po- 
sition. * * * Coffee was made of rye, wheat and sweet potatoes, 
chipped, dried and parched — also okra seed, etc. It was sweet- 
ened, if at all, with sorghum or honey. For tea, the leaves of black- 
berry vines were gathered and dried. Fruit cakes were made of 
dried apples, cherries, pears and plums, without any spices at all. 

"For medicines we used roots and herbs. * * * Salt, white and 
pure, was obtained by digging up the earthen floors of long-used 

34 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

smokehouses, dripping water through this earth in hoppers, and 
boiling it down. 

"When the long winter evenings closed in, the lights we used were 
simple curiosities. * * * Our best lights were tallow candles, but 
they were too scarce to be used except on special occasions. The 
ordinary lights were knots of pine, supported on racks of iron at the 
back of the chimney, to let the smoke fly up. Another odd light, 
known as a wax taper, was made by winding thirty yards of wick, 
previously dipped in melted wax, round an old candlestick. * * * 

"A favorite night's employment was found in making envelopes. 

* * * No bits of white paper suitable for writing with pen and ink 
could be wasted in envelopes. * * * Thus it happened that wall 
paper and sheets with pictures on one side, taken from 'United 
States Explorations,' served to make envelopes, neat enough. * * * 
These we stuck together with gum from peach trees. Ink was made 
from oak balls and green persimmons, with rusty nails, instead of 
copperas, to deepen the color. The noisy goose supplied our pens. 

"Every battle brought its list of dead and dying to our village, 
when at last its fatal results were known, and one by one each home 
within its borders was desolated. 

"Ill news came heralded by signals well understood. Loud, pro- 
longed and piercing screams (I might call them) from the 'iron 
horse,' which broke the stillness of the night as it came rushing in. 

* * * Each quivering heart stood still — waiting for the aged 
father, with slow, dragging steps, to return from where the news 
was read, with messages which gave relief to some, and confirmed 
the bitterest and most dreaded fears of others." 

Woman's Work at Beaufort. 

Extract from letter from Miss C. O. Barnwell, dated March 14, 1898. 

In the summer of 1861, the ladies of this town organized a society 
for the purpose of working for soldiers. They made coats, pants, 
caps, comfortables and shirts, which were given to Dunnovant's 
Regiment, stationed near town. They also sent, in answer to an 
appeal from the Rev. R. W. Barnwell, for the hospitals in Virginia, 
boxes containing a variety of hospital stores. 

After they were obliged to abandon their homes, I can answer for 
it that as individuals they connected themselves with the different 
organizations throughout the State, and rendered all the service in 
their power to the cause. 

The Work at Marlboro. 35 

Woman's WorR at Marlboro. 

Letter from Mrs. D. D. McColl, of Bennettsville, June 29, 1898. 

I can recall no startling heroines of Marlboro during the Con- 
federate War, yet hundreds proved themselves heroines of the every 
day kind, because they met laborious occupations, stern duties, in- 
creased cares, and sad privations, with unfaltering bravery and un- 
changing patience. 

I have often thought my own mother's (Mrs. Thomas) life was a 
daily struggle and a certain triumph. Left by my father with seven 
young children, she managed to make the farm produce enough for 
their support, gave a tithe for army support, and was shrewd enough 
and wise enough to pay almost all of a small debt, which seemed 
very large to us. 

Our clothes were spun and woven under her directions, and of this 
homespun cloth she made frequent contributions to the companies 
from our county. 

Though very timid, she was brave enough to meet that terror — 
Sherman's Army — in a self-possessed and dignified manner. She 
and her daughters received respectful treatment at their hands, and 
they granted her request to leave a portion of her store of groceries 
for her family. How she eked it out through that memorable sum- 
mer, and how scanty were the meals to which we sat down for some 
months, is one of my heartache memories, and that page would have 
to be written through tears. 

This record of my dear mother's experiences would be that of 
hundreds of others, except that in some homes there was more Con- 
federate money. My father's salary as captain was about all we had, 
and "the wolf" seemed seldom very far from the door. 

Miss Harriet Black, of this county, served as matron in the hos- 
pital at Florence, and was greatly valued by the soldiers. 

Miss Martha Miller, an inexperienced girl, went alone to Lookout 
Mountain to nurse a brother in the hospital, who had lost a limb. 

But, really, I do not know that any one woman from this county 
is entitled to conspicuous mention. 


South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Minutes of the Ladies' Relief Association 
of Fairfield. 

Copy given by Mrs. Robert Ellison, of Winnsboro. 

The ladies of Fairfield held a meeting this day to form an organi- 
zation for the purpose of assisting, as far as it is in their power, 
the sick and wounded soldiers of South Carolina, now in Virginia. 
On motion, Mrs. Ladd was called to the chair, and J. S. Stewart re- 
quested to act as secretary. 

Resolved, That this meeting shall be called the Ladies' Relief As- 
sociation of Fairfield District. 

Mrs. Ladd was chosen permanent president. The under named 
ladies compose this association : 

Mrs. W. R. Robertson. 
Mrs. H. L. Elliott. 
Mrs. McK. Elliott. 
Miss M. Crawford. 
Mrs. C. Neil. 
Mrs. Cohen. 
Mrs. Couturier. 
Mrs. G. H. McMaster. 
Mrs. John Bratton. 
Mrs. S. Wolfe. 
Miss F. Boyce. 
Mrs. M. A. Laughlin. 
Mrs. W. A. Morrison. 
Mrs. C. Ladd. 
Mrs. T. G. Robertson. 
Mrs. R. Buchanan. 
Mrs. T. Ligon. 

Miss Eunice Aiken. 
Mrs. E. F. Lyles. 
Miss Sarah Clarke. 
Mrs. J. N. Shedd. 
Miss R. Ketchin. 
Mrs. B. W. Means. 
Mrs. W. W. Boyce. 
Mrs. Wm. Adger. 
Mrs. Dwight. 
Mrs. Wm. Rabb. 
Mrs. Thos. Jordan. 
Mrs. D. Cremer. 
Mrs. J. S. Stewart. 
Mrs. O. Woodward. 
Mrs. Moore. 
Mrs. R. B. Boylston. 
Mrs. Ellen Barber. 

Mrs. E. M. Porcher. 
Mrs. J. Cremer. 
Mrs. Wyatt Aiken. 
Miss M. Boyce. 
Mrs. Baum. 
Mrs. J. H. Rion. 
Mrs. H. B. McMaster. 
Mrs. D. Clarke. 
Mrs. W. H. Ellison. 
Mrs. John McMaster. 
Mrs. S. Jackson. 
Miss M. McMaster. 
Mrs. E. Woodward. 
Mrs. J. R. McMaster. 
Mrs. T. S. DuBose. 
Mrs. Dr. Robertson. 
Mrs. Jno. Adger. 
Mrs. D. Lauderdale. 

Mrs. Couturier was chosen treasurer. 

A resolution was passed that the association shall last during the 
war. Rev. C. B. Betts addressed the association. Mrs. David 
Gaillard reported $37.75 collected. 

Resolved, That all moneys in the hands of the treasurer be ex- 
pended for such articles as are needed for sick and wounded soldiers, 
and shipped to them immediately. 

Mrs. D. Gaillard, Mrs. W. R. Robertson, Mrs. C. J. Stewart, and 
the treasurer were appointed a committee to attend to purchase and 

The following committees were appointed to collect contributions 
and see to work done for the association : 

First. — Miss M. Crawford, Chairman. 
Miss J. McCants. Mrs. Geo. Robertson. Mrs. J. B. McCants. 

Mrs. J. S. Stewart. Mrs. S. Cathcart. Mrs. S. Center. 

Mrs. S. Jackson. Mrs. M. D. Fraser. 

The Work at Fairfield. 37 

Second. — Mrs. H. B. McMaster, Chairman. 

Mrs. W. H. Ellison. Mrs. Geo. McMaster. Mrs. Neil. 

Mrs. Moore. Mrs. B. Cockrell. Mrs. Hall. 

Mrs. Jordan. Mrs. C. F. Lyles. Mrs. C. Fawcet. 

Third. — Mrs. O. Woodward, Chairman. 
Mrs. R. B. Boylston. Mrs. Dr. Buchanan. Mrs. Woodward. 

Mrs. Ladd. Mrs. Clark. Mrs. Lauderdale. 

Fourth. — Mrs. J. N. Shedd, Chairman. 
Mrs. A. M. Aiken. Mrs. E. A. Woodward. Mrs. S. Wolfe. 

Mrs. W. Rabb. Mrs. O. R. Thompson. Mrs. Baum. 

Mrs. Wyatt Aiken. 

Fifth. — Mrs. John McMaster, Chairman. 
Mrs. T. S. DuBose. Mrs. Robertson. Mrs. Gaillard. 

Mrs. Means. Mrs. Bratton. Mrs. Dwight. 

Mrs. T. T. Robertson. 

Sixth. — Mrs. McCants, Chairman. 
Mrs. Thos. Robertson. Mrs. Laughlin. Mrs. Jones. 

Mrs. T. W. Woodward. Mrs. W. W. Boyce. Mrs. R. E. Ellison. 

Mrs. Dr. Aiken. 

Resolved, That this association meet in this place on Saturday- 
next, at 10 a. m. J. S. Stewart, 
Winnsboro. Secretary. 

Aug. 3, 1 861. — The association met this day. 

Letters read from Mrs. E. Glover, contributing four bushels of 
ground rice; from Miss Finney, enclosing $10.95, a contribution 
from the young ladies of Mr. Obear's school. 

Mrs. Couturier declining to act as treasurer, Mrs. J. S. Stewart 
was appointed. 

The Rev. Messrs. Powell and Workman were appointed a com- 
mittee to solicit and receive contributions throughout the district. 

On motion of Mrs. Wolfe, Resolved, That the chairmen of the 
standing committees should form an executive committee. 

Association met on August 15th. 

Letters read from Mrs. Rion, acknowledging receipt of contribu- 
tions from the merchants of Winnsboro ; and from Rev. R. W. Barn- 
well, acknowledging receipt of part of the boxes sent him, from rail- 
road agent, in reference to freight. 

On motion of Miss Crawford, Resolved, That the thanks of the 
association be tendered to Miss M. Caldwell and Mrs. Dr. John 
Mobley for their exertions in behalf of this association. 

38 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Resolved, That the articles now on hand, and that may be got 
ready by Saturday, be sent to the captains of companies from this 

Resolved, That the association meet on first Thursday of Septem- 
ber, and on the first Thursday of each month thereafter, until the 
war is brought to a close. J. S. Stewart, 


September 5, 1861. — The association held its first regular monthly 
meeting. Letter read from Mrs. Davis, enclosing $103.00, con- 
tributed by the ladies of Monticello, in part. Also a letter from 
Mrs. Edward Mobley, contributing $100.00. 

Mrs. Woodward moved that a committee of five be appointed to 
draft rules for the government of this association. Carried. 

The president appointed Mrs. O. Woodward, Mrs. J. W. Shedd, 
Mrs. W. R. Robertson, Mrs. J. H. Rion, Mrs. H. B. McMaster. 

Resolved, To notify the quartermaster that the association will 
make 300 garments for the soldiers in camp. 

Association adjourned till Saturday, the 7th, to meet hereafter on 
the first Saturday. J. S. Stewart, 


September 7, 1861. — Report of committee to draft by-laws and 
constitution read and adopted. Mrs. C. Felder was placed on Mrs. 
Boyce's committee ; Mrs. Douglass on Mrs. Shedd's ; Mrs. John 
Mobley on Mrs. O. Woodward's ; Mrs. Baum and Mrs. Ed. Wood- 
ward were placed on Mrs. J. N. Shedd's committee. 

Committee No. 4 was dissolved. Mrs. Lauderdale was added to 
Mrs. Woodward's committee. Mrs. R. E. Ellison and Mrs. M. A. 
Laughlin added to Mrs. Boyce's committee. Officers were elected: 

President — Mrs. Ladd. 

Vice-President — Mrs. Sarah McCants. 

Corresponding Secretary — Mrs. J. H. Rion. 

Treasurer — Mrs. J. S. Stewart. 

Secretary — J. S. Stewart. J. S. Stewart, 


September 30, 1861. — The association held a called meeting. 

Resolved, That the executive committee send to the volunteers in 
Virginia, by Mr. Creighton, such articles as they think necessary. 

That one and one-half dozen pairs of socks be sent to Colonel 
Winder, of the Sixth Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers. 

The Work at Fairfield. 39 

That the corresponding secretary be requested to ascertain what 
hospital stores are wanted by the volunteers from the District, now 
at Lightwood Knot Springs; and that the executive committee be 
instructed to furnish the same as they believe to be consistent with 
their means. 

October 5, 1861. — Association met. Letters read. Mrs. Thomp- 
son, of New Hope Association, and Mrs. Lemon, of Jackson Creek 
Association, being present, were invited to seats. 

Mrs. Dr. McCants moved that the place of meeting should be the 
Thespian Hall. All work done by committees should be sent to that 
place on days of meeting. 

November 6, 1861. — Association met. Letters from J. B. Davis 
and Colonel Winder read. On motion of Mrs. McCants, 

Resolved, That all the ready-made clothing on hand, and $50 in 
money, be sent to Maryland volunteers. That three pairs wool 
socks and one necktie and two colored shirts be given to Mr. Christ- 
mas. That the executive committee be authorized to draw sufficient 
money for the materials for twenty-four mattresses, twenty-four 
comforts, twenty-four pillows. 

November 13, 1861. — The motion in reference to the Maryland 
volunteers was rescinded, and the clothing sent to the volunteers 
from the District, now on the coast. One hundred dollars appro- 
priated to purchase cloth for the volunteers. Mrs. H. B. McMaster, 
Mrs. J. S. Stewart, and Mrs. Dr. McCants appointed a committee to 
carry out this resolution. 

Resolved, That Mrs. Laughlin and Miss Wolfe be a committee 
to send off immediately all clothing on hand. 

December 7, 1861. — The corresponding secretary read letters from 
B. Huger Jr. and Captain B. Davis, acknowledging receipt of 

A letter was read asking aid for McPhersonville Hospital. 

On motion of Miss L. McCants, 

Resolved, To send ten pairs blankets to Captain Rion. 

The corresponding secretary declining to serve, Miss Fannie 
Boyce was elected. Miss Ellen Barber offered to make four com- 
forts, and received material. 

Resolved, To meet every two weeks. 

40 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

December 21, 1861. — Letters of acknowledgement were read from 
Captains Rion and Clarke. 

Resolved, To send part of clothing now on hand to Captain 
Clarke, of Maryland Volunteers. 

January 4, 1862. — Ten pairs of blankets sent to Captain Irby's 

March 1, 1862. — Association met. Letter read from McPherson- 
ville Hospital acknowledging receipt of sundry articles sent, also 
giving information regarding needs of the hospital. Also letter 
from J. L. Clarke, Winchester, Va., acknowledging box of clothing. 

Committee appointed to send to hospitals in Columbia such articles 
as they think best. 

Election of officers : 

Mrs. Ladd, President. 

Mrs. Wolfe, Vice-President. 

Mrs. Dwight, Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. H. B. McMaster, Treasurer. 

Mrs. W. R. Robertson, Corresponding Secretary. 

April 12, 1862. — Association met. One hundred dollars, on 
motion of Mrs. Hugh McMaster, appropriated for buying cloth for 

Resolved, To meet on Thursday, 17th, to cut out and distribute 

May 3, 1862. — Association met. 

Resolved, That the association pay for making the remaining uni- 
forms of Boyce's Guards. That two blankets be given to Mr. 
Yongue and Mr. Olney. 

June 7, 1862. — Association met. Corresponding secretary in- 
structed to inquire if Boyce Guards stand in need of clothing. 
Seventy-five dollars appropriated to buy cloth. 

June 12, 1862. — At a called meeting, $10 was appropriated to buy 
stove for Columbia Hospital. E. P. Dwight, 


July 5, 1862. — Letter from Mr. Gregg, of Graniteville factory, 
taking one-third off bill for cloth sent the association. 

The Work at Fairfield. 41 

Committee appointed to cut work on Monday, 7th — Mrs. Boyce, 
Mrs. McMaster, Mrs. Cohen, Mrs. McCants, Mrs. Gaillard, Mrs. 
Robertson, Mrs. Rivers, Mrs. W. Robertson. 

One-half dozen shirts and drawers sent to Columbia Hospital ; 
also resolved to send monthly box of private contributions to the 
same place. 

Resolved, To write to Medical Director of the State (Dr. Kin- 
loch) to ascertain whether the wishes of the ladies to establish a 
hospital at Winnsboro meet with his approval. 

A committee, of Mrs. Fraser, Mrs. McMaster, and Mrs. Porcher, 
was formed for the purpose of making necessary arrangements, 
should the offer be favorably received. 

August 2, 1862. — Resolved, To send part of clothing in hand to 
Columbia Hospital. Letter received from Dr. Kinloch declining the 
offer made him, and suggesting that they should assist Columbia 

Later on in August, a meeting was held to establish a Wayside 
Hospital in Winnsboro, and to form committees to send refresh- 
ments daily to the sick and wounded on their way from Virginia. 

September 5, 1862. — Resolved, To retain clothing intended for 
Columbia Hospital, for use of Wayside Hospital, in Winnsboro. 

October 4, 1862. — Resolved, to make up all cloth in hand, and to 
purchase thirteen pairs socks. 

November 1, 1862. — Resolved, To meet again on 5th for pur- 
pose of arranging for making up soldiers' clothing. 

August 1, 1863. — Resolved, That this society cooperate with that 
in Chester in furnishing refreshments to the wounded soldiers. 

Letter was read from secretary of Charleston society, thanking the 
ladies for $100 sent for relief of wounded at that place. 

November 1, 1863. — Donations: To D. Miller, two pairs drawers, 
shirts and socks. To John Neil, two pairs drawers, two pairs socks, 
two shirts. To G. Ladd, two pairs socks. E. M. Porcher, 


December, 1863. — Donations : Mrs. Lauderdale, three pairs socks. 
Mrs. Wolfe, stocking yarn. Mrs. Aiken and Miss Crawford, three 

42 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

pairs socks. Miss Porcher, paper of tea and one pair socks, fifty 
shirts, fifty pairs socks, twenty-six pairs drawers. To Mrs. Harris, 
two pairs drawers, two pairs socks, two shirts. C. Johnson, two 
shirts, two pairs drawers. Mr. Lewis, two shirts, two pairs drawers. 

January, 1864. — Donations from association : Mr. Murphy, Fif- 
teenth regiment, two shirts, two pairs drawers. 

October, 1864. — To Mr. Yates : Twelve pairs drawers, eight pairs 
socks. Crocheted and given by Mrs. Fanny and Minnie Boyce, for 
Boyce Guard, seventy-two wool comforters. 

March, 1862. — List of articles sent to hospital at Columbia: Four 
dressing-gowns, twelve pairs drawers, twelve shirts, twelve pairs 
socks, one scarf, twelve comforts, twelve pillows, eight pillow-cases, 
four bottles brandy, three of whiskey, two bottles blackberry vinegar, 
one bottle cordial, one bottle tomato catsup, four bottles port wine, 
two quarts blackberry wine, five pints blackberry wine, four dozen 
candles, two packages dried fruit, one cake of salve, one small bundle 
soap, one package herbs. 

Sent to Dr. Robertson, at Richmond : Sixteen white shirts, twelve 
colored shirts, thirty-five pairs drawers, twenty pairs socks, two 
packages sage, various private contributions, filling several boxes. 

November 3, 1862. — Sent to Sixth Regiment by Mr. McCully: 
Twenty-three pairs cotton socks, one dozen wool socks, five pairs 
gloves, three dozen dark drawers, two and one-half dozen light 
drawers, twenty-two colored shirts, one and one-half dozen shirts, 
thirteen pairs wool socks, four blankets, four comforts, six white 
shirts, twelve drawers, twenty-five drawers, five pairs socks, ten 
shirts, five pairs socks, three comforts, seven pairs pants, two quilts, 
two pairs socks. 

February, 1863. — Sent to Ladies' New Hospital, Columbia : Six 
comforts, six mattresses, three cots, twelve pillows, six pairs sheets, 
three pairs pillow cases, three spittoons, three basins, dried fruit and 

February, 1863. — Sent to Colonel Bratton : Fifty pairs drawers, 
fifty pairs socks, seven carpet blankets, sixteen blankets, four pairs 
gloves, sixty shirts. 

The Work at Fairfield. 43 

Sent to the coast : Four shirts, four pairs drawers, two pairs socks. 
Given to Mr. Williams : Two shirts, two pairs drawers. 
Sent to Ladies' Hospital, Columbia : Twenty-four shirts. 

April, 1863. — Sent to Central Association : Eight pairs mitts, 
eighteen woolen blankets. 

Given to soldiers : W. Williams, two pairs drawers, two pairs 
socks, two shirts. Glass, two pairs drawers, two pairs socks, two 
shirts. Romedy, the same. 

To two soldiers in Captain Thompson's company : Four pairs 
drawers, four shirts. James Fraser, two pairs drawers, two pairs 
socks. Mr. McCants, three pairs socks. Mr. Corstin, two pairs 
drawers, two pairs socks, two shirts. 

July, 1863. — Sent to hospital in Charleston : Four dozen shirts, 
one dozen drawers. 

Four shirts and two pairs socks given to two soldiers named 
Harris. To Mr. Yarborough, two shirts, two pairs socks. 

March, 1864. — Sent to Central Association : One hundred shirts. 

Sent to Wayside Hospital : $100.00. 

Sent to hospital, Columbia : $100.00. 

Sent to Wayside Home, Charleston : $100.00. 

Sent to Rev. Mr. Yates, for sailors : $100.00. 

To soldier : Two shirts, two pairs drawers, one pair socks. To 
Finley, 1 shirt, two pairs drawers, one pair socks. To Alabama : 
Two shirts, two pairs drawers, two pairs socks. To Blake, two 
shirts, two pairs drawers, one pair socks. To Murphy : Two shirts, 
two pairs drawers, one pair socks. 

September, 1864. — Sent to hospital in Virginia: Forty shirts. 
To Mrs. Howe's hospital : Two shirts. To hospital, through Mrs. 
Morrison : Two shirts. 

Given to soldiers : Two shirts, one pair drawers, two pairs socks. 
To Gladden : Two shirts, one pair drawers, one pair socks. 

To soldiers thrown from cars : Three shirts, two pairs socks, two 
pairs drawers. 

To sick men last left here : Two shirts, one pair socks. 

To Murphy : One shirt, one pair drawers, two pairs socks. 

44 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

January, 1865. — Articles donated to society : Mrs. W. Robertson, 
six pairs socks. Clifton, five pairs socks, four pairs gloves. Mrs. S. 
DuBose, six pairs socks. Miss Crawford, four pairs socks. 

February, 1865. — Horeb Society, eight pairs mitts. 

Mrs. Martin, one bolt jeans, two pairs socks. 

Miss M. Caldwell, seven pairs socks. 

Mrs. Lauderdale, six pairs socks. Miss Dantzler, six pairs socks. 
Mrs. T. Woodward, three pairs socks. Mrs. M. Barber, one bushel 
dried apples. 

Bought, fifty cents, ten pairs socks. 

March, 1865. — Mrs. Martin, two pairs socks. 

April, 1865. — Mrs. McElroy, five pairs socks. Miss Bacot, six 
toilet mats. Miss Crawford, three pairs socks. Mrs. Felder, one 
pair socks. Miss Crawford, four pairs socks. 

Articles Sent Away, 

To Hospital at Charlottesville, Virginia — 

First shipment, five boxes. 

Second shipment, seven boxes. 

Third shipment, by crate, one bottle port wine, twenty-seven bot- 
tles blackberry wine, two bottles medicine, one of plum cordial, one 
of cherry cordial, two of damson plums, one package of cream tartar, 
one dozen powders. 


First Box — 

One dozen Jacob's cordial, one blackberry cordial, one bottle 
camphor, four pounds coffee, one package sage, one bag sugar, one 
bag rice, one box salt. 
Second Box — 

Breads, cakes, and biscuits. 
Third Box — 

One tin coffee pot, ground coffee, three cans preserves, four loaves 
bread, biscuits, cakes, package Hyson tea, bag sugar, two Testa- 
ments, newspapers. 
Fourth Box — 

Bag rice, flour, sweet cakes, ninety-nine undershirts — flannel and 

The Work at Fairfield. 45 

Fifth Box, sent to Hospital — 

Package mosquito netting, two and one-half dozen plates, one 
dozen knives and forks, lot books, one teakettle, one teapot, three 
packages, containing five mattresses, with pillows, quilts, bedspreads, 
and sheets, cloth for bandages. 
Thirteenth Box, to Hospital, Mrs. Oxncr's Contribution — 

One quilt, two counterpanes, one bed tick, three sheets, one pair 
pillow-slips, two towels, two pairs drawers, four pairs hose, four 
pairs men's slippers, six table and six teaspoons, one paper pins, one 
package cornstarch, spice, cloves, nutmegs, three mugs, three bars 
soap, four bottles wine, one brandy peaches, preserves, jelly, band- 
Sent to Captain McMeekin's Company — 

Two bottles turpentine, one bottle Hives' syrup, one bottle cam- 
phor, one box mustard, one package mustard seed, wine, jelly, pre- 
serves, herbs, cornstarch, bread, biscuits, and cake. 
Sent to Sick at Same Place — 

Two dozen pairs drawers, one shirt, six yards flannel, cloth for 
spreading blisters, fifteen mattresses, twelve and one-half pairs blan- 
kets, fourteen pillows, fourteen long sheets. 
Sent to Hospital — 

Six shirts, four dozen pairs drawers, one pair blankets, thirteen 
dozen pairs sheets. 
Sent to Captain Shedd's Company — 

Five dozen pairs drawers, six and one-half dozen pairs socks, one 
pair blankets for a sick soldier, thirty-one shirts, forty pairs drawers, 
thirteen scarfs. 
November — To Coast — 

One hundred and thirty-two pairs socks, one pair mitts. 
To Virginia, to Capt. L. Clarke's Company, Maryland Volunteers — 

Three dozen shirts, three dozen pairs drawers, three dozen pairs 
socks, one pair gloves — the last article being sent by little Kate 
Crawford to Capt. L. Clarke. 

Articles Contributed. 

By Mrs. W. Moore, Mrs. J. S. Stewart — 

One bushel hominy, five bottles blackberry cordial, one pound 
black tea, one bottle blackberry jam, two bottles honey, two bottles 
wine, two bottles acid, one bottle acid drink, one-half dozen pairs 
socks, six pillow cases, four sheets, two bedspreads, six towels, six 
old sheets, ten pounds soap, four pounds ground coffee, slippery elm. 

46 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Dr. Clark — 

Sage, red pepper, two fans, one bag rice, one bag sugar, two bot- 
tles lime juice, two bundles mint and sage, one jar of jelly (black- 
berry), four bottles blackberry wine, one bag rice. 
Mrs. McNeil — 

Four bottles lime juice, one bottle blackberry cordial, two pack- 
ages gelatine, one package rice flour. 

Mrs. M. Jordan and Miss E. Laughlin — 

Three pairs slippers, one bottle turpentine, one bottle No. 6. 

Mrs. Gaillard and Mrs. Dwight — 

One gallon blackberry wine, two bottles blackberry cordial, one 
bottle lime juice, one bottle rosewater, one bottle each of Hyson 
and black tea, loaf sugar, six pounds crushed sugar, one bottle 
brandy, eleven sheets, sixteen handkerchiefs, twelve pillow-cases, 
four shirts, four pairs flannel drawers, old cloth. 

Mrs. E. J. Hall- 
Four pairs drawers, two shirts, two pairs socks, three packages 
coffee, three packages tea, candles, one bottle blackberry wine. 

Mrs. G. H. McMaster— 

Four sheets, four pillow-cases, three pillow-cases, two comforts, 
two towels, eight pairs socks, four pairs drawers, three shirts, three 
handkerchiefs, one jar blackberry jelly, one bottle acid. 

Mrs. Mobley — 

Six shirts, four pairs drawers, four pairs socks, old linen cloth 
for bandages, dressing-gowns. 

Mrs. McK. Elliott— 

One shirt, two pairs drawers, two pairs pants, two shirts, two 
pairs socks, towels, pillow-slips, old cloth for bandages, loaf sugar, 
tea, sweet oil, and sage. 

Mrs. Gamble — 

Two quilts, twelve yards cloth for bandages, six pillow-cases. 

Mrs. E. Barber — 

One gallon wine, one gallon grape wine, towels, sheets, linen, sage, 
and catnip. 

Mrs. R. McMaster — 

Pillow-cases, sheets, pillows, shirts, drawers, old cloth for band- 
ages, tin plates, spoons, pans, coffee, ginger, sugar, fans, sage, and 

The Work at Fairfield. 47 

Mrs. Buchanan, Mrs. Campbell, and Mrs. Weir — 

Pillows, sheets, shirts and fly brushes. 

Sugar, coffee, rice, tea, crackers, and nutmegs. 

Sheets, tin cups, shirts, four pairs socks, four handkerchiefs, 
towels, and slippery elm. 
Mrs. H. McM aster- 
Six iron spoons, six tumblers, one dozen tea-plates, two bundles 
chocolate, two bars soap, one bottle cordial, four bottles acid, three 
sheets, four pairs drawers, one sheet, rice flour. 
Mrs. W. Ellison — 

Three bars castile soap, nutmegs, three bottles of wine, one bundle 
cloth, three boxes mustard. 
Mrs. Dr. Buchanan, Mrs. Thos. Jordan — 

Two shirts, one bundle old linen, four rolls bandages, two bottles 
camphor, two bottles peppermint. 

Four shirts, one bundle old linen and cotton, six towels, sage, 
balm, one-half bushel rice, two bottles cordial, three bottles lime 
Mrs. Dr. Cremer — 

Four pillow-slips, old cloth, rock candy, citron, raisins, nutmegs, 
prunes, two papers of ground ginger, salt. 
Mrs. O. Woodward — 

Four pairs socks, four tablecloths, two bedspreads, four shirts, 
one-half peck rice, salt, one bushel grits. 
Mrs. Boylston, Mrs. Rion, and Mrs. Laughlin — 

Two pillows, two packages gelatine, one of arrowroot, farina, 
castile soap, six towels, two pillow-cases, two bottles cordial, three 
bottles lime juice, one bag grits, six pairs socks. 
Mrs. Ladd — 

Barley, five shirts, one bundle sheets, three bottles blackberry 
cordial, one bundle sage. 
Mrs. Lyon — 

Two sheets, one spread, two shirts, six pillow-cases, four towels, 
two pairs drawers, six spoons, soap, one jar honey, sage, old cotton 
Mrs. E. T. Lyles, Miss Crawford, and Mrs. Eraser — 

Sugar, coffee, two bottles blackberry wine, thirty-six pounds 
sugar, two pounds tea, twelve pounds coffee, three pecks rice, dried 
apples, one-half bushel grits, one jar blackberry preserves, sage, 
pepper, four pairs sheets, four pairs pillow-slips, six fans, four 

48 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

towels, four handkerchiefs, four shirts, seven bundles of linen for 
bandages, four Testaments, four Hymn Books, three gallons wine. 
Miss Barkley — 

One pillow, one pair sheets, one pair pillow-slips, one bedspread, 
one package gelatine, one package herbs. 
Mrs. Hammond — 

Two shirts, one pair drawers, one undershirt. 
Mrs. John Adger — 

Six pillow-slips, six towels, six sheets, six shirts, two linen cambric 
handkerchiefs, six pairs socks, two pairs drawers, two undershirts, 
two nightshirts, one paper of pins, two curled hair pads, one flaxseed, 
four rolls of bandages and pads, cotton, one pound tea, eight pounds 
rice flour, two pounds Hyson tea, two pounds tapioca, two packages 
rice, two bottles cordial, one bottle ginger, three bottles wine, one 
bottle camphor, one gallon jelly, one pair buckskin slippers, one pair 
worsted slippers. 
Mrs. H err on — 

Four sheets, three shirts, two pillow-slips, two towels, two hand- 
kerchiefs, one package strip cloth, one jar blackberry jelly, ten 
pounds rice. 
Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. Baum, and Mrs. Wolfe — 

One bedspread, two shirts. 

One bottle blackberry wine, twelve pounds coffee. 

One bottle wine, one blackberry jelly, six pounds tea, twelve quarts 
rice, one box grits, one box mustard, one lot balm, one lot sugar. 

Mrs. 1. W. Shedd— 

Two bottles wine, one bottle cordial, two boxes gelatine, one jar 
preserves, three pairs sheets, three pillow-cases, one pillow, four 
towels, two shirts, sage. 

Mrs. O. R. Thompson — 

Six packages blackberry jelly, four bottles wine, six towels, three 
books, one paper ginger, two spittoons, one fly brush, one bundle 
bandages, one package tracts. 

Mrs. J. Lemon — 

One dozen wine, one package bedclothes, sheets, comforts, weav- 
ing cloths. 

Mrs. D. Aiken — 

Six jars preserves, six jars mustard, one quart cologne, one quart 
rosewater, two jars brandy peaches, two pounds Hyson tea, three 

The Work at Fairfield. 49 

pounds root ginger, four pounds tapioca, one bottle each of laud- 
anum, paregoric, hartshorn, and No. 6, one bag spices, one tin slop 
tub, one tin water bucket, one coffeepot, two mugs, one pound gum 
camphor, two spittoons, one jar ginger preserves. 
Mrs. J. R. McMaster — 

Two bedspreads, four sheets, four slips, two quilts, nine towels, 
one bag sage, one pound black tea, three pounds rice flour, two 
pounds candy, one pound gumdrops, two tin cups, two mugs, six 
spoons, two pounds farina, sugar, cloth for bandages, soap, ladle. 
Mrs. R. E. Ellison — 

Six pillows, six pairs pillow-cases, six sheets, one shirt, one quilt, 
two counterpanes, one spread, three hospital sheets. 
Mrs. D. Oxner — 

Six pairs pillow-cases, two towels, two pairs drawers, four pairs 
hose, four pairs men's slippers, six spoons, six teaspoons, one paper 
pins, one package cornstarch, spices, cloves, nutmegs, three mugs, 
three bars soap, four bottles blackberry wine, one bottle brandy 
peaches, preserves, jelly, one lot netting bandages. 
Mrs. W. Rabb— 

Four papers flaxseed, one package gelatine, two pounds salt, grits, 
rice, sugar, old linen, wine, cordials, pickles, liquorice, rice flour, 
chloroform, two blankets, one pair sheets, cotton. 
Mrs. T. S. DuBose — 

One jar preserves, twelve hospital sheets, eleven pairs drawers. 

Mrs. S. McCants — 

Three shirts, two pairs socks, one mattress tick, two pillows, three 
sheets, one bedspread, six yards domestics, two pairs pillow-cases, one 
bottle Madeira wine, one bottle cologne, one bottle porter, one bottle 
Hive syrup, dried peaches, arrowroot, slippery elm, tapioca, five 
pounds Java coffee, one package soda. 
Mrs. J. B. McCants— 

Six pillows, six pillow-slips, four shirts, four pairs drawers, six 
tablespoons, six teaspoons, six combs and brushes, bundle red 
pepper, sage, two bottles blackberry wine, cloth for bandages. 

Mrs. E. Barber, Miss E. Cloud, Miss Dantzler, Mrs. K. Caldwell, 
and Mrs. W. K. Robertson — 
Six pairs woolen socks. 

Six blankets. (To be held for the Boyce Guard until called for.) 
Three blankets. (To be held for the Boyce Guard until called for.) 
Five pairs socks. Eight pairs socks. 


50 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Mrs. W. W. Boyce, Mrs. DuBesc, Mrs. Cook, Miss C. and Mrs. 

Yonguc — 

Four bottles blackberry wine, one package herbs, four dressing- 
gowns, eight pairs woolen socks. 

Two colored blankets, one white blanket. 

Twenty pairs socks. 
Mrs. Wolfe — 

Two bottles brandy, one pair blankets. 

Mrs. Tom Woodward, Mrs. Baum, Mrs. Boyce — 

Four pairs woolen socks. 

Four pairs socks. 

Four dressing-gowns, eight pairs socks, one bottle cordial, one 
catsup, two bottles fruit vinegar, one package plum, one package 
cornstarch, one package green sage, red pepper. 
Miss Finney — 

Twelve pairs socks, eight pairs woolen socks. 
Mrs. B. Lyles — 

Twelve woolen scarfs, four pairs socks. 
Miss Dantzler — 

Four pairs socks. 
Miss Gaillard — 

Ten pairs socks. 
Mrs. W. Robertson — 

Seven pairs socks. 
Mrs. H. B. McMaster— 

Ten pairs socks. 
Mrs. Cook — 

One pair socks, two neckties, herbs. 
Mrs. J. S. Stewart — 

Three pairs socks. 
Mrs. Dr. Aiken — 

Two shirts. 
Mrs. L eland — 

One pair blankets. 
Mrs. C. Catheart — 

Four bottles brandy, four bottles whiskey. 

Mrs. Boyce — 

Two bottles blackberry vinegar, one bottle cordial, one bottle 
catsup, one bottle brandy. 

The Hospital at Florence. 53 

November, 1862. Mrs. Boyce $1 .50 

Mrs. Ladd 50 

December, 1862. Mrs. Lauderdale 5. 00 

Mrs. W. Robertson 50 

Mrs. Thompson 1 .00 

Mrs. Wolfe 50 

Mrs. Porcher .' 50 

Mrs. Bratton 50 

Mrs. Means 50 

Miss DuBose 50 

Miss Aiken 1.00 

Miss E. Aiken 1 .00 

Mrs. Rivers 5.00 

Mrs. McMaster 5.00 

•Miss Crawford 50 

Mrs. Horlbeck 5. 00 

January, 1863. Mrs. Boyce 1.00 

Mrs. Ladd 50 

Mrs. Fraser 1 .00 

Miss Crawford 50 

Mrs. Porcher 50 

Mrs. Bratton 50 

Mrs. Means 50 

Miss DuBose 50 

Mrs. Wolfe 50 

Mrs. Cohen 50 

February, 1863. Mrs. Ladd 50 

Mrs. W.Robertson 1.50 

Mrs. Means 1.00 

Mrs. Porcher 50 

Miss Fraser 50 

Miss Crawford 50 

The Hospital at Florence. 

Written by Dr. P. B. Bacot, Surgeon C. S. A. 

According to my recollection, the hospital at Florence was estab- 
lished as a wayside home, by the ladies of the Pee Dee section, for 
the relief of needy soldiers passing over the lines of roads passing 
through Florence. 

The home was supported by the ladies of Florence, Darlington, 
Society Hill, and Cheraw, and probably other localities. 

54 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

In the latter part of 1862, or the first of 1863, it was found that, 
owing to the number of sick and wounded soldiers who had to be 
taken into the home, a medical officer was required to attend them. 
The home was then turned over to the Confederate government as a 
Wayside Hospital. 

Dr. Theodore A. Dargan, of Darlington, was appointed surgeon- 

in-charge ; Mrs. Chandler was appointed matron, and Mr. 

Lawrence Prince, of Cheraw, steward. 

During the summer of 1863, I was assigned to the hospital as as- 
sistant to Dr. Dargan. Some time during the winter of 1863, Mrs. 
Chandler resigned the position of matron, and Mrs. Martha Jordan 
was appointed to her place. After serving in that position for a 
few months, she resigned, and Miss Harriet Black, of Cheraw, a 
very estimable lady, was appointed to fill the position. 

In April, 1864, my command being ordered to Virginia, I had to 
leave the hospital. After that, it became necessary to enlarge the 
hospital, and the building afterwards known as the restaurant was 
added. The original hospital was in the Norris building, on the 
corner of Front and Coit streets. 

Our office was a small building, across the railroad track, in front 
of Gamble's Hotel. 

The office is still standing — the only building left that had any 
connection with the hospital. 

After the increase of the hospital, Dr. Washington was 

appointed to assist Dr. Dargan. 

After the government took charge, the ladies still continued to 
visit the hospital, and render such aid as was in their power. 

Many poor soldiers had cause to remember the maternal aid ren- 
dered them by the kind and patriotic ladies of the Pee Dee section. 

(Signed) P. B. Bacot, M. D., 

Acting Assistant Surgeon, Florence Hospital. 

Woman's WorR at Sumter. 

Written in 1901, unsigned. 

The churches in Sumter were used as hospitals. 

Mrs. Montgomery Moses daily visited the hospital at the Baptist 
Church, carrying waiters of delicacies for the sick. One of the men 
was so pleased at her kindness, and felt so sure she could help in 
anything, that he appealed to her to get him a furlough. 

She had a very ill soldier removed to her house, in hopes of saving 
his life, but, notwithstanding all the good nursing, he died. In his 

The Work at Union. 55 

delirium, he kept calling, "Sue, Sue, I am only four miles off; I am 
coming." It was never known who he was! 

Many soldiers from the hospitals came at meal times to the houses 
of the ladies to be fed ; also, many brought their rations to be cooked 
and, of course, the ladies made many additions to what they brought. 

An old lady — Miss Rachel Suares — used to board the trains each 
morning, as they passed, and wash the sick soldiers on board, re- 
turning home by the next train. 

At one time, the ladies used to set tables of food at the depot, for 
the soldiers, as they passed through. 

Mrs. M. Moses and her daughter — Miss A. P. Moses — did much 
good work at the Baptist Church Hospital, taking a servant daily 
to attend the sick, mending the surgeons' clothes, making lightwood 
tea, rolling quinine pills, stuck together with flour and hominy. 
Hominy was used, too, to seal letters, during the war. 

One soldier, to show his gratitude, would wait on Mrs. Moses' 
cook, bringing her wood, etc. 

The flag used at Manassas and other battles, by Kershaw's men, 
was made by Mrs. Bossard, Miss A. P. Moses, Miss Garden, the 
Misses Bartlett, and other ladies of Sumter. 

Woman's WorR at Union. 

Letter from Miss F. M. Blamyer, dated August, 1901. 

Miss Blamyer was the secretary of the Soldiers' Relief Associa- 
tion, of Charleston, but made her home in Union during a part of 
the war. 

She writes : "As to the association in Union, it was formed when 
there was no time for red tape. Mrs. W. H. Wallace was the presi- 
dent ; Mrs. Jeter, treasurer. I was the vice-president. We bought 
cotton in bale with great difficulty, as the planters refused to let us 
have it. They said, with true country honesty, that they had pledged 
themselves not to let their cotton run the blockade. Yet, through 
the influence of Mrs. Wallace, the president, we bought the cotton 
and sent it to the factory in exchange for homespun, sending part 
of this to the Soldiers' Relief Association in Charleston ; and with 
the rest, in Union, we made clothes for our men. 

We then got a large, empty room, put some beds in it, and col- 
lected what supplies we could. 

When Governor Magrath could no longer find a refuge in South 
Carolina (at the end of the war), he disbanded his bodyguard, 
formed of boys from the Arsenal in Columbia, and told them they 

56 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

must make their way home. Some of them came to us, tired and 
muddy, and the ladies immediately sent them ready-made soldiers' 
clothes, but found they had to be shortened and the seams taken in. 
When Cheatham came through, we had some of his sick men. 
One poor fellow, who they thought could not swallow, when I gave 
him a few spoonfuls, said : "It takes a gal to feed me." 

BlacK OaK Soldiers' Relief Association. 

Minutes of Black Oak Soldiers' Relief Association. 

In the South Carolina Room of the Confederate Museum, in Rich- 
mond, marked on the catalogue as No. 312, is another old book, 
the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Black Oak Soldiers' Relief 
Association of St. John's, Berkeley Parish, Charleston District, 
South Carolina. 

This book was sent to the Museum by Miss Edith Waring, now 
of Florence, daughter of the president of the association, Mrs. 
Morton (Anne) Waring. 

A few items from it have been sent us. On the first and fifth 
pages are the name of the association and the dates of its organi- 
zation, first at Pinopolis, August 9, 1861, and again at Black Oak, 
August 14, 1 861. 

The officers were : Mrs. Morton Waring, President ; Mrs. Isabella 
S. Porcher, Vice-President; Mrs. Thos. F. Porcher, Secretary and 
Treasurer; Directresses, Mrs. C. L. Porcher, Mrs. T. P. Ravenel, 
Mrs. W. H. Markley, Mrs. J. C. Cain, Mrs. H. L. Stevens. Miss 
Louisa A. Porcher was appointed Treasurer on August 23, 1861, 
Mrs. Porcher having resigned. 

On pages seven and eight there is a list of fifty-nine members. 

Some reports of the work had been sent us, as follows : 

September 5, 1861. — Eighty dollars spent for purchase of ma- 

October 2, 1861. — One hundred and eighteen pairs drawers and 
three hundred shirts were cut out and made. 

September 24, 1861. — Made up for Hampton's Legion, three hun- 
dred overcoats. 

October 2, 1861. — Made for Ladies' Christian Association, sixty- 
seven shirts, thirty-five coats, and twenty uniforms. 

December 3, 1861. — One hundred and thirty-eight articles made. 

January 1, 1862. — Two hundred pieces of clothing made. 

January 19, 1862. — Two hundred and fifty pieces of clothing 


The Work at Black Oak. 57 

February 12, 1862. — One hundred and twenty-one articles made. 

December II, 1861.— Sent to Coosawhatchie Hospital, $100.00. 

September 23, 1862. — Sent to Virginia, for sick and wounded, 
$133.50. To soldiers in the West, $245.00. 

Twelve boxes, containing wine, brandy, whiskey, and food, sent to 

June 21, 1864.— The last entry of a box sent to the sick and 
wounded in Virginia is on June 21, 1864. 

But it must not be supposed that the work ended there. 

Miss Waring, Mrs. R. Y. Hennegan, 1901. 

"The work of the association was continued until the close of the 
war, but, owing to the unsettled state of the country, they were un- 
able to hold the usual meetings, and no minutes were kept. Supplies 
of socks, clothes of every kind, and also of cooked provisions, were 
kept in hand, ready to supply any passing soldiers, or to send off, in 
case of need." 

This is the testimony of the daughters of the president. 

Another member writes : 

Miss Marianne Porcher, 1901. 

"It would be impossible, at the end of thirty-six years, to give the 
number of boxes and articles of clothing and cash contributed 
during the whole war, for, besides what was sent by the association 
proper, quantities were contributed by individuals. 

"After the war, we were requested to send our book to Richmond, 
where it is entered on the Catalogue as No. 313." 

Miss Waring also writes : 

Miss S. C. Waring, 1899. 

"Soldiers' Relief Associations were formed all over the Confeder- 
acy, and a great deal of needlework accomplished by mistress and 
maid throughout the country. At Black Oak and Pinopolis was 
organized the society called the Ladies' Auxiliary of Black Oak. 

"This society first bought material and made a quantity of clothing 
for soldiers, then offered to help other societies in Charleston, and 
on some occasions made as many as one thousand pieces in three 

"The ladies knit and kept supplied many companies in socks and 
gloves, caps, shirts, and comforters. For four years we worked un- 
ceasingly, and even at evening parties the knitting needle was a 
regular attendant. 

"Work for our soldiers was nothing but pleasure, and while the 
cards were being dealt, our knitting proceeded rapidly — tongues and 

58 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

fingers moved alike. The writer of this paper in one week knit six 
pairs of socks. 

"As time passed on, and every man and boy was taken to keep up 
the ranks of our army, the 'times' seemed hard indeed. Women 
were obliged to look after the welfare of home matters, and then 
many a woman showed herself a heroine. 

"One day a wounded Confederate came to our house, asking for 
shelter and concealment. 'But,' said he to my mother, 'Madam, it 
may cost you your house.' 'Sir,' said she, 'go to your room ; a Con- 
federate woman can suffer for her country.' The soldier rested 
quietly, and the next morning was taken off by his comrades. We 
heard nothing of his pursuers. 

"Later in the war came a call from the government for cooked 
food for the prisoners who had been brought to Florence. They 
were dying of typhoid fever. 

"Then came a rush ! Five thousand starving men, dying of dis- 
ease, though they were the enemy, appealed strongly to the hearts of 
our women. Large boxes were filled with well-cooked food and 
sent to Florence, three hours being the time required for transporta- 
tion. Seven large boxes of food made quite a formidable appear- 
ance, being carted from the house of the president of the society. 

"When the final stroke came, we found ourselves an overpowered 
people, and working to the last." 

Woman's Work at Eutawville. 

Letter from Miss Anna S. Sinkler, 1901. 

"This society, besides a great deal of other work, made uniforms 
for the companies commanded by Capt. Christopher Gaillard, and 
Capt. Julius Porcher. 

"Mrs. William Sinkler was the first president; Mrs. Thomas 
W. Porcher, the second. 

"That good work was expected and required in these societies is 
shown by the following anecdote : Mrs. Harriet Gourdin had seven 
uniform coats as her share, and made them, as she thought, quite 
beautifully, and sent them off proudly. The next day, back they 
came, with the buttonhole side neatly cut off, and a request from 
Mrs. Porcher that she would put the buttons and buttonholes in 
their proper places." 

Eutawville Aid Association. 59 

Rules of the Eutawville Aid Association. 

Minutes of the Eutawville Aid Association, in possession of . 

Rule first. The officers of the association shall be a president, sec- 
retary, treasurer, and two directresses. 

Rule second. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at all 
meetings of the association. When application is made to the asso- 
ciation for assistance in work, it shall be her duty to ascertain their 
ability and pleasure to do the same ; to carry out all correspondence 
with other associations or persons relative to their application ; to 
give notice to the members of the association for all extra meetings, 
and to call extra meetings when necessary. 

Rule third. It shall be the duty of the secretary and treasurer to 
keep all accounts of donations made to the association, all money 
expended, what materials purchased, what garments made, and how 
disposed of ; what work done for other associations or persons not 
members of this association. 

Rule fourth. It shall be the duty of the directresses to purchase 
such material as directed by the association for clothing, etc., to cut 
all garments, and distribute them to be made, and report to the sec- 
retary how many, and to whom sent. 

Rule fifth. The association shall meet every alternate Saturday, at 
the residence of one of the members, in regular rotation. Each 
member to bring to the place of meeting the work done, yarn spun, 
socks knit, or anything done for the benefit of the cause. 

Rule sixth. Each member to contribute the sum of 25 cents at 
every regular meeting. Six members shall form a quorum and 
transact ordinary business matters. 

These rules not to be changed but by a majority of the association. 

N. B. Gentlemen may become members of the association by con- 
tributing the sum stated in Rule 6, but not entitled to a vote, as they 
can't participate in the pleasure of sewing, cutting, etc. 

All donations thankfully received. 

Memorandum of transactions and donations of the association 
from August 1 to November 9, 1861 : 

In August, made forty shirts, twenty-two hickory shirts, fifty 
pairs of drawers, eighteen comforts, eighteen pillow-cases, which 
articles were sent to the Soldiers' Relief Association, in Charleston. 

In September, made for the quartermaster's department, one hun- 
dred pairs drawers and fifty-eight shirts. 

In October, made eighteen flannel shirts, which were given to the 
Santee Artillery, Capt. Gaillard ; also six pairs woolen socks. 

60 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

There was also distributed, at different times, sufficient yarn for 
one hundred and sixty-five pairs of socks, and twenty-two pairs of 
socks were sent to the Eutaw Volunteers, Capt. Porcher. 

There were also given thirty-six pairs of socks, at another time, 
to the Santee Artillery. 

Previous to the 9th of November, there were sixteen coats and 
seventeen pairs of pants made for Eutaw Volunteers. 

November 23, 1861. — The association met this day at the Rocks, 
when it was resolved that this asociation withdraw from the Charles- 
ton Association. The sixth rule was amended so as to read as 
follows : 

There shall be both paying and working members. The paying 
members to contribute 25 cents at each regular meeting, and all mem- 
bers to be fined 10 cents for absence from any regular meeting with- 
out sufficient excuse. 

On the 20th inst., yarn for fifteen pairs of socks was sent to 
Charleston. Since the last meeting there have been made by the 

association coats, pants, and twenty-two flannel shirts for 

Eutaw Volunteers. 

November 30, 1861. — An extra meeting of the association held at 
Numertia to take into consideration the propriety of getting up ar- 
ticles for use of hospital in our State. Donations for the above were 
received as follows : Two pairs sheets and twelve pillow-cases from 
Mrs. H. Gourdin and Mr. James Gaillard ; also cloth sufficient for 
four comforts and two shirts from Miss C. Gaillard. 

Since the last meeting, twelve flannel shirts have been made for 
the Eutaw Volunteers, and nine hanks of wool have been sent to 
Charleston, to be knit into socks and gloves. 

December 21, 1861. — Association met at Wampee. The following 
donations were received : Eight pillows from Mrs. T. W. Porcher, 
six pillows from Mrs. J. Gaillard, and one comfort from Mrs. T. T. 
Gourdin. Twenty-seven scarfs and sixteen pairs of socks were given 
to the Santee Artillery, Capt. Gaillard. 

January 4, 1862. — The association met at Walnut Grove. An 
appeal was made by the Charleston Association for articles of 
clothing for soldiers from Eastern Virginia. 

The following work was done for the Santee Artillery, viz. : Thirty 
flannel shirts and eleven pairs of drawers. 

The following articles, contributions from members of the asso- 
ciation, were sent to the hospital at McPhersonville, viz. : One tureen, 
six dishes, twenty-six plates, one teapot, four coffeepots, four hot 
plates, five ladles, forty teacups, sixty-three saucers, eight mugs, two 

Eutawville Aid Association. 6i 

basins, three chambers, two covered jars, five milk pots, one jug 
vinegar, one phial red pepper, one bag flaxseed, eight sheets, ten 
comforts, forty-five pillow-cases, nineteen pillows, two shirts, eight 
pairs slippers, six handkerchiefs, rug. 

Miss Jane Melford joined the association. 

January 18, 1862. — Association met at Pond Bluff. Miss Cler- 
mont Gaillard joined the association, and Mrs. Sydney Kirk with- 
drew her name from the association. 

February 1, 1862. — Association met at Eutaw. 

February 15, 1862. — Association met at Belvedere. The following 
articles were sent to Mrs. Dr. W. Snowden for the use of a Georgia 
regiment, viz. : Twenty-five shirts, sixteen pairs drawers, fifty pairs 
socks, and two pairs gloves. 

March 1, 1862. — Association met at Walworth. Letters were 
read acknowledging the receipt of things sent to the Georgia regi- 
ment through the Soldiers' Relief Association of Charleston. 

March 22, 1862. — Association met at Numertia. 

April 12, 1862. — Association met at the Rocks. A note of thanks 
from Captain Porcher's company (Tenth Regiment), for an offer of 
socks, was read, in which they declined receiving them, as they were 
well supplied at that time. Forty-four pairs socks were sent to the 
Holcombe Legion. 

April 26, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. P. C. Hicks'. 

May 24, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. J. Gaillard's. 

June 7, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. T. W. Porcher's. 

Mrs. W. Sinkler having resigned as president, Mrs. C. Gaillard 
was elected in her place. 

Mrs. F. M. Dwight and Miss Alice Gaillard were elected members 
of the association. 

June 21, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. Palmer's. 

Miss C. S. Gaillard and Mrs. H. M. Boyan were elected members. 
A letter from Mrs. Snowden, calling on the ladies, was read, and the 
association determined to send such things as were wanted for the 

July 5, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. W. Sinkler's. 

The following donations were made to the association for the 
hospitals, viz. : Mrs. C. Palmer, four sheets, four pillow-cases, bundle 
of rags; Mrs. C. Sinkler, bundle of rags; Mrs. James Gaillard, eight 
sheets, thirteen pillow-cases, two counterpanes, one tablecloth, bundle 
of rags ; Mrs. C. J. Snowden, five bottles red pepper, bundle of rags, 

62 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

two bags sago, one bottle of wine ; Mrs. K. Simons Jr., one counter- 
pane ; Mrs. T. W. Porcher, seven counterpanes, bundle of rags, six 
bottles of wine; Mrs. C. Gaillard, two sheets, one counterpane; Miss 
C. S. Gaillard, four sheets, two counterpanes, two pillow-cases, 
bundle of rags. 

The following articles were sent from the association for hospitals : 
Eight bottles medicated blackberry, two jars blackberry jelly, five 
bottles red pepper, two bags sago, and forty- four chickens. 

July 19, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. K. Simons'. 

August 16, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. C. Gaillard's. 

Mrs. T. W. Porcher offered a resolution that in future any one, 
not a member of this association, applying for work should be fur- 
nished with the same; which was agreed to. 

August 30, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. Gourdin's. 

The following contributions were made to the hospital in Charles- 
ton : Mrs. C. C. Palmer, fifteen fowls and one and one-half dozen 
eggs ; Mrs. Gourdin, four dozen eggs, and butter ; Mrs. T. W. 
Porcher, ten dozen eggs, okra, and butter ; Mrs. C. Sinkler, twelve 

September 13, 1862. — The following contributions were made to 
the hospital in Charleston : Mrs. C. Sinkler, four pounds butter, and 
one dozen eggs ; Mrs. T. W. Porcher, one jar lard, and bundle corn- 
starch ; Miss Alice Gaillard, six fowls ; Mrs. Simons, one dozen eggs, 
and bag okra ; Mrs. C. C. Palmer, four dozen eggs, one bushel grits, 
and seven fowls. 

October 11, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. T. W. Porcher's. 
Mrs. Gourdin resigned. 

October 25, 1862. — Association forwarded to the Soldiers' Relief 
Association, of Charleston, one hundred and thirty-nine shirts, the 
same having been made from material furnished by that association. 

The following articles received from the ladies and gentlemen of 
Eutawville were sent to Mrs. Snowden, in Charleston, for the Chim- 
borazo Hospital, near Richmond, Va., viz. : Mrs. C. Gaillard, four 
bottles wine ; Mrs. Gourdin, four bottles wine ; Miss Alice Gaillard, 
two bottles wine, and two pounds starch ; Mrs. T. W. Porcher, one 
dozen wine, four pounds corn and potato starch ; Dr. Jos. Palmer, 
two dozen wine ; Mr. J. Gaillard, one dozen wine, and two bottles red 
pepper. Also two dozen blackberry syrup, made by the association. 
(Mr. J. J. Cross, four pairs woolen socks, a donation to this associa- 

November 15, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. T. W. Porcher's. 

The Work at Grahamville. 63 

Received since last meeting, one bushel rice, and three bottles red 
pepper, for Chimborazo Hospital, from Mrs. Simons. 

November 29, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. C. Gaillard's. 

Mrs. P. C. Kirk withdrew from association, and Mrs. A. L. 
Sinkler and Miss Deas Sinkler were elected members. 

December 13, 1862. — Association met at Mrs. Chas. Sinkler's. 

January 19, 1863. — Association met at Mrs. Simons'. 

Sent to Captain Furlis' company, Twenty-first South Carolina 
Regiment, sixty shirts, sixty pairs drawers, and sixty pairs socks. 

February 14, 1863. — Association met at Seagewood. 

Sent to Captain Land's company, South Carolina Regi- 
ment, sixty shirts, six pairs drawers, three pairs socks. 

List of members of Eutawville Association : 

Mrs. T. W. Porcher. H. P. Gourdin. Miss Alice A. Gaillard. 

S. H. Kirk. E. A. Gaillard. Mrs. F. M. Dwight. 

S. M. Kirk. M. L. Scott. Mrs. H. M. Bryan. 

W. Sinkler. Emily Sinkler. M. C. Allen. 

C. C. Palmer. Lizzie Sinkler. A. L. Sinkler. 

L. C. Gaillard. Miss Jane Melford. Deas Sinkler. 

Mrs. L. F. Guerry. Miss Clermona Gaillard. E. K. Simons. 

In the Record Book of the Eutawville Aid Association there are 
several pages of beautifully kept accounts, running from July 31, 
1 86 1, to February 14, 1863. These accounts include all purchases, 
the dues of members, and many donations, among others, from "the 
Communion Alms, through the Rev. R. Johnson." 

Woman's WorR at Grahamville. 

Letter from Miss S. S. Seabrook, 1901. 

"In reply to your questions, * * * I was president of our clothing 
society, and vice-president of our hospital committee. 

"We had three regiments on our hands to care for — two from 
North Carolina, Colonel Clingman's, and the Eighteenth North 
Carolina Regiment, Colonel Radcliffe — also one from Georgia, 
Colonel Gibson. * * * The North Carolina regiments, especially 
Clingman's, had a great deal of sickness — measles and typhoid fever. 
I visited the hospitals daily, assisted in nursing, and furnished such 
nourishment as was needed and could not be had in camp. 

"We furnished all clothing needed — and it was sadly needed in- 
deed ! We knitted socks, and we had showered on us the blessings 
of the well, as well as of the convalescent. 

"I cut up my best wool mattress for Colonel Radcliffe's hospital. 

64 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"The ladies of our community ably assisted Mrs. Johnson and 
myself in our work. Mrs. Johnson was the head of our hospital 
committee. She was the wife of the lieutenant-colonel of Cling- 
man's regiment. 

"(Signed) S. S. Seabrook." a 

Woman's WorR at Camden. 

Letter from Miss Emma C. Reynolds, 1901. 

I have in my possession papers relating to "The Ladies' Aid As- 
sociation," of Camden. They belonged to my aunt, Miss Sally 

The association was organized in 1861. Miss Harriet Chesnut 
Grant was the first president. I cannot find the list of the other 
officers of that time. 

In January, 1862, the following officers were elected : 

Miss Sally Chesnut, President. 

Mrs. Walker, Vice-President. 

Miss Louisa Salmond, Treasurer. 

Miss Emma C. Reynolds, Secretary. 

The secretary resigned on June 25, 1862, and Miss Harriet Lang 
was appointed in her place. 

The letters from different officers show that quantities of clothes, 
supplies and comforts of all kinds were sent to the soldiers in the 
army and in the hospital. 

There is a list of the members of the association. 

On March 12, 1862, the association decided to establish the "Sol- 
diers' Rest." "The ladies and a committee of gentlemen are to have 
a general supervision. They are to furnish the room, provide nurses 
when they are needed, and meet whatever expenses may be in- 

I remember well that Mrs. Katherine Lee took special super- 
vision of "the Soldiers' Rest." 

My aunt, Miss Sally Chesnut, I am sure, continued to be presi- 
dent of the association until the end of the war. Her heart was in 
it, and her interest never flagged. 

"Miss Bouney was appointed treasurer of the 'Soldiers' Rest'." 

With the book of the association are many letters from soldiers. 

(Signed) Emma C. Reynolds. 

The Work at Camden. 65 

Letter from Mrs. John Johnson, 1901. 

■* * * What 1 am writing is from memory. 

* * * Miss Harriet Grant was president of the Aid Association 
of Camden a part of the time, and was very active and energetic. 
Another officer was Miss Louisa Salmond, who, with steadfast de- 
votion, had rare good judgment. 

We had quite a number of members, some of the refugees among 
them — Miss Elliott and the Misses Stuart, of Beaufort, S. C. I 
know much work was done. 

We sent off boxes to the companies from Kershaw County, or 
District, as it was then called, supplying them with shirts, drawers, 
socks, etc. I also know we made pants, coats, caps, overcoats, haver- 
sacks. I think most of the material for these outer garments came 
from the quartermaster's department. 

I recall some overcoats we made for the cavalry — brown, with 
yellow cording. 

Boxes were sent to the hospitals of such stores as the housewives 
could give — usually comforts, blankets, pillows and cases, rags, 
blackberry wine, dried fruits, and anything useful. * * * 

When one of the last boxes was to be sent to Richmond, four 
ladies from the society were sent from house to house to gather up 
what could be gleaned, even to a string of red peppers. 

Two of the ladies took the town — Miss Brevard and I were given 
Kirkwood and Hobkirk, suburbs of Camden, and we took two days, 
each day returning with the large family carriage filled with valuable 
things much needed in the hospitals. Besides these boxes, fresh 
vegetables were sent through the society to the hospitals in Charles- 
ton — at one time during the summer as often as once a week. 

During the early part of the war, Camden being only the terminus 
of the railroad, we did not find the need of a Soldiers' Rest, but later 
on, sick and returning soldiers had to be provided for, and such a 
place was arranged, being under the control of the ladies living near 
enough to look after it. 

We were often applied to, more especially by soldiers from my 
brother's (Captain Cantey) company, and they were never turned 
away without food and shelter from my mother's house. 

(Signed) C. Floride Johnson. 


South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

List of members of the Kershaw Ladies' Aid Association, formed 
in July, 1861, and lasting until the close of the war: 

From the book of the Association, in possession of Miss C. C. Reynolds. 

Mrs. Elliott. 
Mrs. Goodwyn. 
Miss Harriet C. Grant. 
Miss Gatewood. 
Mrs. S. H. Hay. 
Miss Fanny Hay. 
Miss Esther S. Reynolds. 
Mrs. Wm. M. Shannon. 
Miss Mattie Shannon. 
Miss Harriet Shannon. 
Mrs. A. C. Salmond. 
Mrs. T. W. Salmond. 
Miss Louisa Salmond. 
Mrs. Paul Trapier. 
Miss Sarah Trapier. 
Miss Mary Trapier. 
Miss Zoe Trapier. 
Miss Valk. 
Mrs. L. L. Whitaker. 
Miss M. J. Whitaker. 
Miss H. Whitaker. 
Miss Ellen Whitaker. 
Miss Sally Whitaker. 
Miss Lenoir. 
Mrs. H. Oppenheim. 
Mrs. George Reynolds. 
Miss Ellen C. Reynolds. 

Copy of letter from Stephen Elliott, in possession of Miss Reynolds. 

Fort Sumter, January 4, 1864. 
Richard E. Screven, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Allow me, in behalf of the garrison of this fort, to 
return thanks for the most bountiful present of luxuries sent to us, 
through yon, by the ladies of Camden. 

Even the fair donors themselves can scarcely understand the full 
extent of the pleasure it gives us to receive such tokens of female 
interest and sympathy. You can assure them that while we are in- 
vigorated by the good cheer thus spread before us we are made 
doubly strong in spirit to defend those who thus remember us. 

I am very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

Stephen Elliott Jr. 

Miss Reynolds has many other letters referring to the work of this 

Mrs. T. J. "Ancrum. 

Mrs. Antony Kennedy. 

Miss Ancrum. 

Mrs. Robt. Kennedy. 

Miss Ellen Ancrum. 

Miss Eliza Lee. 

Miss Harriet Boykin. 

Mrs. Joseph Lee. 

Miss M. L. Boykin. 

Mrs. A. M. Lee. 

Miss Charlotte Boykin. 

Miss Maggie Lee. 

Miss M. McRa Boykin. 

Mrs. Ben Lee. 

Mrs. Bouney. 

Miss Susan Lang. 

Miss S. Bouney. 

Mrs. Leitner. 

Miss Barnwell. 

Miss Levy. 

Mrs. H. W. Conner. 

Miss M. E. Donald. 

Mrs. H. W. Conner Jr. 

Miss McCaa. 

Mrs. Chesnut. 

Miss Julia Oppenheim. 

Miss Sally Chesnut. 

Miss Emma C. Reynolds. 

Mrs. J. Cantey. 

Mrs. Louis DeSaussure. 

Miss Floride Cantey. 

Miss Octavia DeSaussure 

Mrs. Deas. 

Miss Fannie DeSaussure. 

Miss Meta Deas. 

Mrs. Thomas F. Davis. 

Mrs. John DeSaussure. 

Mrs. Thos. F. Davis Jr. 

Mrs. H. W. DeSaussure. 

Miss A. E. Davis. 

Miss Holmes. 

Miss Sally Davis. 

Miss Habersham. 

Mrs. James M. Davis. 

Miss Emma Holmes. 

Mrs. Dunlap. 

Miss Eliza Holmes. 

Miss Dunlap. 

Miss Rebecca Holmes. 

Mrs. Alfred Doby. 

Mrs. W. E. Johnson. 

Mrs. Sally DeSaussure. 

Mrs. Robt. Johnson. 

Mrs. Wm. Depass. 

Bethany Hospital. 67 

Bethany Hospital and Soldiers' Aid Association, 
Edgefield County, S. C 

Paper by Mrs. C. P. Poppenheim, written 1901. 

In the month of June, 1861, a number of ladies of Bethany Church, 
Edgefield County, S. C, met at Bouknight's Ferry, on Saluda River, 
at the home of Mr. William Bouknight, and there organized a society 
for the aid of our soldiers in camp and the sick in the hospitals. 

The following constitution was adopted : 

Whereas, Many of our soldiers are laid low by the hand of dis- 
ease, and thereby prevented from attending to the necessary duties 
which are so essential to the protection and welfare of our beloved 
and common country, and as it is a duty binding upon us to furnish 
all necessary articles, and aid, which are in any way conducive to the 
welfare of our soldiers ; therefore, 

Resolved, First. That we, the ladies of this community, near and 
about Bethany Church, do sympathize deeply with our sick soldiers. 

Second. That we form ourselves into an association, known and 
distinguished by the name of Bethany Hospital and Soldiers' Aid 

Third. That the principal object of this association be for the im- 
mediate relief of the sick soldiers from our midst, and then our 
service be indiscriminately favored to all weary soldiers in our 

Fourth. That this association be organized by appointing officers, 
viz. : President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer. 

Fifth. That each member of this association pay into the hands of 
the treasurer a certain sum, concluded upon by the association, for 
the purpose of purchasing medicine and all other necessary articles 
which the society feels it in their power to purchase. 

Sixth. That each member be punctual in attending the meetings, 
which shall be monthly, or oftener, if the president deems it neces- 

The following officers were elected : 
President — Mrs. W. Abney. 
Vice-President — Mrs. Geo. Long. 
Secretary — Miss Louisa M. Bouknight. 
Treasurer — Miss Mary E. Bouknight. 
General Manager — Mrs. G. D. Huiet. 

68 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 


Mrs. H. Livingston. Mrs. Wm. Merchant. Miss E. H. Huiet. 

Mrs. S. Smith. Mrs. C. Perry. Mrs. J. Berry. 

Mrs. S. Coppock. Mrs. M. Gilder. Mrs. G. Rutherford. 

Miss Mary Livingston. Mrs. A. Coleman. Mrs. J. Abney. 

Mrs. John Miller. Mrs. T. D. Purifoy. Mrs. M. Long. 

Mrs. B. Culbreath. Mrs. D. Smith. Mrs. J. Schumpert. 

Mrs. W. Strother. Mrs. Wm. Clark. Mrs. W. Clary. 

This association met every two weeks, each member bringing their 
contributions, and when sufficient had accumulated, large boxes were 
packed and shipped by way of Newberry Courthouse, ten miles dis- 
tant, to R. W. Barnwell Jr., Charlottesville, Va. 

The Charleston Tri-Weekly Courier of August and September, 
1861, has letters published acknowledging the receipt of these boxes, 
containing shirts, drawers, socks, pants and coats, handkerchiefs, 
vests, dressing-gowns, slippers, sheets and pillow-cases, pillows, 
blankets, comforts, towels, counterpanes, bandages and rags, tea, 
coffee, sugar, preserves, brandy, wine, cordial, whiskey, porter and 
ale, cologne, lemon syrup, sage and tapioca, arrowroot, cornstarch, 
mustard and flaxseed, ginger and nutmeg, rice and rice flour, basins 
and pans, cups and saucers, coffee and teapots, knives and forks, 
plates and dishes, fans, brooms, cards and brushes, bowls and mugs, 
soap, and starch, gelatine and isinglass, Bibles and tracts and other 
books, bedticking, pickles, butter. Cigars, tobacco and pipes were 
also sent. One good mother said : "By all means let our boys have 
their tobacco, pipes, and cigars." 

Loving hands knit socks and gloves during the long, anxious 
hours, awaiting news from the battlefield in Virginia. 

Homespun garments, all spun, dyed and woven, cut and made on 
the plantation, were brought in large packages, to be sent to the 
needy soldiers. 

This devoted work went cheerfully on during the long and anxious 
days that our loved ones in camp were exposed to so many dangers ; 
nor did it cease until the desolation of Sherman's march through 
South Carolina and the destroying of the railroads by Sherman's 
men put a stop to all transportation. 

Mary Bouknight Poppenheim, 
(Mrs. C. P. Poppenheim,) 

Charleston, S. C. 

March 20, 1901. 

The Work at Abbeville. 69 

'Woman's WorK at Abbeville. 

Written by Mrs. Joseph Marshall, 1901. 

A society was formed in Abbeville to send supplies to soldiers in 
our army. Mrs. Armstead Burt was the President ; Mrs. Thomas 
Perrin, Vice-President. Two ladies were appointed each week to 
send a box of clothing, provisions and comforts for the sick and 

A knitting society was formed, Mrs. J. W. Marshall, President ; 
Mrs. W. H. Parker, Vice-President. 

About fifty pairs of socks were sent away every two weeks. 

In 1865, a hospital was fixed up for the sick and wounded passing 
through Abbeville, which was then the most direct route west. Mrs. 
Robert Wardlaw was the president. 

Two ladies met each train that came in, and if the soldiers were 
too sick to go on, they were cared for in the hospital. If they were 
able to go on, a hack was furnished, often to Washington and El- 
berton, Georgia, a distance of thirty and forty miles. 

Twenty soldiers died here and were buried in the Episcopal 
Churchyard, and at Long Cane Cemetery. 

After the war, Mrs. Samuel McGowan and Mrs. J. W. Marshall 
got up an entertainment, the proceeds of which were used to mark 
each grave with a marble upright piece at head and foot. 

One soldier came with smallpox. He was taken to a vacant house 
near Magazine Hill. A negro man, who had had the disease, nursed 
him, and others did all they could, but in a few days he died, never 
able to tell his name. He was buried near the house in which he 
died, and a cedar tree, planted by a little girl, is all that marks the 
resting place of, no doubt, a true and brave soldier. 

At Calhoun Mills, Abbeville District, a society was formed, with 
Mrs. M. C. Tilman as president. 

All supplies were sent to her home, where they were packed and 
sent to Abbeville — twelve miles — to be shipped on the railroad. 

True and patriotic old farmers sent all they could think of — 
provisions and clothing, and all sorts of herbs — for the sick. One 
old man brought two immense slippery elm trees. At first, he was 
laughed at, but Mrs. Tilman said it was the very thing for the 
wounded. She set the little negroes to work to take off the rough 
bark, and tie up the soft inside into small bundles and, with two 
days' work, four large bales were sent to Virginia. The surgeon 
wrote saying that nothing had ever done more good, and begging 
that thev would send all that could be had. 

jo South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Letter from Mrs. L. C. Haskell, 1901. 

There was a society ten miles west of Abbeville, at Monterey. 
Mrs. Squire Giles, Mrs. Haskell, and Mrs. Tilman were promi- 
nent members and, I think, officers. 

Correspondence of Mrs. M. A. Snowden. 

In possession of Mrs. Yates Snowden. 

We have had the privilege of looking over a number of letters to 
Mrs. Snowden, Vice-President of the Soldiers' Relief Association 
of Charleston, which, in the absence of other papers of that society, 
would show how thorough and far-reaching was its work. Un- 
fortunately, these letters are but a small part of her correspondence, 
the rest having been destroyed or lost at the time of the earthquake, 
in 1886. 

That the sick and wounded were cared for is proved by letters 
from many Confederate surgeons, either asking for or acknowledg- 
ing assistance. 

We find a letter from Dr. Simon Baruch, of the Confederate 
Hospital at Rikersville, giving directions for collecting and pre- 
serving medicinal herbs. 

Letters from Dr. W. C. Ravenel, Surgeon of Hagood's Brigade, 
in Virginia; and Dr. E. M. Seabrook, of Chimborazo Hospital, 
Richmond, acknowledging stimulants. 

November 10, 1862. — A letter from Dr. J. F. M. Geddings, at 
Adams Run, acknowledges bedding, etc. 

November, 1862. — Dr. M. S. Moore writes from Fort Sumter 
about chickens sent. 

April 10, 1863. — Dr. E. Ravenel Jr., house physician of the 
Roper Hospital, writes to ask for one sour orange for a very ill 

There are letters from Dr. J. W. Bowen, of Chimborazo Hos- 
pital, Richmond ; Dr. A. G. Lane, surgeon-in-charge of Wmder 
Hospital, Richmond ; Dr. Lebby and Dr. Ogier, of Charleston 

August, 1862. — Dr. Thomas S. Thompson, Assistant Surgeon 
Sixth Battalion of Cavalry of South Carolina, at Chisholmsville. 

December, 1864. — Dr. F. Peyre Porcher, at Danville; Dr. P. 
Gervais Robinson, Surgeon of McGowan's Brigade. 

April, 1864.— Dr. Post, of Summerville Hospital; Dr. R. W. 
Gibbes ; Dr. S. H. Sanders, Boykin's Depot ; all speaking of help 
received or looked for. 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 71 

Among these letters is one from Mr. Robert Gourdin, referring 
to citric acid he has sent to make cool drinks for the sick and 

The Rev. E. T. Winkler, Post Chaplain, writes in the name of 
Mrs. Osborn, at the Citadel Square Hospital, for brandy for typhoid 

There are letters from officers and privates, asking for or return- 
ing thanks for every sort of article, from uniforms to "a few ground- 
nuts" — or a clothes boiler, which was very much needed, by T. B. 
Collins, Steward of the First Georgia Hospital. 

To supply these demands, contributions were sent from far and 
near. Many of the letters referred to are written on scraps of 
paper, and are without dates. Some, however, are dated. 

September, 1 861. —On this date, Mrs. or Miss C. Porcher sends 
one hundred pairs of drawers and forty pairs of pants, evidently 
work done by a society at Eutawville. She begs that no more 
work will be sent them at present, they having on hand a large 
number of pantaloons for Hampton's Legion. 

November 25, 1864. — That the children were not idle or indif- 
ferent is shown by a letter from Gen. Robert E. Lee, at Petersburg, 
returning thanks to the following young people for a "sojer kitchen" 
sent to him : 

Master Gilbert Tennant. Master J. Yates Snow- Miss Aimy Burgess. 

Master L. M. Stoney. den. Miss Clara Cheesebor- 

Master C. S. Mathieson. Miss Flora Mathieson. ough. 

Master W. C. Fisher. Miss May Snowden. Miss Annie Mordecai. 

A letter, without date, evidently the summer of 1861, from Miss 
S. S. Seabrook, of Grahamville, is as follows : 

"We have been working diligently all summer for the soldiers, 
and have already sent a cmantity of haversacks. As soon as the 
news of the battle reached us, we sent on two large, valuable boxes 
for the wounded, and $200.00. 

"Our officers are: Mrs. Tracey, President; Miss S. S. Seabrook, 
Vice-President; Miss Phoebe Morrall, Secretary; Mrs. T. C. 
Screven, Treasurer." 

She goes on to speak of special work for the "Beaufort Troop." 

March 4, 1863. — There is a letter from W. States Lee, at Granite- 
ville, addressed to Dr. Bachman, and sending $10, "from my daugh- 
ters," for the suffering soldiers. 

January 25, 1863. — We see a donation of cottonseed coffee. 
Also a letter from Mrs. George Robertson, at Pendleton, speaking 

72 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of a wayside hospital there "for the many wounded passing from 

October 6, 1863. — Miss Louisa Mcintosh sends from Society 
Hill donations for hospitals, to Dr. Bachman. 

Mrs. or Miss M. J. C. Witherspoon, of Society Hill, sends com- 
forts, etc. 

Mrs. E. C. Porcher, Walnut Grove, sends yarn, and directions 
for spinning. 

Miss Mary E. Boykin, of Boykin's Turnout, writes to say that 
she has sent potatoes and flour. 

October, 1862. — Miss Nannie Perroneau writes from Anderson, 
sending "yarn made from scraps of shawls, cut up, carded, and 
spun with cotton." 

A. N. S., of Pinopolis, sends a long list of articles sent, among 
others, shirts made from curtains. 

A. Ravenel sends from Hampton "a sum of money — the result 
of raffling a dress." 

November 18, 1862. — Mrs. Susan Lee writes from Camden, send- 
ing sixty-five shirts, made by her household. She speaks of getting 
soap made. 

October, 1862. — A. S. Caldwell writes from Statesburg, sending 
articles for hospital, and saying that she could not get the eggs 
and chickens desired, for love or money. 

Miss Marianne Porcher sends gloves for soldiers. Another letter 
from her mentions forty-two pairs of gloves, "the work of four of 
the family, and the overseer's wife." She speaks of their society 
being very busy, having made seventy pairs of pants for the Legion, 
thirty-five coats for the Island Company, and twenty suits for the 
Eutaw Company ; but says they will not stop work while the war 

October 30, 1862. — The ladies of Temperance Hill send to Dr. 
Bachman a long list of articles sent by them for the hospitals. 

Mrs. Christopher Gadsden (M. M. Gadsden) writes, sending 
from Mr. Gadsden a prayer and hymn, "probably to be used in a 
little book of prayer that was published by the Ladies' Tract So- 
ciety," copies of which are extant. 

September 15, 1862. — Mrs. L. C. King, of Perry, Ga., reports 
the condition of a wounded soldier, and says the neighborhood is 
getting quite independent, making their own cloth, syrup, shoes, and 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 73 

There is a long list of men of the Seventh South Carolina Bat- 
talion to whom were given shirts and socks. 

M. Gregg, of Kalmia, S. G, refers in a letter to Mrs. McMeekin, 
of Fairfield, who made all the shoes for herself and five children. 
Mrs. McMeekin sends a pair of these shoes to put in a box that was 
to be sent to England. 

Miss Virginia Quattlebaum sent a palmetto hat, made by herself; 
and Mrs. Chappell, a pair of silk gloves, made from her own silk- 
worms. Mrs. Gregg sends, in the same box, a doll, dressed, in 
homespun, as a Confederate lady. 

October 25, 1862. — A letter, dated at Greenville, from Mrs. Anne 
E. Hume to her man-servant in Charleston, directs him to give to 
Dr. Bachman, for the soldiers, four mattresses, a carpet and a rug. 

The letter begins "My dear Will," and closes with these words: 
"Remember me kindly to all. I often think of and pray for you 
all, and trust, God willing, we may all meet in peace in our beloved 
home once more, but if not, that we may meet in Heaven. 
"Your attached friend and mistress, 

"Anne E. Hume." 

January 5, 186 — . — A letter from Rosa Barnwell reports all doing 
well at the Trapman Street Hospital, Charleston ; that the visiting 
ladies were very attentive, and that they had had a good Christmas 
dinner for the patients. 

A footnote by Mrs. Snowden says that Rosa Barnwell was a 
colored woman, in entire charge of bedding, etc., at Trapman Street 

August 22, 1861. — W. W. Harlee writes from Marsh Bluff, say- 
ing that nine military companies had gone from Marion District, 
and that every mother, sister, relative and friend among the women 
had gone to work to supply their wants, and those of other soldiers. 
Mrs. W. W. Harlee was president of the Soldiers' Aid Society. 

There are many letters from Miss Elizabeth P. Huger, from 
Society Hill, always speaking of work and help for soldiers in the 
field or hospital. 

There are long lists of articles sent from the ladies of St. John's, 
The Barrows, Charleston, Eutawville, Society Hill. These lists 
mention every imaginable article, but "curtain shirts" figure largely. 

Letters mention articles sent and work done by Mrs. Gatewood, 
Miss R. Holmes, Miss Fannie DeSaussure, Miss Sue Screven, and 
Mrs. Bachman. 

74 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

November, 1862. — Mrs. W. K. Bachman writes from Columbia, 
giving prices of woolen yarns, and going into details showing that 
she was giving much attention to the work of spinning and weaving. 

October 13, 1862. — Miss Sue Perroneau, in a letter from Ander- 
son, S. C, asks where she can get the wool of a mattress spun and 
woven into cloth for soldiers. She also asks where thread and 
buttons could possibly be bought, and mentions that the Anderson 
ladies have just raised three hundred dollars for soldiers' shoes. 

Mrs. L. Porcher sends her curtains to be made into shirts, and 
says she "shivers" as she thinks of "our poor soldiers." 

August 12, 1863. — Mrs. Annie Mathews writes from Walterboro 
of valuable boxes and money sent by the Ladies' Association of that 
place. She refers to Wayside Homes Nos. 1 and 2 ; also to cooked 
food to be sent to Battery Wagner, "where the suffering is intense," 
of men shut up in the heat, without fresh air, and with no way of 
preparing food. 

November 19. — There is a letter from Thomas Wagner, Major 
commanding at Fort Sumter, asking that two hundred yards of 
worsted goods be made up into cartridge bags. 

And a note from Dr. Bachman asking Mr. Peake, Superintendent 
of the South Carolina Railroad, for a pass for himself and Mrs. 
Snowden, who were endeavoring to establish wayside hospitals at 
Branchville and Kingville. 

March 17, 1863. — A letter of this date speaks of tea at $6.50 per 

There are letters from wounded men, and from mothers and 
widows of soldiers. One woman begs to know if her dying hus- 
band said anything about her and the children, and returns thanks 
for money sent her. 

M. E. Y. Powelson, Secretary of Ladies' Hospital Association, 
of Plantersville, returns thanks for offers of help. 

October 28, 1862. — E. E. Porcher, Director of Eutawville Aid 
Association, sends a list of stores sent by the people of Eutawville — 
among other articles, four and one-half dozen of Madeira wine. 
She deplores the scarcity of wool and cards. 

That the churches, too, gave their help is shown by letters from 
Mr. J. K. Sass. In one, which bears no date, he sends $110.00, a 
collection taken up in St. Michael's Church for the relief of sick 
and wounded soldiers. 

May 4, 1864. — In another, Mr. Sass sends $67.90, from the Com- 
munion Alms of old St. Andrew's Church, in St. Andrew's Parish, 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 75 

for the use of the Ladies' Relief Association. This money had 
been handed to him by the Rev. Mr. Drayton. 

A little note says that "some of the ladies had been to visit the 
hospitals at Adams Run, in answer to an earnest appeal from Dr. 
Yates. They had done what they could for the comfort of the 
men, and had assisted in preparing the Confederate Hospital, under 
the care of Dr. P. Porcher, Medical Director, and Drs. Evans and 

July 26, 1 86 1. — Among the letters is a circular from the Soldiers' 
Relief Association, of Charleston, to all workers, asking that shirts 
for the wounded should be open all the way down, with strings. 
The sleeves should be made the same way. 

Many letters from various people in Nassau and Liverpool show 
the constant efforts to keep up the supplies of clothing, medicines, 
etc., for our soldiers. Among these correspondents are Messrs. 
Jervey and Miller, of Nassau ; Mr. John B. Lafitte, of Nassau ; M. 
M. Simpson, Secretary and Treasurer of a committee in Nassau, 
and Mr. James M. Calder, of Liverpool. There are also letters 
from Messrs. W. C. Bee & Co., of Charleston; and many from the 
Rev. Dr. Bachman show his untiring work in conjunction with the 
ladies in the hospitals. 

July 25, 1864. — General Beauregard writes from Petersburg, Va., 
sending thanks to the ladies of Charleston for a full suit of Con- 
federate uniform. 

Mrs. S. C. Williams sends eggs and vegetables. 

There is a little memorandum thus : 

"For the sick and wounded of our army : 

"Mrs. James Rose $100.00 

"A Confederate lady abroad 100.00 

"A gentleman 20.00" 

August 5, 1863. — Mrs. Anne F. Caldwell sends, from Statesburg, 

December 27, 1862. — Miss Eliza Hayne sends, from Barnwell, 
dried fruit, for soldiers in hospital — half to go to Richmond. 

July 28, 1863.— Mrs. Ed. W. Mathews, of Walterboro, $166.00, 
from the raffle of "Ermenie." 

76 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Correspondence of Mr. Richard Caldwell, 

Commissary-General of South Carolina. 

Correspondence and proceedings of Soldier's Relief Association, in possession of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy of Charleston. Given them by the daughter of Mr. 

Among the valued possessions of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy of Charleston are two books, in which have been preserved 
newspaper reports of the proceedings of the Soldiers' Relief Asso- 
ciation of Charleston, and letters referring to the business of that 
society. Some of these letters are addressed to Mr. Caldwell, others 
to the association. From them we gather a few items. 

August 16, 1861. — J. N. Maffitt, commanding Confederate States 
Steamer "Savannah," writes, asking for clothes "for the much-neg- 
lected sailors." 

August 21, 1861. — W. Gilmore Simms, in the name of the ladies 
of Midway, Barnwell District, sends contributions of supplies and 

August 23, 1 86 1. — In a letter from Charlottesville, to the associa- 
tion, the Rev. R. W. Barnwell, while thanking the ladies for what 
they have already done, says : "Remember that our hands are no 
longer nor stronger than you make them, and then you will feel that 
all we do is in your name, and to your credit. We simply disburse 
what your hearts suggest and your hands bestow." 

August 23, 1861. — A copy of a letter from Miss F. M. Blamyer 
and Miss L. S. Porter, Secretaries of the association, to Quarter- 
master L. M. Hatch, asking for work. 

September 14, 1861. — Miss Catherine H. Coffin writes to Mrs. 
Robertson, sending $20.00, part of proceeds of an afghan made by 
her, and raffled. 

A note, signed "Lizzie," encloses $90.00, the proceeds of the 
raffle of a piece of embroidery. 

In one of the weekly reports of the association, $2.50 is mentioned 
as "handed in by a clergyman as a legacy from a little girl who died 
last week," and, in dying, had begged that her gift should not be for- 

October 1, 1861. — Reference is made to a society of schoolgirls 
formed for the relief of soldiers. This society did its work in the 
intervals of study, and had already sent a box to Mr. Barnwell. 

Soldiers' Relief Association. yy 

The following women's associations are referred to: 

Auxiliary Association, Eutawville — 
Mrs. Wm. Sinkler, President. 
Mrs. Catherine Palmer, First Director. 
Mrs. Thos. W. Porcher, Second Director. 
Mrs. Jas. Gaillard, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Pineville Association — 

Mrs. Julius DuBose, President. 
Mrs. R. Couturier, First Director. 
Mrs. H. M. Snowden, Second Director. 

Grahamville Association — 

Miss S. S. Seabrook, President. 

Claremont Association — 

Miss E. Bradley, President. 

St. James Goosecreek — 

Mrs. Winter. 
Woodville Association. 
Hamburg Association. 

Associations of Camden, Johns Island, Orangeburg, Beaufort, 
Mechanicsville, Carmel (Aid Society), Anderson, Pine Grove, 
Cheraw, Kershaw (Vice-President, Mrs. Walker), Williston (things 
sent through Mrs. W. W. Graham), Legareville (things sent 
through Mrs. J. A. Fripp). 

There are also reports of valuable donations "from ladies of Sum- 
terville, Walhalla, Pendleton, Statesburg." Probably these ladies 
represented associations, but it is not so stated. 

September 23, 1861. — There is of this date a printed programme 
of an entertainment given in Charleston for the Soldiers' Relief As- 
sociation, by Messrs. Couturier and Reeves, and "a lady from 

Among the letters of great interest is one from Dr. J. J. Chisolm 
to the Soldiers' Relief Association, in which he says : "Should it 
be the intention of the association, as events progress, to establish 
hospitals for sick and wounded in Charleston, it will give me much 
pleasure to put at their disposal my private hospital in Trapman 
street, which, having all the necessary appurtenances, will make 
very comfortable quarters for from eighty to one hundred men." 

December 6, 186 1. — Dr. W. C. Horlbeck writes, inviting the ladies 
to come to the Marine Hospital, and suggesting the formation of 
visiting committees. 

78 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

In the association reports, we see that these committees were 
formed in the latter part of the year to visit at the Marine and Relief 

December 4, 1861. — There are many letters in this collection from 
officers of all ranks, among others one from Gen. R. E. Lee, from 
Coosawhatchie, where he was then stationed. 

Some of these are letters of thanks from captains of companies 
who have been helped, and are most touching, written, as they were, 
with the zeal and hopefulness of youth. 

Feb. 17, 1862. — A list is given of the visiting committee for Rikers- 
ville Hospital, Charleston, as follows : 

Mrs. H. W. Conner. Mme. Girard. Mrs. J. R. Robinson. 

Mrs. Isabella S. Snow- Miss Joye. Miss Toomer. 

den. Mrs. A. M. Lee. Miss Porter. 

Mrs. Dr. Carrere. Mrs. Dr. Roberts. Miss McKinsey. 

Mrs. C. Fitzsimmons. Mrs. Jas. R. Pringle. 

Mrs. Wm. Snowden. Mrs. Dr. Geiger. 

April 21, 1862. — The report of the Soldiers' Relief Association 
mentions the Soldiers' Relief Hospital, under the care of Dr. Wm. 
H. Huger; also speaks of committees visiting, almost daily, the 
Marine, Roper, and Rikersville Hospitals. 

This report also says that, at the meeting, members of the associa- 
tion had contributed $437.00 for the Ladies' Gunboat, and that Miss 
C. P. Chapman had sent eleven surgical pads, made of carded hemp 

A pathetic item of this report is the acknowledgement of the re- 
ceipt from Dr. Leslie Owen of the uniform of his deceased son, late 
sergeant of the Washington Artillery. 

May 2, 1862. — There is another programme of an entertainment 
given for the Soldiers' Relief Association. This was a soiree 
musicale, and the performers were Miss North, Miss Petit (now 
Mme. Barbot), Miss Walter (now Mrs. W. J. McCormack), Mrs. 
Warley, and Mr. Walker. 

May 5, 1862. — Miss Hester T. Drayton, President of the Ladies' 
Clothing Association, writes to Mrs. Robertson that, being about to 
move from Charleston, she sends to the Soldiers' Relief Association 
the clothes and materials belonging to her society. She congratu- 
lates the Relief Association on the success of their work, and prays 
for the "blessing of God on our cause." 

The Work at Columbia. 79 

Women's Activities at the Capital. 

1 86 1. — Columbia, our State Capital, was not laggard in working 
for the soldiers. 

Early in the summer of 1861, a Soldiers' Relief Association was 
formed there, of which Mrs. David J. (Louisa S.) McCord was the 
first President. This association met first, and for some time, at 
Gracey's store, in Main Street — afterwards at Kinsler's Hall, and 
later at the chapel of the Theological Seminary. The Seminary 
was then emptied of its students, and gave a home to many low- 
country refugees. 

Much work was done free, as well as that done for the quarter- 
master, for which pay was received. This pay work was given to 
the wives of poor soldiers, many of whom would walk into town to 
get it, long distances from the neighboring sandhills. On one 
occasion, a young woman begged that she might be given work for 
a certain company, of which her husband was a member. A gar- 
ment was handed her with the kindly but jesting speech, "I shouldn't 
wonder if that were for him now." As the poor thing opened the 
parcel, she saw, sewed to the garment, a little tag, put there by the 
tailor, with the name of her husband. She began to cry pitifully, 
and there were few dry eyes about her. 

Mrs. Campbell Bryce's Reminiscences. 

Mrs. Bryce recalls Mrs. Parker and her daughter Lena, Mrs. G. 
M. Goodwin, Mrs. Nurse, Mrs. Beard, as faithful in this work, as 
well as many others whose names she cannot remember. 

Others mentioned to us Mrs. Howe, Mrs. James P. Adams, two 
Mrs. Bryces, Mrs. Reynolds, Mrs. Fisher, Mrs. Bachman, Misses 
Elmore, Miss LaBorde, Misses Goodwyn, Mrs. Jeff Goodwyn, 
Misses Stark, Miss Lucy Green, Mrs. Macfie, Misses Reynolds, 
and Palmer, as earnest workers, either in this association or others. 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor. 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor says : "At Gracey's store, I remember 'cut- 
ting out' with Mrs. Samuel Beard, Mrs. Rufus Johnston, and Miss 
Louisa Graeser." 

Mrs. J. P. Adams. Letter written 1901. 

Another member says : 'Tn those days, we had no sewing ma- 
chines, and the work was done by ourselves and our seamstresses. 
Mine made fourteen pairs of drawers in a week for that association, 
and never seemed hurried. The negroes were faithful and kind. 
They did not believe our troops would ever be beaten." 

80 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Adams remembers that "this association made the uniforms 
for the company commanded* by Capt. L. Cheves McCord, his 
mother, Mrs. McCord, furnishing the material" — gray cloth. "I 
remember my suit was stitched with silk, and that the company pre- 
sented a most attractive appearance. Mrs. Dr. Parker did most of 
our cutting." 

Not only did the elder women of Columbia work hard for this 
association. Some of the young girls met there on regular days, 
and not only sewed there for hours, but took work home with them. 
Their elders, most of them practiced seamstresses, were very pa- 
tient in their instructions and criticisms, though they exacted good 

More than one girl of that day — grandmothers now — look back 
with respect and affection to their instructors, and to many happy 
hours spent under their guidance. 

Of course, the girls in Columbia, as everywhere else, learned how 
to knit. Even children could manage suspenders. Some of the 
girls were expert enough to read aloud while knitting, and in this 
way the few new books that reached us during the war (Les Miser- 
ables and Great Expectations, among others) were often read to an 
absorbed but industrious group. 

Later on, Mrs. McCord, wishing to be freer for hospital work, 
resigned the presidency of the Soldiers' Relief Association, and Miss 
Kate Hampton was her successor. She was followed by Mrs. 
Campbell Bryce. Mrs. Rufus Johnson was secretary. Of other 
officers, we have no record. 

Columbia, May 17, 1863. — In an old paper, we see the following 
names of societies — part of a directory for soldiers : 

Soldiers' Relief Association — 

President, Mrs. Campbell Bryce. 

Soldiers' Clothing Association — 
President, Mrs. McCord. 

Ladies' Industrial Association — 
President, Mrs. Levy. 

Young Ladies' Hospital Association — 
President, Miss Preston. 

Wayside Hospital — 

President, Mrs. John Bryce. 



THE ¥ 

The Work at Columbia. 8i 

Mrs. J. P. Adams, 1901. 

In 1 86 1, there was also organized, in Columbia, a Ladies' Hospital 

Of this, Mrs. James P. Adams was the secretary. She says : 
"My book was full of incidents and records of work done and dis- 
tributed in many ways, but it was burned with Columbia. The asso- 
ciation met monthly, at the Methodist Sunday School room, and 
was always opened with prayer by Dr. George Howe, Mr. Gamewell, 
or the Rev. Mr. Martin. Mrs. S. A. Howe (Mrs. George Howe) 
was president and, I think, Mrs. William Wallace was treasurer. 
Our work was to send boxes of clothing to the soldiers — in Virginia, 
principally. One old lady interested in the Hampton Legion in- 
variably piped out, in a shrill tone, 'Anything for the Hampton 
Legion ?' 

"W r e also gave orders for food to a certain amount, to the wives of 
soldiers. These orders were given on a Mr. Edward Hope." 

Mrs. Adams mentions, besides those names already given, Mrs. 
Martin, Mrs. Fisher, Mrs. Andrew Wallace, Mrs. Alfred Wallace, 
Mrs. McGregor, Mrs. Squiers, Mrs. Lysander Childs, Mrs. Mc- 
Kenzie, as good workers, and goes on thus : "We met to work at 
the house of Mrs. John Bryce. Mrs. Howe and Mrs. Bryce were 
active in getting the Fair Grounds building for a hospital. 

"* * * We all attended on our own respective days at the hos- 
pital. Mrs. W T m. Wallace, Miss Mary McKenzie, Mrs. John Le- 
Conte and I were on the same committee, attending weekly. Mrs. 
LeConte was the soul of fun, and gave us many a hearty laugh." 

Mrs. Adams says, also : "I think almost every woman, high or 
low, was in the ranks as a worker, and there are those whose names 
will never be known, who, in silence, anxiety and sorrow, by their 
patriotism and endurance, gave as much aid as those whose acts 
were more in evidence." 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor, 1901. 

"Outside of these associations in sewing bodies, the women made 
up clothing for the soldiers. Mrs. Thomas Taylor, wife of Captain 
Taylor, of the Congaree Troop, Hampton Legion, took charge of 
the outfit of the company. Materials were issued by the govern- 
ment, and, to secure the commutation money for the men, the uni- 
forms were cut by Mr. Swameld, and the tailoring done by friends 
of the members of the command, and it was in their homes that 
these ladies worked, surrounded and aided by their trained negro 
seamstresses. Added to this, the blankets of the united households, 

82 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

and the ply carpets, were given to the soldiers, cotton comforts re- 
placing blankets for family use. 

Mrs. Stephen Goodwyn DeVeaux was a great worker in tailoring. 
All the socks of the company were supplied by the knitting of the 
women who had friends in the Congaree Troop, for that winter. 
When completed, the uniforms were inspected by Mr. Swaffield, 
whose kindness and instructions were frequent and valuable. He 
reported to Mrs. Taylor that one pair of trousers had to be ripped 
up and again sewed, under his directions, as the seams had been so 
deepened that the man wearing them could not have moved to go 
forward, or to run away. Mrs. Taylor acknowledged the work to 
be hers, and the old Englishman remarked, T don't want to rip an- 
other pair you make, for you meant that sewing to stay.' 'I did, 
indeed,' was the reply ; 'witness the raw edge on my hand, made by 
drawing the flax thread to a pull'." 

Mrs. J. P. Adams. 

"Houses were denuded of blankets to make into drawers and 
undershirts, and socks were knit by the hundreds, Mrs. McCord 
being notable for her industry in that line." 

(Mrs. McCord knit with large needles and coarse yarn, and tasked 
herself three socks every day, Sundays and week days.) 

Mrs. Campbell Bryce's Reminiscences, Published 1897. 

In September, 1861, the first soldiers' hospital was established in 
Columbia by ladies, at the Fair Grounds. 

"Measles had broken out at the camp near the town, where about 
3,000 men were being drilled and prepared for service." 

To quote from Mrs. Bryce : "With our contributions, we (Mrs. 
Howe and Mrs. Bryce) purchased cots, bedding, etc., calling in the 
services of Mrs. John Bryce, who, for the next four years, gave her 
whole heart and time to the aid and comfort of our soldiers. 

"After we had all things in readiness, we informed the officers that 
they might bring their men in, but, to our intense astonishment, we 
were told that they would not come, that they had no desire to go to 
a 'hors-pitul.' * * * 

"So we formed ourselves into a committee of three — Mrs. Howe, 
Mrs. John Bryce, and myself — and took the cars for the camp. Here 
the officers met us, begging us to go into some of the tents, and tell 
the men what we had done for them. We did this and, with one 
accord, they decided to go and be taken care of. 

"The men were brought in by the officers and, as we had not yet 
found nurses for them, Mrs. Howe and Mrs. John Bryce assisted 

The Work at Columbia. 83 

the very sick to undress, untying their shoes, and pulling off their 
shoes and stockings. 

"We were not long without help, however, for the ladies of Co- 
lumbia formed themselves into committees of four, or six, or eight, 
for each day, and Dr. Fair had an appointment as a kind of local 
Confederate Surgeon, with several young doctors under him. 

"During the winter following, some forty soldiers died, many 
from pneumonia, some from typhoid fever, and others from ery- 
sipelas. Although we had a corps of hired nurses, our ladies were 
still indefatigable in their attentions. 

"Mrs. Howe and Mrs. John Bryce, the President and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Hospital Association, were faithful in their attendance at 
all times. Mrs. Howe contracted erysipelas from her close attention 
to the patients with that disease. 

"Later on, the government took charge of the hospital, but the 
ladies did not cease their care." 

Mrs. Rawles, Mrs. Friday, and Mrs. Heise have been named to 
us as earnest in this work, and Mrs. Daniel Crawford, from the 
vicinity of her home, as having been able often to add to the comforts 
of the soldiers. 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor. 

Mrs. F. H. Elmore and Mrs. John Caldwell served together at the 
Fair Grounds. Mrs. Elmore was always accompanied on her hos- 
pital days by one of her six daughters. There was an alarm of 
erysipelas on one occasion, and Mrs. Elmore dispatched Mrs. Thomas 
Taylor to her home, on the outskirts of Columbia, to prepare the 
dining-room, a large, airy apartment, for two young Mississippians, 
one wounded in the thigh, the other in the shoulder. The two beds 
were up by the time the soldiers arrived. A fine negro family nurse 
was installed, and for months the invalids had their comforts and 
wounds cared for by the family and Phyllis. 

Other houses became temporary homes for the sick who could get 
no farther on their way until strengthened. Mrs. Thomas Taylor 
took into her carriage, one day on her way from the Wayside Hos- 
pital, two fever patients, who were lying in the hot sun, on a car- 
penter's bench, in the street, with desolate look upturned towards 
the sky. These were received by Dr. Wm. Reynolds in the room 
appropriated for such, in his house, and were cared for by Mrs. 

84 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Minutes of Young Ladies' Hospital Association of Columbia, in possession of Miss I. D. 


A shabby old blankbook has been lent this committee, bearing 
on its flyleaf the words, "Young Ladies' Hospital Association, July 
26, 1861." This book contains the partial record of a work begun 
by the girls of Columbia, which afterwards branched out over a 
much wider field, and was instrumental in the founding of the 
Wayside Hospital in Columbia, the first of its kind in the world, or- 
ganized and carried out by women. 

Naturally, the management of this hospital (often surgical prac- 
tice) passed into the hands of older women, assisted by gentlemen 
who, from their age, were non-combatants — the girls, however, con- 
tinuing their services as auxiliaries. 

The Rev. Wm. Martin was one of the first to suggest and help in 
this work, and he it was who met every train coming in from Vir- 
ginia, and directed the soldiers to the Wayside Hospital, transporta- 
tion being furnished by private means, the ladies going to the depot 
in their own carriages for the sick men ; and afterwards, as the de- 
mand became greater, by the Central Committee for Soldiers' Relief. 

Extracts from a paper by Mrs. H. W. Frost, in the Woman's Edition of the Columbia 
State, June 4, 1895. 

In reference to the Wayside Hospital, we quote the following : 

"In the summer of 1861, the young girls of Columbia, including, 
of course, those from the low-country who had taken refuge there, 
organized the 'Young Girls' Hospital Association.' 

"At one of their meetings, the great need of relief at the railroad 
depots was brought up — how wounded soldiers arrived and were 
unavoidably detained, without preparation being made, or being pos- 
sible, for their comfort, in any way. 

"It was then proposed or suggested by (I do not remember whom) 
that a Wayside Hospital should be started. This name was only 
given later. Two girls, Sally B. Hampton, daughter of General 
Wade Hampton, and afterwards Mrs. John C. Haskell, and Susan 
Hampton Preston, now Mrs. Henry W. Frost, undertook to start 
the enterprise and raise the means of so doing : which they success- 
fully accomplished by canvassing the town and being met, as all such 
things were in those days of enthusiasm, by hearty and generous re- 
sponse to the proposed movement. * * * Such was the origin of 
the first Wayside Hospital. * * * The scheme soon outgrew the 
originators, and as in those days girls were strictly hedged in, it was 
found desirable to turn the Hospital into older hands." 

The Work at Columbia. 85 

After recalling some names of ladies who attended at the hos- 
pital — all of them being mentioned elsewhere in this report, Mrs. 
Frost says, "Mrs. Hampton Sr. and her daughter, Mrs. John S. 
Preston, were contributors only, the one on account of her great age, 
and Mrs. Preston being absent in Virginia when not in attendance 
on her mother." 

Extracts from paper by Miss I. D. Martin, published first in Charleston News and Courier, 
afterwards in Woman's Edition of Columbia State, June 4, 1895. 

Miss Martin tells of the organization of the Young Ladies' Hos- 
pital Association, and goes on thus: 

"During the winter of 1861-62 numbers of soldiers were coming 
home sick, * * * and the poor fellows would be obliged to remain 
in Columbia for hours, and sometimes a day and a night. Some 
ladies of the city resolved to meet the trains as they arrived from 
Virginia and minister as best they could to the needs of the suffering 
men. But there was no organized plan. * * * 

"A clergyman who was in the habit of meeting the trains to afford 
assistance, called the attention of the Young Ladies' Hospital Asso- 
ciation to this * * * and suggested the propriety of applying some 
of their funds to arranging a room at the Charlotte Depot. 

"This suggestion was immediately carried out. * * * The place 
was styled the Soldiers' Rest. It was concluded to transfer the 
Soldiers' Rest to the South Carolina Depot. But the affair had now 
assumed dimensions far beyond anything its originators had ever 
dreamed of, and the elder ladies, to whom the girls were accustomed 
to defer, thought it best to take matters into their own hands. The 
Soldiers' Rest was changed into the Wayside Hospital. 

"The girls 'were very indignant,' but became pacified when allowed 
to accompany the older ladies. * * * The outgoing trains left at a 
very early hour in the morning, but never, through the whole exist- 
ence of the hospital, did these women and girls fail to be at their 

The object of the Wayside Hospital was limited in intention. It 
was to receive and minister to the needs of the sick, and especially 
the wounded from battlefields, whose wounds might be dressed, and 
some more comfort insured them on their further journey to their 
homes, or to a permanent hospital. 

Address by Dr. Darby, 1873. 

We give an extract from an address by Dr. John T. Darby, Sur- 
geon Confederate States Army, before the South Carolina Medical 
Association, in 1873. 

86 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Speaking of the ameliorations of modern warfare, Dr. Darby says : 
"On the route from the army to the general hospital, wounds are 
dressed and the soldiers refreshed at wayside homes ; and here, be it 
said with justice and pride, that the credit of originating this system 
is due to the women of South Carolina. In a small room in the 
capital of this State the first wayside home was founded, and during 
the war some 75,000 soldiers were relieved by having their wounds 
dressed, their ailments attended, and very frequently by being 
clothed, through the patriotic services and good offices of a few un- 
tiring ladies of Columbia. From this little nucleus spread that grand 
system of wayside hospitals which was established during our own 
and the late European wars, and it is beautiful to see and know that, 
though implements of war are made more and more effective for the 
destruction of life, the progress and advance of surgery gives com- 
fort and restores health to the servant in arms who has suffered for 
his country." 

Mrs. H. W. Frost, in the Woman's Edition of The State, Columbia, 1895. 

"In 1866, Dr. John T. Darby went as volunteer surgeon to the Red 
Cross Corps in the Austro-Russian War. Being an American, and 
neutral, his skill and help were recognized and appreciated by the 
eminent surgeons in both armies. He suggested (I think) to 
Langenback and Elsmarck, the eminent German surgeons, this sys- 
tem of wayside hospitals, which", with their means and most effective 
methods, were carried out with a success that make a world-known 
and most beloved name of wayside hospital." 

Charleston Mercury, January 4, 6, and 7, 1862. 

"Every train will bring large numbers of soldiers, hungry, fa- 
tigued, many, perhaps, sick and faint. Refreshments are essentia! 
immediately upon their arrival. Our City Council has appointed the 
undersigned a committee to attend to this matter. 

"The new building erected as a depot for the South Carolina Rail- 
road Company has been kindly given up for the reception of the sol- 
diers, and ample accommodations prepared for the sick and disabled. 
We want cooks, waiters, nurses, fuel, hospital stores, etc. Our citi- 
zens, we are sure, will come to our aid. 

"All communications should be addressed to Prof. F. S. Holmes, 
at his residence, at the corner of Calhoun and St. Philip Streets, or at 
the depot of the South Carolina Railroad. H. R. Banks, 

"F. S. Holmes, 
"J. S. Riggs, 


Charleston Wayside Hospital. 87 

Charleston Mercury, January 7, 1862. 

"The following contributions are acknowledged for the Wayside : 

"Mr. W. Roman, laudanum, paregoric, and other medicines. 

"Mrs. E. H. Rodgers, comforts, and hospital stores. 

"Mrs. Emily J. few, Hillsboro, N. C, $5.00. 

"Mrs. T. M. P., rags for surgeons' use. 

"Mrs. John H. Porcher, Black Oak, grits, lard, and services of a 
negro man for nurse. 

"J. DuBose Porcher, jar of lard and a man nurse. 

"Mrs. Isabella J. Porcher, Black Oak, lard, and potatoes. 

"Mrs. A. R. Drayton, bath tub. 

"Col. J. D. Aiken, load of wood. 

"The committee tender their grateful thanks to Messrs. John 
Fraser & Company for their contribution towards the establishment 
of the Wayside Hospital at the Citadel Square, consisting of mat- 
tresses, fifty pillows, ten washstands, basins, etc. Also to General 
DeSaussure and officers of the Fourth Brigade, for the use of their 
building on the Citadel Square as a branch of the Wayside Hospital. 
To Professor Hume, of the Citadel, we acknowledge our obligations 
for many favors. F. S. Holmes, 


"Acknowledgements to 

"Mrs. F., six bottles pickles. 

"Master Wm. Hummel, two bottles brandy. 

"Mrs. Harriet Erwin, one bale cotton. 

"Miss Julia Mulligan, coffee, tea, etc. 

"Mrs. M. E. Tanno, Pendleton, S. C, six pillow-cases. 

"Mrs. John Fripp, one pair turkeys, bag meal. 

"Miss S. Tunno, coverlets. 

"From absent citizens of Charleston, through Mr. W. P. Holmes, 
two demijohns of gin. 

"Mrs. S. C. Williams, Society Hill, ten mattresses, four litters, and 
a barrel of hospital stores. 

"Anonymous, by railroads, bale containing six mattresses, five 
sheets, three comforts, six pillows and cases, and several bundles of 
dried herbs. 

"Death — W. R. Childs, a private in Calhoun's Battery, died Jan- 
uary 3d, and was buried at Magnolia Cemetery. 

"F. S. Holmes, 

88 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, January 13, 1862. 

The Wayside Hospital and Soldiers' Home is reported fully organ- 
ized and ready for sixty patients at a time — forty-eight were there 
at the time. A long list of donations is published — large sums of 
money from the men, and numberless articles, from beds to slippers, 
sent by the women. 

"It is impossible to name the large number of ladies who daily 
provide milk, soup, and refreshments of every kind." 

Charleston Mercury, January 31, 1862. 

The Wayside Hospital Committee acknowledges many donations, 
and publishes a number of deaths, among others, that of "one of our 
faithful nurses — Scye — the property of Wm. Ravenel, Esq., of Black 

Charleston Mercury, July 14, 1863. 

The Wayside Hospital in Charleston continued under that name, 
with what modification of its work we do not know. Whether the 
patients received there were only those in transit to other places (as 
was the case in Columbia), or were kept there, we do not know; 
but in the newspaper of July 14, 1863 (Mercury), we see a call for 
another Wayside Hospital or Home. 

Charleston Mercury, July 25, 1863. 

The announcement follows shortly that the need had been filled, 
and a home established at the old American Hotel, King Street. 

Charleston Courier, September 15, 1864. 

Soon after, we see that the first Wayside Hospital chariges its 
name (to prevent confusion), and becomes the first Louisiana Re- 
ceiving and Distributing and Transient Hospital, located at 564 
King Street, Surgeon Robert Lebby. 

Mrs. Bryce's Reminiscences. Minutes of Young Ladies' Hospital Association. 

Mrs. Bryce reports the thorough organization of the Wayside, in 
Columbia, in October, 1862 ; but in the report of the Young Ladies' 
Hospital Association for July, 1862, we see a donation to the Way- 
side Hospital, which probably may fix the date of its going into 

Minutes of Young Ladies' Hospital Association, of Columbia, in possession of Miss I. D. 


We return now to the "old book" and give from it the list of mem- 
bers of the Young Ladies' Hospital Association. It is a pathetic 
little roll to those of us who can recall the fresh, bright faces ; one by 
one, as we see the names. 

Young Ladies' Hospital Association. 


List of members 

Miss Black. 

Miss M. Watson. 

Miss Herndon. 

Miss Brown. 

Miss C. Watson. 

Miss N. Heyward. 

Miss Sallie Bryce. 

Miss Thornwell. 

Miss A. Heyward. 

Miss Maggie Bryce. 

Miss E. Levy. 

Miss DeSaussure. 

Miss E. Clarkson. 

Miss Gracey. 

Miss M. Crawford. 

Miss J. Clarkson. 

Miss Adams. 

Miss Trenholm. 

Miss S. Clarkson. 

Miss R. Shand. 

Miss H. Trenholm. 

Miss Davis. 

Miss Crawford. 

Miss A. Taylor. 

Miss Elmore. 

Miss Scott. 

Miss B. Sims. 

Miss Echols. 

Miss Martin. 

Miss Fowles. 

Miss Edwards. 

Miss J. Mordecai. 

Miss M. Fowles. 

Miss McLean. 

Miss Fisher. 

Miss Glaze. 

Miss McCully. 

Miss Gibbes. 

Miss Annie Leverett. 

Miss E. McCully. 

Miss Guignard. 

Miss Howe. 

Miss Niernsee. 

Miss Goodwyn. 

Miss H. Parker. 

Miss A. Parker. 

Miss A. Hampton. 

Miss Baker. 

Miss Powell. 

Miss S. Hampton. 

Miss A. Huggins. 

Miss Preston. 

Miss Huggins. 

Miss P. Rhett. 

Miss S. Preston. 

Miss Harris. 

Miss Hayne. 

Miss Scarborough. 

Miss Lyons. 

Miss Mary Leverett. 

Miss Stark. 

Miss Manning. 

Miss Holmes. 

Miss Sims. 

Miss McCord. 

Miss Mordecai. 

Miss E. Seibels. 

Miss Reynolds. 

Mrs. DeSaussure. 

Miss S. Seibels. 

Miss Murdoch. 

Miss Kelly. 

Miss F. Smith. 

July, 1861. — Minutes of the Y. L. H. A. : 

Committees for the Month. 

Shopping Committee. 
Miss Stark. 
Miss McCord. 
Miss Thornwell. 

Forwarding Committee. Cutting Committee. 
Miss Sims. Miss Edwards. 

Miss Niernsee. Miss Parker. 

Miss Hampton. Miss Davis. 

Miss Reynolds. Miss M. Watson. 

Miss E. Clarkson. 

Miss Scarborough. 

Superintendents of Work for the Month. 
t Miss Guignard. Miss Bryce. 

August, 1 861. — 

Committees for the Month. 
Shopping Committee. Forwarding Committee. Cutting Committee. 
Miss Davis. Miss McLean. Miss Lyons. 

Miss Shand. Miss Edwards. Miss Guignard. 

Miss Huggins. Miss Manning. Miss S. Preston. 

Miss Crawford. Miss Stark. 

Miss Martin. Miss McCully. 

Miss Gracey. Miss Echols. 


South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Superintendents for the Month. 
Miss Martin. Miss Goodwyn. Miss Black. 

Articles forwarded : 

August i, 1861. — To Dr. Cabell, at Charlottesville, through Mrs. 
Price, one box of hospital clothing. 

August 9, 1861. — To Dr. Cabell, through Mrs. Price, one box of 
clothing and stores. 

September, 1861. — Committees unchanged. Articles forwarded: 

September 1, 1861. — One box to Kershaw's Regiment, containing 
hospital clothing and stores. 

September 15, 1861. — One tierce rice, to Hampton's Legion. 

September 20, 1861. — To Mr. Barnwell, at Charlottesville, one box 
hospital clothing and one box hospital stores. 

September 29, 1861. — Twenty-five flannel shirts to Captain Wal- 
lace, one box medicine to Hampton's Legion, twenty-five flannel 
shirts to Captain Carson. 

October, 1861.— 

Forwarding Committee. 
Miss Taylor. 

Shopping Committee. 
Miss Elmore. 
Miss Edwards. 
Miss Shand. 

Miss McLean. 
Miss Stark. 

Cutting Committee. 
Miss Fisher. 
Miss Gracey. 
Miss Davis. 
Miss Adams. 
Miss Niernsee. 

Superintendents of Work. 
Miss Lyons. Miss Scott. 

Articles forwarded : 

To Captain Taylor's Troop, twenty-five shirts. 
To Mrs. McCord, six pairs canton flannel drawers. 
Mrs. Bryce, for town hospital, three flannel shirts. 
Dr. Wallace, for "Lightwood Knot," two bedtickings, two home- 
spun shirts, one pair sheets. 

Mrs. Bryce, twelve pairs drawers, and six shirts. 

November, 1861. — 

Shopping Committee. Forwarding Committee. Cutting Committee. 
Miss Martin. Miss Elmore. Miss Taylor. 

Miss Gracey. Miss Scarborough. Miss Herndon. 

Miss Preston. Miss Echols. Miss Bryce. 

Miss Crawford. 
Miss Black. 
Miss Murdoch. 

Young Ladies' Hospital Association. 91 

Superintendents of Work. 
Miss Stark. Miss Fisher. 

Articles forwarded : 

November 4, 1861. — One box to Gregg's Regiment. 

November 10, 1861. — Twenty gray flannel shirts, eight pairs 
drawers, to Captain Radcliffe's company. 

November 29, 1861. — Three boxes of whiskey to Hampton's 

December, 1861. — Committees unchanged. 

December 2, 1861. — Articles forwarded: 

One box hospital clothing, to Rev. Munroe Anderson, for hospital 
at Pocataligo (not acknowledged). 

December 12, 1861. — One box to Rev. R. H. Phillips, Staunton, 
Va., for the sick of Maryland Regiment (not acknowledged). 

January, 1862. — 


Shopping Committee. Forwarding Committee. Cutting Committee. 
Miss Huggins. Miss Manning. Miss N. Heyward. 

Miss K. Crawford. Miss A. Heyward. Miss Trenholm. 

Miss Niernsee. Miss E. Clarkson. Miss McCully. 

Miss Edwards. 

Miss Elmore. 

Miss Crawford. 

Superintendents of Work. 
Miss Scarborough. Miss Shand. 

Articles forwarded : 

January 1, 1862. — Twenty-five flannel shirts to Captain Sligh's 

June, 1862. — Some pages are here torn out, but in June is re- 
ported : 

Twenty-one sheets, two shirts, soap, sugar, one bushel rice, band- 
ages, sent to Richmond, through Mrs. J. Bryce. 

June 3, 1862. — Officers were reelected, and the following rules 
adopted : 

I. The society must meet every Tuesday morning at 9:30 o'clock. 

II. Every member who is absent shall pay 10 cents fine, if she 
cannot give a sufficient excuse. 

July, 1862. — To Mrs. McCord, for the College Hospital: One 
box, containing thirty-four shirts, fifteen sheets, twenty-nine drawers, 
fifteen pillow-slips, thirty-eight pillow-cases, six bed-ticks, thirty-six 

92 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

towels, two packages sugar, ten fans, soap, hominy, rice, cologne, 
one hundred and forty-four bandages. 

To Wayside Hospital, six shirts, six pairs drawers. 

To individuals, two shirts. 

One box ligatures to Miss Norton, Richmond. 

August, 1862. — The society has been employed in making bed 
sacks, etc., for the hospital at the college. 

September 5, 1862. — One box to Rev. R. Barnwell, through Dr. 
LaBorde, containing hospital stores and clothing for South Carolina 
sick at Richmond, Va. 

September 25, 1862. — Eighteen shirts, eighteen pairs drawers to 
hospital of Capt. T. Ferguson's battery, Summerville, S. C. 

July, 1863. — The treasurer reports that she has received, during 
the year, $1,062, of which $664.75 h as been spent, leaving on hand a 
balance of $397.25. 

Articles forwarded during the past year: 

To Richmond, for South Carolina soldiers, two bales of hospital 

Major Huger's battery, Army of Potomac, one bale. 

Major Ferguson's battery, Summerville, one bale. 

McPhersonville Hospital, one bale. 

Wayside and Ladies' Hospital, various small donations. 

College Hospital, shirts and drawers. 

Fredericksburg sufferers, two pieces of cloth, bandages, and lint. 

Yellow Sulphur Springs, Va., one piece of cloth, thirty shirts, and 
twenty-four drawers. 

Trapman Street Hospital, Charleston, one bale. 

Sums received by association from Dr. R. W. Gibbes. . .$ 88.00 

Work done for College Hospital, through Mrs. McCord . 29.00 

South Carolina Railroad Company 250.00 

Industrial Association 50.00 

Industrial Association 5.00 

Mrs. Huger 15.00 

Proceeds of concert by Sig. Torriani 25.00 

August 7, 1863. — Fifty pairs socks, Captain Calhoun's battery. 

One package books to Howard Grove Hospital. 

August 15, 1863. — One bale shirts and drawers to hospital of 
Sixth Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, at Adams Run. 

September 18, 1863. — Sold to Mrs. White, at cost price, two pieces 
of cloth, for Fredericksburg Orphan Asylum. 

Columbia Wayside Hospital. 93 

September 24, 1863. — Eighteen sheets, eighteen pillow-cases, eight 
dozen bandages, four dozen towels, seventeen shirts, twenty-four 
pairs drawers, two packages dried fruit, one package green tea, three 
bottles whiskey, one bag flour, four packages lint, linen and cotton 
rags, to hospitals in the West. 

October, 1863. — Fifty pairs socks to Nineteenth Regiment, Colonel 

December, 1863. — To Jimmie, two shirts, two pairs drawers. 

February, 1864. — To Arkansas troops, Johnston's Army, twenty- 
one shirts, eight pairs drawers, twenty-four towels, five pairs socks, 
one pair wristlets. 

March, 1864. — To Stafford's Louisiana Brigade, twenty pairs 
drawers, eight pairs socks, eight shirts. 

April, 1864. — To Mrs. Proctor, for her son, four pairs drawers. 

May, 1864. — To private Brazil, one shirt, two pairs drawers. 

To private Fenton, two shirts, two pairs drawers. 

To Jimmie, two suits of clothes. 

To Rev. Mr. Yates, for sailors, $500.00. 

June, 1864. — To the committee for transporting wounded soldiers 
from Charlotte Depot, $100.00. 

To Jimmie Mathews, two shirts. 

To Wayside Hospital, twenty-seven pillow-slips. 

To Atlanta, through Central Association, twenty slings. 

From this time the reports cease, whether because the work was 
merged into the Wayside Hospital or because the secretary was too 
busy to write reports, we do not know. A member of the associa- 
tion — Miss Grace Elmore — says : "Miss Amanda Graeser was our 
chief cutter, but we soon deferred to Mrs. John Fisher in all our 
difficulties, and a most lovely and efficient adviser she was." 

The old book from which these records have been taken has been 
lent by us to Miss Isabella D. Martin, the Secretary of the Young 
Ladies' Hospital Association. Miss Mary Cantey Preston, after- 
wards the wife of Dr. John T. Darby, Surgeon Confederate States 
Army, was the President ; Miss Eugenia Goodwyn, the Treasurer. 

Mrs. Bryce's Reminiscences. 

Mrs. Campbell Bryce says that Mrs. John Fisher, Mrs. John 
Bryce, and herself, found the first patients for the Columbia Wayside 
Hospital, in four men, sick with the measles, sitting on the platform 
at the South Carolina Railroad Depot. Mrs. Stratton, living on 
Gervais street, consented to take them in. These ladies then applied 
to Mr. Bollin for a little room at the depot, which he gave them. 

94 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

This room was furnished with a bed, bedding, etc., by the Young 
Ladies' Hospital Association. Mrs. Bryce says: "I made that bed 
with my own hands." 

After this, an old ice-house, which had been floored and repaired 
by Mr. Campbell Bryce, for this purpose, was made ready to receive 
the sick, and give them lodgings for a few days, if necessary. The 
original officers of the Wayside were Mrs. George Howe, President ; 
Mrs. John Bryce, Vice-President; Mrs. John Fisher, Secretary and 
Treasurer; Mrs. Wm. Martin, Miss Mary Stark, Miss Amanda 
Graeser, Mrs. Campbell Bryce. 

Two of these ladies met the early train each day, and gave break- 
fast to the sick and wounded. Again in the evening, two met the 
incoming train, and gave the sick supper and lodging for the night. 
Mrs. Bryce speaks gratefully of their cook — Dinah Collins — a free 
colored woman. 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor, 1901. 

Mrs. Taylor speaks of a day when, ''being notified by Mr. Halcott 
Green of a battle in Virginia, that a large number of wounded men 
would pass through Columbia, and that nurses, with supplies of food, 
lint, bandages, etc., must be at the Wayside to meet and take care of 
them," she remembers "seeing Mrs. Bryce with a huge coffeepot in 
her hand, standing in the Wayside kitchen ; Mrs. Fisher, with a long 
spoon, stirring something cooking on the stove ; the invaluable Dinah 
Collins making up something, and turning a portly figure and kindly 
face to one and any who spoke to her, at the same time giving direc- 
tions which kettle to get warm water from. 

"Dr. Robert Wilson, kind and devoted, had asked me (Mrs. 
Taylor) to help him dress a head. I was to hold the basin. Then 
we passed on to a cot to attend to an arm of one who was in from 
the recent battle." 

Mrs. Bryce's Reminiscences. 

Many ladies volunteered and were appointed on committees to 
serve in this hospital, having each her day for receiving and caring 
for sick and wounded soldiers. 

Gradually, accommodations were increased and quarters enlarged. 
An old building, formerly a car factory, near the Charlotte Depot, 
was fitted up by the efforts of the ladies and the liberality of several 
gentlemen who gave work and material. It was capable of accom- 
modating seventy or eighty patients. Mrs. Bryce says that Mr. 
Brown, the glazier, when glass gave out, literally pieced the window 
glasses out of strips not wider than two fingers. 

Columbia Wayside Hospital. 95 

Dr. Edmunds was appointed surgeon-in-charge in September, 
1862; and Dr. Alfred Wallace, his assistant. The ladies employed 
hired nurses and ward masters, but continued their own labor of 
love, frequently sitting up with ill patients, and assisted often by 
theological students, until they too went to the field. Sometimes 
some of the ladies would dress the wounds of the soldiers. Mrs. 
Rhett and Mrs. Squier, both with tender and deft hands, would 
perform this office greatly to the admiration of the surgeons. A 
tablet should be erected to Mrs. Squier for her constant and unfailing 
kindness to the sick and wounded, day and night." 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor, 1901. 

"At this hospital, Schofield's Car Factory, Mrs. A. C. Squier gave 
herself, body and soul, to as complete and perfect hospital services 
as are in the possibilities of a woman's devotion. Her culinary skill 
was exquisite, and the patients reaped the benefit. Till the day of 
her death, in 1894 or 1895, when she suddenly fell dead, on her way 
from a Presbyterian Church festival, with a coffeepot in her hand, 
she was a famous dependance as a coffee maker." 

Mrs. Bryce's Reminiscences. 

In 1863, Mrs. Campbell Bryce resigned her place on the Board to 
Mrs. M aerie, who was a most efficient help. 

Seventy-five thousand soldiers passed through the Wayside Hos- 

Early in 1863, Dr. Wilson was appointed surgeon, and Mr. R. L. 
Bryan gave devoted attention for months. 
The first year's report was as follows : 

Admitted into hospital to date 1 ,000 

Furloughed 200 

Number returned to duty 556 

Discharged from service 20 

Deserted 18 

Died 23 

Remaining in hospital 98 

The amount expended for building and repairs and servants' hire 
was $2,229. The reports of the following years were destroyed 
when Sherman burned Columbia. 

The next year, the buildings were enlarged, and they were able to 
receive three times as many sick. The Rev. B. M. Palmer was se- 
lected by the ladies as their chaplain. 

Mrs. Bryce remembers the devotion of the steward — Mr. Henry 
Nichols — and also of their last surgeons — Drs. Edmunds and Almon. 

96 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Palmer, Mrs. Horace Nichols, Mrs. Henry 
Nichols, Mrs. Elmore, Mrs. Rhett, Mrs. Squier, two Mrs. Fridays, 
Mrs. Watson, Mrs. Kenerly, Mrs. Heise, and Mrs. Beard are men- 
tioned by Mrs. Bryce as regular nurses, she herself being one also. 
She refers, too, to Mrs. Dr. Fair as nursing at the Wayside. 

It is probable that, of the 75,000 men reported by Mrs. Bryce 
and Dr. Darby, many only stopped for the interval between trains. 

Dr. LaBorde's History of the South Carolina College. 

"On June 16, 1862, application was made by Confederate authori- 
ties for the South Carolina College buildings, to use as a hospital 
for the sick and wounded on the coast of South Carolina, on the 
ground that the hospital accommodation in Charleston was already 

This arrangement was supposed to be only for the summer, but 
by October the necessity for the hospital was even greater, and the 
students had all gone into the army. The Legislature approved of 
this use of the building, and it was continued to the end of the war. 

Mrs. Bryce mentions, as nurses there, Mrs. McCord, Mrs. Ken- 
erly, Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. W. K. Bachman ; also the two Mrs. Snow- 
dens, of Charleston. Miss Lucy Green, Mrs. Thomas Taylor and 
many others also served there. 

Mrs. McCord's home was very near the college, and in this way 
she became entirely absorbed in the care of the men there. Although 
a government hospital, the surgeons in charge were glad of the help 
of judicious women, and, besides the ladies mentioned, many were 
unwearying in help. Dr. Horlbeck was first at the head of the Col- 
lege Hospital ; afterwards, Dr. St. Julien Ravenel, and under them 
were many other surgeons. The Rev. Mr. Ambler of Virginia and 
the Rev. Mr. Jenkins were the chaplains. 

At one time Mrs. McCord had her own house made a ward of the 
hospital, in which she nursed cases that specially appealed to her. 
Her days were spent among the sick and dying, but her knitting was 
always at hand for any idle or sleepless moment, day or night. 

Her friends, knowing her zeal, sent her any available provisions, 
delicacies, or the plainer food. The resources of her own establish- 
ment, and of her plantation, were strained to the uttermost, and in 
this way she was able to take many little comforts to the very sick 
men and, in the piazza of her own house, every day to give one meal 
to any convalescents who could come for it. As many as one hun- 
dred would sometimes come in the course of the day, some of them 
limping pitifully across the street, for this little extra indulgence 

Columbia Wayside Hospital. 97 

which, after all, only consisted generally of cornbread and a stew, 
made of anything and everything — but always made with the greatest 
care. It is pitiful to remember that buttermilk and sweet potatoes 
became so precious that they had to be reserved for the very sick. 

In all of this, Mrs. McCord met with the greatest kindness from 
the hospital authorities, and boxes of food were sent to her from all 
over the State. Among the gentlemen who helped her are recalled 
the Rev. Mr. Martin, Dr. LaBorde, Mr. E. L. Kerrison, and many 

Later in the war, as already mentioned, the two Mrs. Snowdens, of 
Charleston, were earnest and efficient helpers in this hospital. No 
doubt other women from the low-country did their share, but it is 
impossible to recall names. 

At different times, women from all over the State went on to Vir- 
ginia to nurse their own sick and wounded. While there in the 
hospitals, they did what they could, with loving hearts and hands, for 
the suffering around them. Some volunteered as nurses. We recall 
Mrs. Amarinthia Snowden, of Charleston ; Mrs. Macfie, of Columbia, 
and Mrs. George McMaster (nee Flenniken), of Winnsboro. We 
would gladly be enabled to add to this list. 

We are indebted to Miss Martin, of Columbia, for a few extracts 
from the journal of Mrs. Chesnut, wife of Colonel James Chesnut, 
Aid to General Beauregard and to President Davis. They give a 
vivid picture of hospital work. 

Journal of Mrs. Chesnut. 

"Richmond (no date). Went today to Miss Sally Tompkins' 
Hospital, and was rebuked, as I deserved. 

"I — 'Are there any Carolinians here?' 

"Miss S. T. — T never ask where the sick and wounded come 

"Captain S. called. He has not yet been under fire, but is keen 
to see the flashing of the guns. He seemed to find my knitting a 
pair of socks a day for the soldiers droll in some way. The yarn is 
coarse. He has been so short a time from home he doesn't know 
how the poor soldiers need them. 

"A little later, went to the hospital with a carriage-load of peaches 
and grapes. Made glad the hearts of some men thereby. When 
my supply gave out, those who had none looked so wistfully at me 

*Miss Sally Tompkins is living, and holds a captain's commission from Mr. Jefferson 
Davis — the only woman holding a military commission in the Confederate service, I have 
heard. — Mrs. Thomas Taylor, 1901. 

98 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

as I passed out that I made a second raid on the market. Those 
eyes, sunk in cavernous depths, haunted me, as they followed me 
from bed to bed. 

(No date.) "Oh, such a day! I have been with Mrs. Randolph 
to all the hospitals. I can never again shut out of view the sights 
I saw of human misery. I sit thinking ; shut my eyes and see it all. 

"Thinking — yes, and there is enough to think about now, God 
knows. * * * We went to the St. Charles. Horrors upon horrors 
again ! Long rows of men, dead and dying ! * * * A boy from home 
had sent for me. He was lying on a cot, ill of fever. Next him, a 
man died in convulsions while we stood there. I was making ar- 
rangements for a nurse — hiring him to take charge of this lad. I 
remember nothing more, for I fainted. * * *" 

A letter to Mrs. Chesnut, from Mrs. McCord, written in 1863, ac- 
knowledges $100.00 for the College Hospital. 

Returning to the journal, we see — 

Journal of Mrs. Chesnut. 

"August 19, 1864. — Began my regular attendance at the Wayside 
Hospital, which is carried on by that good woman — Jane Coles 
Fisher. Today, we gave wounded men, as they stopped for an hour 
at the station, their breakfasts. Those able to come to the table did 
so. The badly wounded remained in wards, prepared for them, 
where their wounds are dressed by nurses and surgeons ; and we take 
bread and butter, beef, ham, hot coffee, etc., to them. They were 
awfully smashed-up objects of misery — wounded, maimed, diseased. 

"August 29, 1864. — I take my hospital duty in the morning. I get 
up at four o'clock and go down to my carriage, laden with provisions. 
Mrs. Fisher and Mr. Bryan generally go with me. The provisions 
are sent by people to Mrs. Fisher. I am so glad to be a hospital 
nurse once more. 

"August, 1864. — Spent today with Mrs. McCord at her (the col- 
lege) hospital. She is dedicating her grief for her son — sanctifying 
it, one might say — by giving her soul and body, her days and nights, 
to the wounded soldiers at her hospital." 

Miss Kate Crawford, 1901. 

In Columbia, as elsewhere, even the children worked. 

"Mary was a member of a sewing society of young 
girls, or children rather, that met at Kinsler's Hall, where they 
made quilts. Mrs. Monteith, Mrs. Lauchlin, and Miss Cordelia 
Veal had charge. She does not remember other ladies. * * * 
Katy and Ella Burroughs, and Emma Templeton, were there, and 

The Work at Columbia. 99 

some girls named Morris — one of them, Ella Morris, beingthe most 
expert among the children. She cut out a palmetto tree and sewed 
it on one of the quilts. * * * Lily Levy was also among them. 

"Mary says that an hour each day, or so many times during the 
week, was set apart at Madame Sosnowski's school, where she was 
a scholar. The girls, among whom were Sophie Carroll, Emma 
Guignard, and others she cannot now recall, made drawers for sol- 
diers. * * * You remember that the very babies made sand bags. 
Even our little negroes worked at these." 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor, 1901. 

"Columbians assumed other charges imposed by the hand of Provi- 
dence. Besides solicitude for the army, the high duty to women and 
children, driven from their homes in the low-country, was painfully 
pressed upon their hearts. Famished refugees arrived at all hours, 
and lodged as they might — some with sickness among them, all with 
consternation and inconvenience, and many with immediate need. 
Delicacy in ministration by those who were more fortunate in being, 
at that time of refugeeing, at their own homes, but who later had all 
the pangs of the like experience, was thrown to the winds. A half 
of a small beef was delivered at the cellar door of Mrs. Elmore's 
house, brought from the plantation, just as the information was 
given to her of a large family, of old and young, who had taken 
refuge the night before in a house in the country, two miles from 
her home. Quickly a pony carriage was made ready, and the beef 
quartered, a cloth snatched up from the table, and with the unsightly 
cargo set across the driver's feet, Mrs. Elmore drove off to the relief 
of the strangers, with every crumb of cooked bread that was in the 
house. ■ 

"Glad she was indeed to find her rough hospitality acceptable. 
There was no food for the children, who had been foraging in a 
field nearby for what had been left in the ground by the potato 

"Shelter was the uppermost thought in the minds of those expelled 
mercilessly from the low-country. About in the woods and sand- 
hills families sought roofs, and then the homes of residents were 
ransacked and wagon trains started to these forlorn houses, and 
women went to them with full hearts and tenderest sympathy and 

"Another call upon the woman heart came with the removal of the 
Confederate Treasury Department from Richmond to Columbia. 

ioo South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Social welcome was hearty, and homes offered among the Colum- 
bians. Thankfully it is remembered that this was done when Co- 
lumbians had no anticipation of the dire calls of a burnt city, and 
their own expatriation was not burdening their souls. 

"What has been said of the care of refugees by the Columbians 
applies equally to all the upper sections of the State. All who came 
had to be accommodated, and many were the makeshifts necessary 
on both sides, but with good will and kindness — and necessity — all 
things are possible. Friendships were formed in those days never 
to be forgotten." 

In the section of country not far below Columbia, around what 
was then called Gadsdens, now Congaree and Wedgefield, the work 
of women went on with the same unswerving fidelity. 

We are fortunate in having a few extracts from letters referring 
to it, and only regret that we have not information from all the dis- 
tricts, for everywhere the women did their duty. 

Letters from Mrs. John Singleton, 1899, and Mrs. J. P. Adams, 1901. 

"Mrs. John Brown, of Wedgefield, knit, during the war, 750 pairs 
of socks, tasking herself a sock each day, including Sundays. The 
cotton was grown, carded and spun on her place. When Sherman's 
soldiers were here, Mrs. Brown horrified them by knitting on 
Sunday, and one of them exclaimed : 'You a Christian and work on 
Sunday !' 

"Mrs. Frances M. Hopkins, of Gadsden, clothed an entire com- 
pany with woolen cloth, from the wool of her sheep, carded, spun, 
and made up on her plantation. I think it was Dr. Ray's company." 

"Mrs. Hopkins was indefatigable, going around to all the neigh- 
bors, soliciting contributions, when the boys at the front needed 

"Mrs. Jones, mother of Mrs. Governor Adams, Mrs. Adams her- 
self, her daughter Laura (afterwards Mrs. Hanahan), and Mrs. 
Amy G. Adams were earnest, devoted workers, not only for the sol- 
diers but for their unfortunate families, who were often in great 

"Dr. and Mrs. Rose, refugees from Beaufort, were most kind to 
the sandhill poor about them, Dr. Rose giving medicines and his 
services as a physician free. 

"Dr. and Mrs. Ray fed, from their steam mill, many families of 
soldiers from the sandhills." 

It was not an unusual thing for women, who were able to do so, to 
uniform and in a measure equip the companies commanded by their 

The Work at Columbia. ioi 

husbands, sons or brothers. Mrs. S. C. Williams, of Society Hill, 
undertook to make the clothes for the company of her son. He met 
with a sudden death, under most tragic circumstances, before his 
company was ready for service — but this made no difference. The 
company was uniformed by his mother. We give here part of a 
letter, written by her at our request : 

Letter from Mrs. S. C. Williams, 1899. 

"I am much obliged to you for wanting to put anything that I 
have done on record, but I do not think it is worth recording in his- 
tory. I envy your zeal and patriotism. At eighty-eight one has out- 
lived the enthusiasm of youth. 

"My memories of secession and its consequences are most mourn- 
ful and sad. 

"My son George was on his plantation in Louisiana when Port 
Royal was taken. He had just time to get to my house Friday night, 
and to the courthouse Saturday. The colonel called for volunteers, 
and my son was one of the first to step out. Sixteen men went to 
him and asked him to form a company; he declined, but, others 
joining, he was finally induced to agree. He had been for eight years 
away from home, at school and college, and had few acquaintances 
in our district, and we were quite surprised. He soon had his 
eighty-five men. We gave each of the men two pairs of socks, two 
pairs drawers, two pairs trousers, two shirts, a blanket, a pair of 
shoes, and a hat. One of the men was a widower, with two 
children — a little boy, and a girl. My son asked me to take the 
children, which I did. 

"Their father returned unwounded from the war. 

"The first time my son drilled his men, the first sixteen told him 
that another captain claimed them, but they said they did not belong 
to him. George told them that he would not take them if the other 
man had a right to them. They told him that this captain had 
written to the adjutant-general, who told them if they joined my 
son's company, he would send a file of soldiers to take them to Co- 
lumbia in irons. My son told them he would write to the adjutant- 
general, and read to them his answer the next time he drilled them. 
He drilled them the next week, and afterwards was seated on the 
back steps of a closed hotel, when he was shot. He was shot through 
the throat, and was unable to speak, though conscious. He lived 
about ten minutes. The man who shot him stood looking on. 

"They brought him home that night, and the mail brought the 
letter from the adjutant-general, saying that he had written no such 

102 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

letter, and that the men were at perfect liberty to go with George if 
they would. 

"After my son's death, the company called themselves the Wil- 
liams Guard. The first lieutenant was made captain. I do not re- 
member his name. He was a stranger in the country. Edward C. 
Stockton was made lieutenant. He was a cousin of Mrs. Nelson, 
and the company joined Nelson's Battalion. I never heard anything 
of them after they went to Virginia." 

The company was for a while on the coast, and in the papers of 
the day we see acknowledgements of articles sent by Mrs. Williams 
to them and to others. 

Papers by Mrs. T. H. Brooks, 1900. 

Mrs. Whitfield Brooks equipped the company commanded by her 
son, Capt. T. H. Brooks. 

Letter from Mrs. I. Keitt Hane, 1901. 

Mrs. L. S. McCord equipped the company commanded by her son, 
Capt. L. Cheves McCord. 

We now return to the chronological record of events, as gathered 
from the newspapers of 1861-65. 

Charleston Courier, May 29, 1861. 

H. T. Sloan, Chaplain of Orr's Regiment, acknowledges books 
and tracts, etc., sent by the Young Ladies' Christian Association, 
of Charleston, and by others. 

Charleston Mercury, August 8, 1861. 

The concert on the Battery, that had been proposed some days 
before, was brilliantly successful. Two hundred and seven dollars 
and seventy-three cents had been made, and was to be distributed 
between the different societies of ladies. 

Charleston Mercury, August 8, 1861. 

The Rev. R. W. Barnwell, at Charlottesville, Virginia, acknowl- 
edges boxes sent on by Dr. Bissell, from the Ladies' Auxiliary Chris- 
tian Association, of Charleston. 

Charleston Mercury, August 10, 1861. 

The Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, report the follow- 
ing articles sent to Virginia : 

To Mr. R. W. Barnwell, at Charlottesville, six packages. 

To H. A. Dudley, Richmond, Culpeper Hospital, seven packages. 

Orange Courthouse, seven packages. 

Also clothing sent to two of the crew of the Privateer Savannah, 
in the Tombs in New York, and to soldiers in many directions. 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 103 

Donations received from friends in the country, $121.00, money 
from Edisto. 

It is mentioned that the ladies of Grahamville have formed an 
Auxiliary Association. 

Further donations had been received from Summerville Auxiliary 
Association, from Eutawville, Upper St. Johns, and Wadmalaw 
Auxiliary Associations. 

From the little girls of St. Philip Street Public School, a box of 
needlebooks and pincushions. 

From the children of Friend Street School, $91.00. 

Eight thousand four hundred and sixty-four yards of various ma- 
terials have been purchased during the past week for distribution in 
the different wards. 

Charleston Mercury, August 12, 1861. 

The ladies of Mount Pleasant send $115.00 and three boxes to the 
Rev. R. W. Barnwell, for sick and wounded soldiers in Virginia. 

Charleston Mercury, August 13, 1861. 

A list is published of the officers of the Soldiers' Relief Associa- 
tion, of Chester. 

Mrs. James Hemphill, President. 

Mrs. A. Q. Dunnovant, Vice-President. 

Mrs. A. G. Stacey, Vice-President. 

Mrs. S. W. Mobley, Treasurer. 

Miss Mary E. McKee, Corresponding Secretary. 

Mrs. John J. McLure, Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. Eliza J. Hinton, Mrs. John A. Bradly, Mrs. A. P. Wylie, 
Mrs. John R. Allen, Executive Committee. 

Before going further, it is proper that we should give a fuller and 
more correct account of the Hospital Aid Association of South 
Carolina, formed of gentlemen of the State. While this work does 
not come under the head of that of women, still the two were so 
associated, and were so dependent upon each other, that a knowledge 
of both is necessary. 

Written by Miss E. LaBorde, 1901. 

"At the close of the college sessions, in June, 1861, Mr. Barnwell 
and Dr. LaBorde went to Virginia, with the view of devoting the 
vacation to the relief of the sick of our army. (Dr. LaBorde and 
Mr. Barnwell were professors of the South Carolina College.) Mr. 
Barnwell conceived the idea of an Aid Association, consisting of 
gentlemen of Carolina, of establishing a bureau of supply, hospitals 

104 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

for the sick and wounded, which was soon accomplished and placed 
in a condition of the highest efficiency. 

"The headquarters were at Charlottesville, and no hospital of the 
time was more perfect in its appointments and better conducted. 
The association extended its aid to Orange, Culpeper, Manassas, 
Fairfax, and other places. Mr. Barnwell directed every movement 
and assumed all the responsibility, remaining in Charlottesville by 
leave of the board of trustees. 

"The progress of the war made Richmond a more favorable place 
for Mr. Barnwell's operations, and he removed there during the year 

As we have seen, nearly all hospital stores were sent by the 
women's associations to Mr. Barnwell. 

Charleston Mercury, August 14, 1861. 

The Ladies' Clothing Association, of Charleston, acknowledges 
the receipt of $14.00 from the children of the primary department 
of the Morris Street School. 

Charleston Mercury, August 15, 1861. 

This interest and effort on the part of school children was not 
uncommon, and we see in the paper the next day an acknowledge- 
ment of $33.00 sent to the Ladies' Auxiliary Association, of Charles- 
ton, from the primary department of St. Philip Street School. 

"This sum was got by the exertions of a little boy and girl." 

The same association also acknowledges $31.00 from the Friend 
Street School, collected by a little girl. 

This association reports 1,820 garments ready for soldiers, in ad- 
dition to large shipments lately made. 

The large associations were helped by contributions from smaller 
ones. In this instance, a letter from the society of Legareville is 
reported as having been received, enclosing a consignment of boxes. 

Charleston Mercury, August 16, 1861. 

We are glad to find at this date a full report of the Ladies' Relief 
Association, of Aiken, as given below : 

Report of the Ladies' Relief Association of Aiken. 

"Aiken, S. C, Aug. 14, 1861. 
"Your board of managers would respectfully report to the society 
that, on Wednesday, the 17th instant, they forwarded to Colonel 
Bacon's Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, the following ar- 
ticles, viz.: Eighty-six pairs cotton jeans drawers, sixty flannel 
shirts, twelve cotton shirts, thirty-six pairs knitted socks, twenty- 
four bottles Jamaica ginger, twelve bottles Davis' pain killer, six 

Ladies' Clothing Association. 105 

bottles mustang liniment, four bottles cherry cordial, one jai black- 
berry jam, sage, dried ginger, books and papers, and old linen, with 
the request that these stores should be distributed to the most needy 
members of Captain Denny's and Captain Hand's companies. They 
would also report that they are now engaged in making up heavy 
plains into pants and jackets, having cut one hundred and fifty gar- 
ments of the same, in knitting socks, and making various other ar- 
ticles which they trust will contribute to the comfort of our brave 

"It affords your board much gratification to announce the general 
interest manifested by our community in the objects for which this 
society was formed. Feeling assured that the consciousness of being 
prayerfully and carefully and lovingly remembered 'at home' will 
nerve the soldier to deeds of daring and bravery, and will strengthen 
the hands and cheer the hearts of the brave men who are now en- 
during the hardships and privations incident to camp life, we would 
earnestly solicit the continued exertions of all the members of this 
association in order that we may be enabled to send repeated sub- 
stantial souvenirs to the noble defenders of Southern independence. 

"M. A. Farrington, 
"Secretary and Treasurer L. R. A. A." 

Charleston Courier, August 29, 1861. 

First monthly report of the Ladies' Clothing Association, of 
Charleston : 

"This association was organized on July 24th, at the South Caro- 
lina Hall. 

"A large attendance promised success, and we gratefully acknowl- 
edge the kindness the community has exhibited, thereby assuring us 
of their approbation and interest. 

"We trust we shall be able to continue in well-doing as long as 
there is need. 

"At our first meeting, nearly three hundred became members by 
subscriptions and donations. Seven hundred and forty-nine dollars 
was received. Up to this date, $1,743.18 has been received. The 
German Band has liberally given us their services. All are laboring 
with cheerfulness and assiduity to protect our gallant soldiers from 
the severities of the coming season. Our purchases of flannel, 
Graniteville drill, thread, and sundries, have been very large, and 
since the 29th ult. we have cut and made 2,301 pieces — 834 pairs of 
drawers, 822 flannel shirts; 1,606 sent away on the 26th inst. — 200 
flannel shirts, 200 pairs of drawers (given to German Fusiliers, 

106 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Captain Bachman), 150 flannel shirts, 79 pairs of drawers (given to 
First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers, through Captain 

"We conclude our report with the hope of a continuance of that 
industry and patriotism which has enabled us to do so much. 

"Hester T. Drayton, 


Charleston Courier, copied from Edgefield Advertiser, August 29, 1861. 

"A lady of this vicinity offers a Wheeler & Wilson sewing ma- 
chine, only in use a year, and uninjured, for one hundred pairs of 
woolen socks. The machine cost $90, and is as good as new. Any 
one taking up this offer, guaranteeing to deliver the socks by October 
1st, may get the machine at once. We vouch for the above in every 
particular. It is needless to add that the socks are for our soldiers 
in the war." 

To show the pressure of necessity under which the women of our 
State carried on their work at this time, we include in our report 
the following, taken from a Charleston paper : 

Charleston Courier, August 29, 1861. 

"The following dispatch was received in this city yesterday from 
Charlottesville, Va. : 
" 'To Wm. C. Bee, Esq. : 

" 'Five of us off with forty boxes for Fairfax. Storehouse almost 
empty. Shelves still full. Earnest appeal from camp for aid. 

" 'R. W. Barnwell Jr.' " 

Charleston Courier, August 29, 1861. 

"To the Ladies of Charleston : 

"In view of the great and daily recurring demands upon your 
liberality and industry by our suffering fellow citizens in Virginia, 
I have hitherto declined making an appeal to you in behalf of the 
Medical Department of this State. In calling your attention to the 
wants of this department, I would in no wise be understood to wish 
a diversion of your most noble and praiseworthy benevolence from 
its present channels, but purpose merely to indicate a new direction 
in which your assistance may be opportune. 

"Holding the position of medical director and purveyor for the 
Confederate forces in this State, it devolves upon me, as soon as a 
regiment is mustered into service (whether that service is in Vir- 
ginia, or within our own borders) to receive, approve and supply 

Georgetown Relief Association. 107 

their demands for medicines, instruments, hospital stores, dress- 
ings, etc. 

"To meet these demands, the Confederate Government has placed 
in my hands the necessary funds, out of an appropriation made by 
Congress for the Medical Department of this State. But, you will 
readily comprehend, many of the articles required cannot be pur- 
chased, the supply having been long since exhausted, and to a very 
few of these I beg to call attention, with the view of soliciting your 
kindly aid in supplying them. 

"On assuming the duties of my office, I found the department 
without a pound of lint or a roll of bandages, and to meet the daily 
requisitions for these has greatly exceeded my ability, relying, as I 
did, upon an impoverished and necessarily expensive market. To a 
regiment about to enter on a campaign, the above articles, it is need- 
less to say, are essential and, inasmuch as they may both be furnished 
by the community at the cost merely of their preparation, and as 
they are designed exclusively for our own troops, I have presumed 
to make the want known, and accompany it by an appeal for aid to 
the generosity of our ladies. With great respect, 

"I am your obedient servant, 

"A. N. Talley, 
"Med. Director and Pur. Confed. Forces in S. C." 

It should be remembered that, up to this time, cotton was never 
used in dressing wounds. A desperate effort was made to keep up 
the supply of lint made from old linen, but as time went on, this be- 
came impossible, and cotton had to be used. 

Charleston Courier, August 30, 1861. 

At this date we find mention of a Soldiers' Aid Society at Bluffton ; 
also of a contribution of $50.00 for the sick and wounded soldiers, 
from Chick Springs. 

In the same paper appears the following letter : 

Organization of Georgetown Relief Association. 

"Georgetown, August 27th. 

"The ladies of this district held a meeting this morning in the 
Indigo Hall, for the purpose of organizing an association for the 
relief of volunteer soldiers in active service. Dr. W. R. T. Prior, 
in behalf of the ladies, invited the Rev. R. T. Howard to act as chair- 
man, Rev. W. T. Capers as secretary. 

"The following ladies were appointed a committee to draft a con- 
stitution : Mrs. W. McNulty, Mrs. A. J. Shaw, Miss M. C. Thomas 
Mrs. J. Rees Ford, Mrs. Stark Heriot. 

108 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"The constitution was adopted and the following officers elected : 
Miss H. M. Trapier, President. 
Mrs. P. C. J. Weston, Vice-President. 
Mrs. S. T. Atkinson, Corresponding Secretary. 
Miss Anna White, Recording Secretary and Treasurer. 


Mrs. R. T. Howard. Miss S. B. Wilson. Mrs. J. H. Read. 

Mrs. W. R. T. Prior. Mrs. J. R. Ford. Mrs. M. Walker. 

Mrs. D. A. Sperry. Mrs. J. C. Porter. Mrs. E. P. Coachman. 

Mrs. M. H. Lance. Mrs. J. G. Honing. Mrs. G. J. Labruce. 

Mrs. R. Sherman. Mrs. B. H. Wilson. Mrs. W. McNulty. 

"The ladies of Georgetown, God bless them, from the beginning 
have manifested the greatest interest in the cause of Southern inde- 
pendence, cheering the volunteers with their sweet approval and 
generous assistance. They have made clothes for the soldiers, have 
added largely to the fund for the relief of their families, and now 
are ready and eager to do all they can to make the brave volunteers 
in this holy war of defense, comfortable in camp." 

Charleston Courier, September 6, 1861. 

"The weekly business meeting of the Ladies' Auxiliary Association 
(of Charleston) was held at the Young Men's Room on Tuesday 
afternoon. The meeting was called to order by the president, Miss 
Campbell, at five o'clock, and opened with prayer by the Rev. A. P. 

"A verbal report was made by Captain Chichester, who had re- 
turned that day from an extended tour of inspection of the hospitals 
in Virginia. Much information was derived from this report, which 
will prove of practical assistance to the ladies in their efforts. * * * 

"Interesting letters were also read from the Rev. R. W. Barnwell, 
of Charlottesville, calling for continued assistance. 

"The sum of $112.00 was reported as having been collected by one 
of the members, to be devoted to the employment of nurses. 

"The following ladies were appointed to deliver work to those 
who wish to assist the quartermaster in accordance with his adver- 
tisement : 

Mrs. L. Chapin. Mrs. J. Caldwell. Miss S. Y. Perroneau. 

Mrs. Chas. Graves. Mrs. Wm. Thayer. Mrs. Chas. Frazer. 

Mrs. S. Burrows. Mrs. W. Gilliland. Mrs. Albergotti. 

Mrs. R. S. Chrietzberg. Mrs. Judge Gilchrist. Miss Catherine Stuart. 
Miss Mary Robertson. 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 109 

"The association shipped yesterday seventy-four boxes and one 
barrel, containing over sixteen hundred garments, many of them of 
flannel, besides wine, brandy, books, medicines, etc. Additional do- 
nations are earnestly solicited." 

Charleston Courier, September 17, 1861. 

We see published the fifth weekly report of the South Carolina 
Hospital Association, at Charlottesville, Va. 

Among many other acknowledgements of contributions received 
from individuals, those from the following Aid Associations are 
mentioned: Florence, Mizpah, Christ Church, Orangeburg (sent 
through Mrs. Yongue), Cheraw (through M. E. Godfrey), Society 
Hill (through Mrs. S. E. W.) The report says that boxes and 
money have been received from every part of the State. 


October 28, 1861. — The first quarterly report of the Soldiers' Relief 
Association is of this date, and is found in the papers a day or two 
later. We have also seen the original manuscript of this report, in 
which, in addition to the names of officers, the following names of an 
executive committee are given : 

"Mrs. Geo. Robertson, President ; Mrs. Wm. Snowden, Vice- 
President ; Miss E. P. Hayne, Secretary and Treasurer ; Miss L. S. 
Porter, Miss F. M. Blamyer, Corresponding Secretaries. 

"Executive Committee — Mrs. Thomas Smyth, Mrs. John Forrest, 
Miss Cromwell. 

"This association was formed on July 20, 1861 — the day before 
the Battle of Manassas. Its first public meeting was held on July 
23d. According to the constitution, the object of the association is 
to provide garments for our soldiers in the field, and hospital stores 
and other comforts for the sick and wounded. 

"Liberal contributions of money and articles were freely made by 
our citizens, and on the 24th, four large cases of clothing were packed 
and forwarded by express to the surgeon-general at Richmond, for 
distribution among the sick and wounded of our soldiers. 

"Materials for clothing, etc., were also purchased and given out to 
the members to be made up. These first efforts have been followed 
up with great energy and perseverance on the part of the members, 
from the matron of 88 to the child of 4 years, through whose exer- 
tions, with the efficient aid rendered by several auxiliary societies 
in the country and neighboring islands, the Soldiers' Relief Associa- 
tion has been able to accomplish much towards adding to the comfort 

no South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of all, and alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded soldiers 
of our army, whenever and wherever needed. 

"We would here acknowledge that much of the prosperity of the 
association has been attributable to the untiring efforts of Mr. 
Richard Caldwell, who, from the commencement of the undertaking, 
has identified himself with its interests. His varied knowledge and 
experience have been invaluable, while his urbane and conciliating 
manners have rendered all our intercourse agreeable. 

"Weekly meetings of the association have been held, at each of 
which an address has been delivered by a gentleman invited for the 
purpose. These meetings have always been opened with prayer, and 
have been found both beneficial and interesting. While we have 
every reason to feel thankful for the great success which has crowned 
our efforts, and are willing and anxious to continue our labors in 
behalf of the soldiers, who, as the winter is fast approaching, stand 
more in need of assistance than ever, we regret that the situation of 
our treasury is such as to call forth an appeal to the public for aid. 
As this is a call in which one and all are deeply interested, we feel 
satisfied that it is only necessary to lay before the public the low 
state of our funds, and the result of our labors for the first three 
months, to insure us that support and aid which the liberal public of 
Charleston knows so well how to bestow. 

"Any contribution or donation will be thankfully received by 
either of the officers, or at the Depository, Chalmers street, every 
day, Sunday excepted, between the hours of ten and two o'clock. 

"All requests for aid should be handed in before twelve o'clock, 
at which hour the officers meet. 

"Mrs. Geo. Robertson, President. 
"E. P. Hayne, Secretary. 

"Treasurer's Statement. 

By amount received from donations $7,457.24 

By amount received from concert on- Battery, given 

by Charleston Brass Band 132.00 

By amount received from entertainment given by 

Messrs. Couturier & Reeves 87.50 


To amount sent St. Charles Hospital $100.00 

To amount sent Rev. R. W. Barnwell 132.00 

To amount of insurance 25.00 

Soldiers' Relief Association. iii 

To expenses to Charlottesville of steward and 

matron of hospital $85.00 

To amount of expenses to Richmond of two sol- 
diers, Captain McCrady's company 12.00 

To amount of postage 7.44 

To amount of blank books, paper, etc 21.28 

To amount of spinning wheels 10.00 

To amount of hospital stores 75- 21 

To amount of material for clothing, etc 6,198.07 

To amount of drayages 4 2 -5° 

To amount of freights 944.28 

To amount of petty hall expenses 26.12 



Balance on hand $ T 7-75 

"Materials purchased : 6,276 yards woolen flannel, 2,258 yards 
cotton flannel, 3,219 yards osnaburgs, 11,135 yards shirtings and 
drillings, 2,257 yards mariners' stripes, 621 yards bedticking, 1,215 
yards striped osnaburgs, 4,295 yards calico, 210 yards cambric and 
poplin, 1,425 yards tweeds and kerseys, 46 dozen spools and fifty-six 
pounds sewing cotton, 2^ pounds of flax thread, 58 dozen tape, and 
65 gross buttons. 

"Donations of clothing and hospital stores made to General Bon- 
ham's Brigade, in Virginia, consisting of Colonel Kershaw's Regi- 
ment, Colonel Williams' Regiment, Colonel Bacon's Regiment, 
Colonel Cash's Regiment, twenty packages. 

"To General Jones' Brigade, in Virginia, consisting of Colonel 
Sloan's Regiment, Colonel Jenkins' Regiment, Colonel Winder's 
Regiment, Colonel Blanding's Regiment, nineteen packages. 

"To Colonel Hampton's Legion, in Virginia, nineteen packages. 

"To Colonel Gregg's Regiment, five packages. 

"To Maryland Volunteers, three packages. 

"To Richardson Guards, one package. 

"To Captain Haskell's Regiment, in Virginia, one package. 

"To Brooks' Guards, two packages. 

"To Carolina Light Infantry, one package. 

"To German Rifles, one package. 

ii2 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"To Horry Rebels, one package. 

"To Irish Volunteers, one package. 

"To Washington Artillery, one package. 

"To Colonel White's Battalion, at Summerville, five packages. 

"To Colonel Hagood's Regiment, on the coast, three packages. 

"To Colonel Manigault's Regiment, five packages. 

"To Colonel Heyward's Regiment, one package. 

"To Colonel Orr's Regiment, one package. 

"To Eutaw Rifles, one package. 

"To St. Paul's Rifles, one package. 

"To marines of Steamer Savannah, one package. 

"To Surgeon-General DeLeon, in Virginia, for the Charlottesville 
Hospital, forty-eight packages. 

"To the Manchester Hospital, in Virginia, under Doctors Chisolm 
and Fishburne, sixteen packages. 

"To Captain F. G. RufBn, in Virginia, six packages. 

"To H. A. Dudley, Esq., for St. Charles Hotel Hospital, Virginia, 
eight packages. 

"To Dr. P. E. Hines' hospital at Yorktown, Virginia, twenty-four 

"To Dr. Madison, Orange Courthouse, Virginia, twelve packages. 

"To the hospital at Culpeper, seven packages. 

"Three private packages forwarded to Virginia. 

"Making in all 262 packages, consisting of tierces, barrels, kegs, 
cases, boxes, baskets, containing as follows: 1,025 flannel shirts, 
1,424 cotton shirts, 1,522 cotton drawers, 534 flannel drawers, 84 
pairs pantaloons, 54 sacks and coats, 656 pairs socks and stockings, 
204 linen shirts, 108 pairs slippers, no dressing-gowns, 209 blankets, 
32 quilts, 145 comforts, no mattresses, 205 bed sacks, 306 sheets, 
523 pillow-cases, 163 pillows, 34 pillow-sacks, 516 towels, 592 pocket 
handkerchiefs, 134 needlebooks, 15 gallons wine, brandies, etc., 51 
bags rice (equal to n tierces), a large quantity of hospital nourish- 
ment; also medicines, bandages, rags, lint, etc., Bibles, Testaments, 
books, magazines, and papers. 

"In addition to the regular ward work which has been made up 
every week, the association have completed — 

"For the marines of Confederate States Steamer Savannah, 60 
blue flannel shirts. 

"For Fort Moultrie, 150 overcoats. 

"For Zouave Volunteers, 153 pieces of clothing, viz.: 51 jackets, 
51 vests, 51 pairs pantaloons. 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 113 

"For the Horry Rebels, 112 pairs cotton drawers. 

"For the quartermaster, 93 pairs socks and 2,509 pieces of clothing, 
viz.: 300 pairs pantaloons, 894 shirts, 1,315 pairs drawers. 

"We are now making, for Hatch's Battalion, 144 coats, no pairs 

"Charleston, October 28, 1861." 

In the latter part of the year, a hospital was organized in Charles- 
ton by the Soldiers' Relief Association. 

We do not know the exact date, but we have seen in Mr. Caldwell's 
correspondence the letter in which Dr. Chisolm offers his house in 
Trapman street for this purpose. Dr. W. H. Huger was requested 
by the ladies to take charge of this hospital. After the shelling of 
the city began, the hospital was moved uptown, out of range of the 

Written by Miss Anna Simpson, October, 1901. 

From Miss Anna Simpson, a prominent worker in the Relief As- 
sociation and the hospitals, we learn that Mr. Caldwell was most 
earnest in his efforts for the hospital, which, she says, "was founded 
and furnished by the Soldiers' Relief Association. Officers were 
appointed for it, and committees of ladies visited it daily. They also 
attended all the other hospitals in the city, doing all they could for 
the comfort of the poor suffering men. It was truly the deepest of 
tragedies to visit the hospital and try to cheer the brave and patient 

"The Soldiers' Relief Association was, after a while, turned over to 
the Confederate Government, in order to enlarge its usefulness." 

Of the ladies prominent in this work, Miss Simpson recalls the 
two Mrs. Snowdens, Mrs. Forrest, Miss Blamyer, Mrs. Wigfall, Mrs. 
George Trenholm, Mrs. J. K. Robinson, Miss Ann Robertson, Miss 
Catherine Robertson, Miss Rebecca Holmes, Mrs. Blackman, Miss 
Laura Porter, Mrs. George Robertson, Mrs. James Gilliland, Mrs. 
Samuel Stoney, Mrs. Thompson, and Mrs. Sarah Watts. 

Dr. W. H. Huger speaks of Mrs. Watts with grateful remem- 
brance. Although an English woman, she was devoted in her care 
of our soldiers. 

Miss F. M. Blamyer, secretary of the Soldiers' Relief Association, 
says : 

Letter from Miss F. M. Blamyer, August, 1901. 

"The Roper Hospital and the Marine were the only two I visited, 
and then only as a casual visitor. My sister — Mrs. Wigfall — and I 
were always at the Depository for work. Mrs. Thos. Smith, Miss 

ii4 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Aajer, and Mrs. Forrest were with us constantly. * * * Any lady 
belonging to the society who went to the hospitals could apply for 
articles for the sick soldiers. 

"Our hands were so full then that we had not time to take up our 
neighbors' load, and therefore I can recall but a few of those who 
regularly visited the hospitals. I remember Mrs. Daniel Lesesne, 
Mrs. Gidiere (most of the time at the Roper Hospital), Mme. Girard 
(at the Soldiers' Relief), and Miss Simpson, Miss Caroline Ball, and 
Mrs. James Gilliland. 

"Mr. Richard Caldwell was the first to suggest a hospital. He 
generously established it in the name of the Soldiers' Relief Associa- 
tion. His heart was in it, and he worked hard for it and in it." 

Miss Blamyer also says : "During the last year of the war, when 
the other officers of the association were absent, Mrs. Henry Wigfall 
and Miss Laura Porter continued the work of the association in 
Charleston. Mrs. Henry Wigfall was a constant visitor at the hos- 
pitals. When Charleston was evacuated, these ladies divided all 
articles among the hospitals, and closed our doors." 

Miss Simpson, 1901. 

Of the many contrivances caused by the exigencies of the time, 
Miss Simpson recalls the overcoats and blankets made of carpets, 
curtains — anything — and interlined with newspapers. 

She also tells of the use of a quantity of red flannel scraps left 
from the linings of uniform caps, and given to the association by a 
Mr. Williams, who had the contract for making the caps. These 
scraps were raveled out, and Judge Glover, of Orangeburg, had 
them spun by his servants, and sent back to the ladies in the shape 
of yarn for knitting. The long strips of flannel were pieced together 
and managed to make two shirts. 

Miss Simpson was present at the organization of an auxiliary so- 
ciety of women, on Sullivans Island, the first meeting of which was 

held at the house of Mrs. Fitzsimmons, a few days after the 

first Battle of Manassas. 

From many who recall these troublous days, we hear of the work 
of Mme. Girard, and at the request of some who remember her, we 
have succeeded in getting the following short sketch by her daughter, 
Mrs. G. W. Alexander, of Charleston : 

Sketch of Mme. Girard, by Mrs. G. W. Alexander, 1900. 

"Mother always told me the Confederate War was so like her own 
Polish War of 1830, through which she herself had passed, that her 

Sisters of Mercy. 115 

whole heart and soul went out to the Southern people, and she felt 
that their cause was her own. 

"She assisted Mrs. Snowden in all her work of caring for and 
nursing the sick and wounded soldiers in the different hospitals 
under charge of the Ladies' Relief Association; in the hospital in 
Trapman street, afterwards in care of Dr. W. H. Huger, who re- 
moved it subsequently to Mr. Bishop's residence, in the Mall, out of 
the way of the shelling, to which place she transferred her work. 

"In the Misses Slomans' house, in Meeting street, which was used 
as a hospital, mother nursed the Louisiana soldiers, even taking a 
number of them to her own home. 

"In the hospital over Dr. Aimar's drug store, she nursed the North 
Carolina soldiers, and in the Trapman Street Hospital, in both loca- 
tions, she cared for the Forty-seventh Georgians, Colonel Colquitt's 

"Mother helped Mrs. Snowden in every way she could in the 
bazars and other entertainments held for the benefit of the Confed- 
erate soldiers, and all her spare time was spent in knitting socks for 

"(Signed) Mrs. G. W. Alexander. 

"(Madame Girard's daughter.)" 

Mrs. Norton Hunter, 1901. 

We have been told by one of the family how the back rooms of 
Mine. Girard's house, on the corner of Wentworth and Rutledge 
streets, were filled with sick soldiers (French-speaking Louisianians, 
who could not easily be understood elsewhere), while the front rooms 
were uninhabitable, from having been struck by a shell. 

Mrs. Alexander (then Mrs. Dowell) and her sister, Mrs. Pinkind, 
followed as far as they were able in their mother's steps. 

Both were fine musicians, living in the upper part of the State, 
and many still living recall the concerts they repeatedly gave for 
the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. 

In those days, as always, "Sisters of Mercy" proved themselves 
worthy of the name. We have collected here a few facts from 
obituary notices of these devoted women, for apparently only when 
death came was public attention attracted to their work. 

Charleston Mercury, November 28, 1863. 

"Died, at the Convent of the Sisters of our Lady of Mercy, on 
Thursday, the 26th inst., Sister Mary Bernard Frank, aged 39 years. 
* * * In December, 1861, she went to Virginia, where she passed 
eighteen months in the sedulous discharge of her duties as a Sister 

n6 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of Mercy. To her kind offices many a poor soldier is indebted for a 
care which may have saved his life. While engaged in this mission 
of love, she contracted a disease which made it necessary for her to 
return to the Convent in Charleston. There she resided in a state of 
ill health until her death." 

Charleston News and Courier, March 5, 1899. 

"Sister Mary Frances died at the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy 
yesterday, in the sixty-sixth year of her age. Forty-five years ago 
she entered the community of Sisters in this city as Miss Catherine 
Kyle. * * * During the war, she was one of that band of sisters 
whom this community sent out, and who, from the beginning to the 
end of the war, ministered to the sick and wounded Confederate 
officers and soldiers in Virginia." 

Charleston Sunday News, June 3, 1900. 

In the paper of this date there is an editorial notice of the death, 
on May 18th, at a good old age, of Mary Theresa Barry, better 
known as Mother Theresa, Superioress of the Convent of our Lady 
of Mercy in Charleston. 

Many deeds of mercy are accredited to this devoted woman, but 
we have only to notice one. "During the war, nurses being sorely 
needed at the front, Mother Theresa and five of the other sisters 
went on to Virginia and were put in charge of hospital wards at 
Greenbriar Springs and other places ; and many of the noble women 
of Virginia gladly placed themselves under their instructions, in 
order to learn from them how to care for the wounded and for those 
suffering from the malignant diseases that ever follow in the track of 
an army. Of these six ladies, only two remain, one of them almost 
incapacitated by age and suffering, the other the still active and 
capable directress of the St. Xavier Hospital." 

Charleston News and Courier, July 20, 1901. 

"Sister Mary Agatha, of the order of the Sisters of our Lady of 
Mercy, died yesterday morning in the seventy-second year of her age. 
Sister Agatha was known to the world as Miss Louisa McNamara. 
* * * At the outbreak of the war, Sister Agatha was one of that 
noble band of Sisters who for four years, on the field of battle and in 
the hospitals of Virginia, nursed and cared for the soldiers of the 
Lost Cause." 

Charlotte Observer, August 16, 1901. 

"Died, August 15th, at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Belmont, 
N. C, Mother Mary Augustine Kent. More than fifty years ago, 

Flags Presented. 117 

Mother Augustine came over from Ireland. * * * It was in Charles- 
ton that she commenced the labor of love that ended only with her 
death. * * * War and pestilence swept over her adopted country, 
and we find her in hospitals by the side of the sick and dying. During 
the epidemic of yellow fever in Wilmington, N. C, in 1862, she, 
with two companions, now dead, were sent to nurse the fever-stricken 
people. There again her gentle and sincere Christian charity won 
the love and respect of all." 

Charleston News and Courier, September 20, 1901. 

In the notice of the death of Sister De Chantal, who had been ac- 
tively engaged as a nurse at the St. Xavier Hospital, Charleston, we 
find the following: 

"Sister De Chantal, born in Troy, New York, entered the Convent 
of our Lady of Mercy, in Charleston, at the age of 24. 

"During the war, she formed one of the band of Sisters of Mercy 
who nursed the sick and wounded soldiers of the Lost Cause in the 
hospitals of Virginia during the entire war. It was said of her that 
her touch was a halm, and her smile carried hope to many a weary 
and suffering soldier." 

December n and 12, 1861. 

In December, 1861, occurred the great fire, by which a large part 
of the City of Charleston was destroyed, many of its inhabitants 
made homeless and deprived of their all. 

This, of course, doubled the work of the women of Charleston, 
while it diminished greatly their means and ability to help. 

Before closing our record for the year 1861, it may be of interest 
to give a list of the flags we see mentioned in the newspapers as 
having been presented by the women of the State to various military 

Probably, as in all our lists, the names we have secured are very 
few, compared with those we know nothing of. 

List of Flag's Presented to Soldiers by Women 
of South Carolina. 

Charleston Mercury, January 5, 1861. 

Palmetto Flag, for Fort Morris, presented by the ladies of Mr. 
Hugh E. Vincent's family. 

Charleston Mercury, January 19, 1861. 

Flag presented by the ladies of Charleston, for Fort Sumter. 

n8 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, February 15, 1861. 

Flag presented by ladies to the Sumter Guards. General Jamison 
makes the presentation. 

Charleston Mercury, February 22, 1861. 

Flag presented by a young lady to the Washington Light In- 

Charleston Mercury, February 25, 1861. 

Stand of colors, presented by a young lady of Charleston to the 
First Regiment of Rifles, through Mr. James Tupper. 

Charleston Mercury, March 7, 1861. 

Flag presented by the ladies of Newberry to the Newberry 

Charleston Mercury, March 11, 1861. 

Flag presented by the ladies of Anderson to the Piercetown Guard. 

Charleston Mercury, April 23, 1861. 

Flag presented to Gregg's Regiment on the occasion of their going 
to Virginia, by the ladies of Charleston. 

Charleston Mercury, May 1 and 7, 1861. 

Flag, and gold medal, presented to the Palmetto Guard, in remem- 
brance of Fort Sumter, by ladies. 

Charleston Mercury, May, 1861. 

Flag presented to the Bamberg Guards by the ladies of Bamberg. 

Charleston Mercury, May 16, 1861. 

Flag presented by ladies to the Calhoun Guards. Major Stevens 
makes the presentation. 

Charleston Mercury, May 23, 1861. 

Flag presented to the Marion Artillery by Narcissa Washington, 
after the Battle of Fort Sumter. In the report of this presentation, 
it is mentioned that, after the Battle of Fort Moultrie, their ancestors 
had been presented with a flag by Sabina Elliott. 

Charleston Courier, May 8, 1861. 

Flags presented by the ladies of Pendleton to the companies com- 
manded by Captains Shanklin and Kilpatrick. 

Charleston Mercury, May 25, 1861. 

Flag presented to the Musgrove Volunteers by the ladies of 

Flags Presented. 119 

Charleston Mercury, May 31, 1861. 

Flag- presented by ladies to the Washington Light Infantry. 

In the report of the presentation of a flag to the Washington Light 
Infantry, it is said : "In April, 1827, Mrs. Jane Washington, the 
widow of Col. Wm. Washington, had presented a precious relic of 
her husband to the Washington Light Infantry. In 1861, her only 
surviving representative, Mrs. Jane Ancrum, leaves her home, though 
an octogenarian, to present, through Col. T. Y. Simons, this flag, 
given by the ladies." 

Charleston Mercury, July 4, 1861. 

Flag presented by ladies to the Charleston Riflemen. 

Charleston Mercury, August 14, 1861. 

Flag presented to Captain Wagner's company by the ladies of 

Charleston Mercury, September 10, 1861. 

Flag presented to the Irish Volunteers by the Sisters of Mercy of 
Charleston, painted and lettered by themselves and their pupils. 

Charleston Mercury, October 6, 1861. 

Flag presented to Orr's Regiment by two ladies of Charleston. 

From a paper written for Wade Hampton Chapter, Daughters of 
the Confederacy, by Bishop Capers, formerly Lieutenant Capers, 
this is inserted here as typical of the way in which many of these 
flags were made : 

"The flag of Orr's Rifles, South Carolina Volunteers, Confederate 
States of America, was made by two ladies of Charleston, and in 
their name presented to the regiment by Colonel Isaac W. Hayne, 
of Charleston, October 4, 1861, the presentation taking place on Sul- 
livans Island, where the regiment was encamped. 

"The two ladies who made the flag were Mrs. Ellison Capers (nee 
Charlotte R. Palmer, of St. Johns Berkeley, wife of Lieutenant Elli- 
son Capers, assistant professor at the Citadel Academy), and Mrs. 
Alexander H. Mazyck (nee Annie Hume, of Charleston), wife of 
Lieut. A. H. Mazyck, Quartermaster at the Citadel Academy. 

"The flag was made of silk, showing the Confederate 'Stars and 
Bars' on one side, and on the other a white crescent and palmetto 

"The white silk stars, crescent and palmetto were made from a 
white silk dress of Mrs. Mazyck's ; the blue ground from a silk dress 
of Mrs. Capers'. The work was done entirely by these two ladies. 
The shaft of the flag was taken from an old nullification banner." 

120 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, October 21, 1861. 

Flag presented by the ladies of Columbia to Capt. L. Cheves Mc- 
Cord's company, the South Carolina Zouaves. The presentation was 
made by Judge Longstreet, and the flag committed to the care of 
Private William Gardner. This flag was of blue silk. On one 
side, embroidered by the Nuns of Columbia, was a white silk pal- 
metto and crescent. On the reverse was a tiger's head, painted by 
Monsieur Dovilliers, of Columbia. 

Letter in possession of the Daughters of the Confederacy of Charleston. 

February, 1861. — Flag presented to the garrison of Fort Moultrie 
by Mrs. Chas. A. Scanlan, Mrs. Julia Reinhardt, and Miss Kate Hall, 
of Charleston. 

From paper by Mrs. T. H. Brooks, wriften 1900, in possession of the Daughters of the Con- 

1861. — Palmetto flag presented to Brooks Guard (Capt. T. H. 
Brooks) by ladies. The flag was of blue silk, embroidered in silver, 
and was delivered to the company by Mary Brooks, daughter of 
Hon. Preston S. Brooks. 

From papers in possession of the Daughters of the Confederacy of Columbia. 

1861. — Flag presented by ladies to the Butler Guards, of Green- 

1861. — Flag given to Captain Robert Adams' company, presented 
to the company by Miss Emma Bates. 

From paper by Mrs. Bachman, April, 1900. 

1861. — Guidon presented to Bachman's Battery by German 
Women of Charleston, through Gen. T. A. Wagener. The flag was 
received by Captain Bachman and put in charge of A. W. Jaeger, 
color bearer. It bore the Confederate colors on one side and the 
German on the other, was heavily embroidered, and had a handsome 

186 1. — Flag presented to Darlington Guards by J. A. Dargan, for 
ladies of Darlington. Received by Captain Warley, and committed 
to the care of Color Bearer E. B. Brunson. 

From Charleston Mercury or Charleston Courier. 

April 7, 1862. — Flag presented to the Bee Rifles, Captain Kinloch, 
by ladies. 

May 31, 1862. — Flag presented by the ladies of Barnwell to 
Hagood's Regiment. The presentation was made by Miss Ryan, 
through Mr. Maher, to Colonel Haeood. 

General Work. 121 

June 17, 1862. — Flag presented by ladies of Charleston to the 
Brooks Guard. The flag was committed to the care of Private 
Phillips, to be taken to the company. 

June 20, 1862. — Flag presented by the ladies of Beaufort to the 
Beaufort Troop. The presentation made by the Hon. F. W. 
Fickling, to Capt. T. E. Screven. 

October 30, 1862. — Flag presented by the ladies of Charleston to 
the First Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers. 

November 14. — Flag presented by the ladies of Charleston to the 
Beauregard Light Infantry, Captain Lalane. This flag was made by 
Mrs. Schuckman. 

General WorR. 

Charleston Courier, January i, 1862. 

The year begins with an appeal for a work not strictly that of 
women, but still one of the many efforts in which they joined to re- 
lieve and help the men who were fighting for their homes. As is 
seen by the list of contributions, women did their share in this, too. 

"Please acknowledge the receipt of the following sums for the 
relief of privateers' and seamen's families : 

November 20. — From a captain $5-00 

November 20. — From a gentleman 5.00 

November 20. — From a lady 20.00 

November 20. — From a lady 2.00 

November 21. — From Palmetto Girls' Society 30.00 

November 22. — From a planter 50.00 

November 23. — From a lady 20.00 

November 26. — From a gentleman 5.00 

December — . — From a Jew, who desired me so to ac- 
knowledge 5.00 

December — . — From a young lady 3.00 

December 11. — From a lady 2.00 

December 11. — From a sailmaker 10.00 

"It is with gratitude I acknowledge the receipt of the above sums, 
which, under a kind Providence, has enabled me to supply the wants 
of many who would otherwise have greatly suffered. I am com- 
pelled to appeal again to a generous people to replenish my almost 
exhausted treasury. 'The last shot in the locker' will this week be 
gone, and I have a number whose husbands are in prison still at the 

122 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

North, who must be cared for until the Northern despotism be taught 
the true condition of the consorts of the 'Sumter.' 

"Wm. B. Yates, 

In the same paper there is a reference to the homespuns made by 
the women in the upper districts. At this time it was a matter of 
pride and principle to wear homespun, both as an encouragement to 
home manufacture, and to discourage blockade runners from loading 
their vessels with articles for women's wear, instead of necessities 
for the army. 

Charleston Courier, January i, 1862. 
"truly SOUTHERN. 

"Those who wish to show by the outer man that they are disposed 
to encourage the patriotic ladies of Anderson, Greenville and Pickens 
Districts, who, with their own hands, manufacture a superior goods, 
thereby exhibiting the fact that we can be independent of the North, 
or the balance of the world, can procure a suit of excellent jeans 
(woolen), suitable for winter wear, by calling on Messrs. Cothran, 
Jeffers & Co., on Fraser's Wharf. 

"We should certainly feel proud of such an exhibition of inde- 

"December ioth." 

Charleston Courier, January 12, 1862. 

How to provide blankets for the army was beginning to be a 
matter of very serious consideration, and various suggestions are 
made, such as, "Blankets have been made near Wilmington, N. C, 
from the well-known long moss of the seaboard." Also, "Mrs. 
Frances B. Fogg, of Nashville, Tenn. (who, by the way, we may 
mention, is a lineal descendant of two of the Carolina signers of the 
Declaration of Independence — Rutledge on one side, and Middleton 
on the other), has published the following notice : 

"Having discovered, on frequent application to the quarter- 
master's department, that there is a lamentable deficiency of blankets 
for the soldiers of the Confederate Army, an experiment has been 
made, with the greatest possible success, in the manufacture of that 
indispensable article of comfort, by a few patriotic and enterprising 
ladies, who are now ready to commence operations on a large scale, 
the moment they receive contributions of a few bales of raw cotton ; 
and also the manufacture of knit shirts and drawers for the soldiers, 
through the medium of an English weaving machine, as soon as they 
receive a few thousand pounds of wool from the South." 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 123 

Charleston Courier, January 12, 1862. 

The suffering caused by the great fire was intense, and at this 
time Mayor Charles Macbeth, of Charleston, issued a proclamation 
offering help to sufferers from the fire, and saying that the ladies had 
offered to collect and distribute clothing at the Theological Library, 
in Chalmers street. A committee was appointed to take charge of 
this work of relief, and in their acknowledgements of contributions 
sent them, names of women are constantly seen, and also names of 
many soldiers in the field. 

Charleston Courier, January 3, 1862. 

Among the first items of interest this year is the weekly report 
of the Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston. 

"The regular weekly meeting of this association was held on Mon- 
day, December 30th. It was opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. 
Kendrick, who, after the reading of several reports and letters, 
made a very animated and cheering address. 

"During the past week there have been eighteen donations re- 
ceived, among them, one package drawers and shirts, from Johns 
Island Relief Association, twelve pairs woolen socks, through Mrs. 
C. A. G., from Mrs. H. English, the work of her servants. One 
package of lint from a little girl, prepared by her. 

"This association is indebted for much work done by the ladies of 
the Orangeburg Relief Association, to the ladies of the Claremont 
Relief Association, who have also sent a woolen shirt, with full di- 
rections for the same, knit by the president, Mrs. E. Bradley. 

"A donation was handed in by Mrs. G. M. Coffin, given by Mrs. 
Edward Trenholm, to be used by the ladies of the hospital. Several 
other donations have been received. 

"The following donations have been made : 

"To the Marine Hospital, fifteen flannel shirts, forty pairs drawers, 
twenty-five cotton shirts, twenty pillow-cases. 

"To the Moultrie Guard, Captain Palmer, fifty cotton shirts, fifty 
pairs drawers, fifty pairs socks, tracts, etc. 

"Letters of thanks were read from Miss S. S. Seabrook, President 
of Soldiers' Relief Association of Grahamville, and from Mr. John 
W. Evans, Steward of Marine Hospital. 

"The weekly committees of ladies were appointed to visit the Sol- 
diers' Relief Hospital and the Marine Hospital." 

By this time, the question of procuring shoes, not only for the sol- 
diers, but for those at home, was becoming a serious one. Many 
women made shoes for themselves and their young children, of 

124 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

black cloth, and we have seen some dainty little black velvet shoes 
made by young mothers for their babies. For the plantation negroes, 
wooden shoes, or shoes with canvas tops and wooden soles, were 
often made. 

Charleston Mercury, January 4, 1862. 

"The manufactory of wooden shoes is now carried on quite exten- 
sively in Raleigh, N. C, by Messrs. Thum & Traps. The enter- 
prising manufacturers have in their employment some thirty hands, 
and are turning out about one hundred pairs of shoes per day. The 
shape and size of the shoe are first marked out, and then it is bored 
and scooped out and fashioned at the bottom and sandpapered and 
lined and painted and tipped with leather, and thus finished, in 
various rooms in the same building. Most of the work is done by 
machinery, driven by steam. The wood used is gum and poplar, 
which is well steamed before the shoe is made." 

On this date is published the first call for a Wayside Hospital in 

Charleston Mercury, January 5 and 7, 1862. 

We see acknowledgements of contributions for the Wayside Hos- 

Charleston Mercury, January 10, 1862. 

"This association, in aid of our suffering soldiers, has been in 
operation since July 19, 1861. During this time, it has been well 
sustained by the citizens of Greenville, the following donations 
having been received : 

"From Vardry McBee, Esq., $109; Dr. J. Boyce, $50, thirty-one 
bolts cloth, eighty-four silk handkerchiefs; Mr. J. David, $30; Dr. 
Thos. Lyles, $10; Miss L. Kern, $10; Mr. Collins, $10; Miss E. 
Johnston, $10. 

"Mrs. W. C. Price, $10; Mrs. Norton, $6; Dr. J. Kern, $5; Mrs. 
Chaplin, $5 ; Mrs. Waddell, $5 ; Dr. Johnson, $5 ; Mr. Whitefoord 
Smith, $5 ; Mrs. Rowland, $5 ; Mrs. Choice, $5 ; Mrs. C. Pool, $5 ; 
Mrs. T. Roberts, $5 ; Mrs. Wallace Ioor, $5 ; Mrs. J. H. Cleveland, 
$5 ; Mrs. Glass, $5 ; Mrs. Jordan, $5 ; Mrs. J. F. Hein, $5. 

"Twenty boxes and three bales have been forwarded by this asso- 
ciation to Virginia, Columbia and Coosawhatchie Hospitals, con- 
taining 280 shirts, 180 pairs drawers, 160 pairs socks, fourteen 
dressing-gowns, forty pairs pants, one vest, one scarf, 120 handker- 

Greenville Ladies' Aid Association. 125 

chiefs, 190 sheets, five counterpanes, seventy comforters, ten bed- 
ticks, fourteen blankets, two quilts, fifty pillows, 165 pillow-cases, 
two curtains, 144 towels, fifteen pounds tea, two pounds spice, eighty 
pounds sugar, three pounds arrowroot, eight pounds hoarhound 
candy, twenty jars jelly, fourteen cans fruit, four jars pickles, sixteen 
bottles tomatoes, 100 bottles wine, brandy and cordial, twenty-five 
pounds soap, two dozen teaspoons, six dozen tin cups, seven dozen 
tin plates, six dozen tin pans, one and one-half bushels apples, one- 
half bushel sweet potatoes, one ham, twenty loaves bread, three dozen 
eggs, 150 pounds crackers, one and one-half bushels flaxseed, sixty 
chickens, twelve pounds herbs, linen, pins, needles, six Bibles, nine 

"This association would be thankful for contributions of cotton 
to make up comforters, which are greatly needed in the hospitals. 
Annexed are the names of the officers and directresses, to any one 
of whom donations may be sent : 

Mrs. Perry E. Duncan, President. 

Mrs. Pinckney McBee, Vice-President. 

Mrs. Charles J. Radford, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Mrs. Dr. Anderson. Mrs. Gerard. Mrs. The. Thompson. 

Mrs. F. F. Beattie. Mrs. Hill. Mrs. Col. Ed. Ware. 

Mrs. Thad Boiling. Mrs. S. Mauldin. Miss Edna David. 

Mrs. Dr. A. Broaddus. Mrs. Alice McKee. Miss Dora Furman. 

Mrs. D. E. Buist. Mrs. W. Roberts. Miss Eliza Johnson. 

Miss Julia Markley." 

Charleston Mercury, January 10, 1862. 

"The Eutaw (Ala.) Observer says that a lady of that place, being 
desirous of obtaining a military scarf for a relative, and not being 
able to buy one, cut up and carded a silk dress, spun it into thread, 
and crocheted it into a beautiful scarf." 

Rabbits' hair was sometimes carded up with scraps of black silk 
and just enough wool to combine the two, thus making a very pretty 
gray silk yarn, used for officers' gloves. These gloves were some- 
times really handsome, with large, stiff gauntlets, crocheted. The 
stitching on the backs of the gloves and the edge of the gauntlets 
was done in the colors of the various branches of the service — blue 
for infantry, red for artillery, yellow for cavalry, and buff for staff. 
Every little scrap and shred of colored worsted was saved for such 

126 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, January 8, 1862. 

In one of the weekly reports of the Soldiers' Relief Association, of 
Charleston, we see acknowledged a box of lint, from a little girl, and 
a pair of woolen socks, knit by a little girl of seven. 

Contributions to the sufferers by fire are acknowledged from the 
Soldiers' Relief Association of Longtown, Fairfield District, Mrs. 
John C. Peay, President; from Ladies' Aid Society, Brick Church, 
Sumter, through Mrs. M. P. Mayes; and from Soldiers' Relief Asso- 
ciation, Aiken, Mrs. Steedman, President. 

Charleston Mercury, January 21, 1862. 

A letter is published from General Beauregard, thanking Mrs. 
John Dunbar, of Dunbarton, for woolen socks sent him. 

In a report of the Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, men- 
tion is made of a Soldiers' Relief Association in Beaufort. 

Charleston Mercury, January 30, 1862. 

The Soldiers' Relief Association publish their second quarterly 
report, as follows : 

"Though many of our members were severe sufferers by the late 
fire, their interest in the welfare of the soldiers has not abated. 

"The private hospital of Dr. J. J. Chisolm, in Trapman street, 
having been generously offered to the association, it has been fur- 
nished by them and opened as a Confederate Hospital, under Dr. W. 
H. Huger, as the Soldiers' Relief Hospital. A committee of ladies 
are in daily attendance. Committees also visit daily the Marine and 
Rikersville Hospitals." 

J. C. Gray, of the Chesterfield Dragoons, thanks Mrs. John Wither- 
spoon and Mrs. Mcintosh, of Society Hill, for large donations of 
clothing and provisions. 

Charleston Mercury, January 31, 1862. 

Notice of Wayside Hospital. 

Columbia Guardian, February 10, 1862. 

In one of the few Columbia papers we have been able to find 
appears the following notice : 

"The regular monthly meeting of the Soldiers' Relief Association 
will be held on Monday morning, February ioth, at 10:30 a. m., at 
Kinsler's Hall. A full attendance is required, as there is work on 
hand for members. They will remember that the regular subscrip- 
tion will be received, and also that of those who did not pay last 
month. Cecelia L. Johnston, 

"Secretary and Treasurer." 

Work for the Gunboats. 127 

Charleston Courier, February 27, 1862. 

We find, in the Charleston Courier of this date, the question, "Can- 
not the women of Charleston give an order for a gunboat?" This 
is apparently the first signal for an undertaking of the women of the 
entire State, an undertaking which was soon brought to a successful 
close. The women not only raised money enough for one gunboat, 
but helped in the purchase of another. There was much discussion 
as to the names of these boats. They were finally called the "Pal- 
metto State" and the "Chicora," but many other names were advo- 
cated. "Vixen" and "Spitfire" were rather liked by some, these 
being the names by which our opponents delighted to characterize 
Southern women. 

Charleston Courier, February 28, 1862. 

The love of the mothers for their country was fully shared by their 
daughters — even the little ones. We see quoted this little incident : 

"the spirit of our children. 
"An interesting girl of eight, who is not without a deep sense of 
the condition of our country, resolved to observe the fast prescribed 
by the town authorities for Friday, 21st inst. Her mother tried to 
dissuade her, but for some time without success. In the afternoon, 
however, the little Hattie was persuaded to break her fast by the 
argument that fasting was like concert tickets — grown people, so 
much ; children, half price." 

" In the spring of 1862, the women of South Carolina undertook to 
provide, for the service of the Confederacy, a gunboat, to be paid for 
entirely by themselves. 

The first contribution we see noticed for this purpose was sent to 
the Charleston Courier, with the following letter to the editor : 

Charleston Courier, March 3, 1862. 

"Summerville, March 1st. 

"My Dear Sir : Having observed a few days since in The Courier 
that the ladies of New Orleans had given an order for a gunboat, and 
also the idea suggested to the ladies of Charleston to emulate their 
example, I immediately concluded to send you my mite to assist in the 
good cause, and only regret that it is not a larger sum. If every true 
woman in our beloved State would contribute the same amount 
($5.00), we would soon be enabled to give an order for more than 
one gunboat. 

"Several of my friends are most willing to assist, and are anxious 
to know through what source to remit to you. I most respectfully 

128 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

propose then that you should open a list for contributions, and inform 
the public through your columns. 

"With the earnest hope of success in your good undertaking, 

"Respectfully yours, 

"Sue G. Gebyer." 

With this The Courier opens a list for contributors to the gunboat 
"Palmetto State," and suggests that a second be built and named 
"The Lovely Sue." 

Charleston Courier, March 4, 1862. 

Every form of contribution is now made for this purpose. Mrs. 
Theresa McDonald gives a large and complete set of china, just from 
Havre, valued at $200. "A Sailor's Wife" sends six silver table- 
spoons and three forks. 

Charleston Courier, March 6, 1862. 

A report is published of the Aid and Relief Association of Marl- 


"This association was organized on August 31, 1861. The whole 
amount of money received is $511.53. The following is the list of 
articles contributed up to March, 1862: 120 blankets, thirty counter- 
panes, 625 pairs socks, 319 pairs drawers, 280 shirts, thirty-six pairs 
gloves, nineteen pairs suspenders, thirty-four pairs pants, one over- 
coat, one vest, two merino undervests, 101 yards of flannel, twelve 
flannel shirts, two pounds wool, fifteen cotton mattresses, twenty-five 
bed sacks, thirty-five quilts, fifty-nine comforts, eighty-three sheets, 
188 pillow-cases, seventy-one pillows, sixty-five towels, three dressing 
gowns, thirty-six rolls bandages, fifty packages of herbs, three pounds 
tea, four pounds coffee, five cakes beeswax, one cake mutton suet, six 
candles, two pounds soap, two boxes starch, six linen tablecloths, one 
pair slippers, twenty jars and one keg of pickles, twenty-nine bottles 
and two gallons of wine, thirty-six bottles of catsup, two bottles 
brandy, one bottle cough syrup, three jars jelly, three jars preserves, 
three cans tomatoes, fifteen bottles cough syrup, six packages lint, 
three handkerchiefs, two Bibles and Testaments, fourteen religious 
books, three packages tracts. 

"These were distributed to the following companies : Marlboro 
Guards, Captain Harrison ; McQueen Guards, Captain McLeod ; 
Thomas Guards, Captain Thomas ; Douglas Rifles, Capt. R. E. 
Emanuel; Pee Dee Rifles, Captain Spear; Cavalry, Capt. W. P. 
Emanuel ; Irby Rifles, Captain Smith. 

Work for the Gunboats. 129 

"Uniforms and overcoats have been mack : Marlboro Guards, 
Thomas Guards, and Pee Dee Rifles. 

"Five boxes of hospital stores have been sent to Rev. R. W. Barn- 
well, in Virginia, and to Prof. F. S. Plolmes, Charleston." 

Charleston Courier, March 6, 1862. 

Donations for the gunboat come in rapidly. "A Sea Captain's 
Wife" sends a silver bowl, valued at $60. "A Daughter of the Old 
Palmetto State" sends silver wedding presents. Mrs. Eliza R. Lee 
Jr., of Camden, sends the silver fork used by herself as a little child. 
A German lady sends a musical box. Seven hundred and ninety- 
one dollars in cash had already been sent, and other sums were pour- 
ing in. Two young girls sent $10. A captain's two daughters, 
$74, they had collected. 

At this date, the Ladies' Christian Association, of Charleston, 
reports a long list of articles received and dispensed during the past 
month — among others, railway fares for soldiers going home on 

Charleston Courier, March 8, 1862. 

The sum received by that paper already amounted to $1,203.93. 
Contributions came in steadily after this, from every part of the 
State. Men, women and children, and often soldiers in the field, 
sent money and every variety of articles. 

Charleston Courier, March n, 1862. 

General Wade Hampton acknowledges a silk flag sent to Hamp- 
ton's Legion by the ladies of Matanzas, Cuba. Dr. Gibbes ac- 
knowledges large box of lint from ladies of Habana. 

Housekeepers were beginning to feel the want of many of the 
simplest articles of domestic use, and one ingenious woman suggests 
that lye made from ashes of burned corncobs, used with a little sour 
milk or vinegar, could be used as a substitute for soda, in making 

Mrs. M. E. Russell, of Church street, earnestly entreats the privi- 
lege of making gratuitously the flags of the gunboat. 

"A Rebel's Yankee Wife" sends a contribution to the gunboat. 
"Mrs. Yeadon's Servant, Joe," sends $i ; "Other Servants," $1.70. 
Two pairs of vases, valued each at $100, are contributed, one pair 
by "Little Hennie." 

Charleston Courier, March 15, 1862. 

"A. H." sends $20 for the gunboat fund, and makes the sensible 
suggestion that the boat be got, with no more parley about names. 

130 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Courier, March 22, 1862. 

"A True Southern Woman" sends, from Clarendon, four silver 
ladles, to assist in building the gunboat "Palmetto State." 

Charleston Courier, March 11, 1862. 

Jewelry, watches, silverware, money, diamonds, spy-glasses, oil 
paintings, etc., continue to pour in for the gunboat from every part 
of the State — towns and country. Two little boys, aged, respec- 
tively, 5 and 7, send $1.25, the price of their game hen. A widow 
sends the sword of her husband, to be raffled. A little negro girl 
sends "a free will offering of 25 cents." 

But with all this generosity to a new object, the soldiers were not 
forgotten, and the reports of various societies go on as usual. 

Charleston Mercury, March 15, 1862. 

In this paper is a letter, signed "Nemesis," suggesting this name 
for the boat, and sending $10 for the fund. There is also ac- 
knowledged a handsome set of coral, sent by a young lady to be 
raffled for the boat. 

Charleston Courier, March 22, 1862. 

There was by this time a call for metal for military purposes. 
Brass, copper, bell metal, etc., were needed for cannon, and lead for 

The response came, and it is pitiful to see the women' throughout 
the State sending their preserving kettles, to be made into cannon. 

Charleston Courier, March 24, 1862. 

Mrs. Mary E. Perry, of threescore years and ten, a refugee from 
Charleston in Sumter, sends 526 musket balls, cast by herself from 
scraps of lead picked up by herself. "An Old Lady" says : "I 
cheerfully consent to give the lead from the windows of my house 
for the use of the army. I only wish I had a lead mine." 

It is proposed that, by way of disposing of the many valuable ar- 
ticles contributed to the gunboat fund, a Fair should be given in 
Charleston. The public school children were sending contributions, 
little children in the nursery their toys, while their mothers con- 
tribute even their pretty, dainty baby clothes. 

Letter from Mrs. W. P. DeSaussure, February, 1899. 

Among the articles of silver given to this Fair was a very hand- 
some old cream pot and sugar dish — old family silver. This was 
given by Miss Honoria Muldrop Logan. It was raffled, and sent by 
the person winning it to a jeweler, to be sold. It was then bought 
by Miss Lizzie Logan, and is now in the possession of her sister, 
Mrs. W. P. DeSaussure. 

Work for the Gunboats. 131 

Charleston Mercury, March 24, 1862. 

The proceeds of two amateur performances, amounting to $327, 
are acknowledged for the gunboat. 

Charleston Mercury, March 31, 1862. 

The Ladies' Association, of Mars Bluff, sends a contribution to the 
Georgetown hospitals. 

Not only did individuals contribute to the needs of the army any 
metal that could be used for ammunition, but stripped themselves of 
their bells, and of any lead that could possibly be dispensed with. 
Trinity Church (Episcopal), of Columbia, was stripped of a quantity 
of ornamental leadwork on its roof. 

Charleston Mercury, April 2, 1862. 

Capt. F. L. Childs, commanding Arsenal in Charleston, and in 
charge of ordnance, publishes a letter to the secretary of war from 
four clergymen of Marietta, Ga., offering the bells of their churches 
for cannon — as below : 

E. Porter Palmer, Presbyterian, weight of bell, 740 pounds. 

I. B. Cooper, Baptist, weight of bell, 150 pounds. 

Samuel Benedict, St. James Episcopal, weight of bell, 333 pounds. 

Alexander Graham, Methodist, weight of bell, 400 pounds. 

At this date is published a list of managers, senior and junior, 
who are requested to act for the Ladies' Gunboat Fair, in Charleston. 

Charleston Mercury, April 3, 1862. 

Another amateur concert is advertised, with the band from Fort 
Sumter assisting. 

Charleston Mercury, April 4, 1862. 

"We hear that during the next week a number of young ladies in 
Columbia will hold a Fair in aid of the gunboat fund." 

Charleston Mercury, April 5, 1862. 

"The Fair in Columbia will be held on Thursday, April ioth, at 
the Athenaeum. The entertainment will be conducted in such style 
that visitors cannot fail to be pleased * * *." 

Charleston Mercury, April 7, 1862. 

The neighborhood of Georgetown is referred to as having given 
most liberally of bell metal — about four thousand pounds. 

The Relief Societies had not relaxed their efforts. A. F. Free- 
man, of St. Philip's Aid Hospital, at Atlanta, Ga., acknowledges a 
liberal contribution from the Soldiers' Relief Association, of 

132 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Courier, April 9, 1862. 

"E. S. B.," from Bradford Springs, S. C, sends $20 for the gun- 
boat, from "my little brother and myself." "Mrs. E. S. Sheely and 
Others" send $55 from Rockingham, N. C. 

Charleston Mercury, April 10, 1862. 

One thousand three hundred and seventy-seven dollars, the profits 
of three concerts in Charleston, is acknowledged for the gunboat. 

Charleston Mercury, April 12, 1862. 

The Gunboat Fair, in Columbia, opened on Thursday, and was a 
wonderful success. 

This Fair was suggested and originated among the young girls 
of Columbia. 

Letter from Miss Grace Elmore, written . 

"A party of girls — Mary Preston, Grace Elmore, and Isabella 
Martin — first interested themselves and called a meeting of all the 
girls of Columbia. The object was very popular, and every one, old 
and young, was enthusiastic. Money, silverware, jewelry, supplies 
of all sorts, poured in from all over the State. The Fair was very 
handsome, and the hall was crowded for an entire week. The pro- 
ceeds, a goodly sum in specie, were devoted to the gunboat, as in- 

A member of this committee still has several articles bought at 
that Fair, among others a small piece of silver given by Mrs. M — , 
of Columbia. 

The woods near Columbia were at that season full of wild violets, 
and some of the younger girls made a good deal of money by gather- 
ing large basketfuls at "Rocky Branch," and selling them. 

The same zealous effort extended all over the State. We find 
the following letter from Abbeville : 

Charleston Courier, April 12, 1862. 

"Editors Courier : I have the pleasure to inform you that the 
ladies of Abbeville and the vicinity have placed in my hands the 
sum of $437, for building the gunboat. The money has been de- 
posited in the Branch Bank, of Abbeville, and will be promptly 
handed to the committee or person to whom will be confided the 
expenditure of the fund which the daughters of Carolina have con- 
tributed for a purpose so patriotic. 

"Martha Calhoun Burt. 

"Abbeville, S. C, April 2, 1862." 

Grahamville Relief Association. 133 

Charleston Courier, April 15, 1862. 

The Ladies' Christian Association, of Charleston, was at this date 
still meeting and working. 

The Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, mentions, in its 
report, contributions received from the Relief Association, of Ham- 
burg, and the Volunteers' Aid Association, of Beech Island. 

The ladies of St. Matthew's Parish send $200 for the gunboat, 
and a large contribution of hospital stores. It should be noticed 
that the ladies of St. Matthew's Parish were apparently indefatigable 
and generous. Constant contributions are sent and acknowledged 
from them, often through Mrs. C. A. Graeser, who apparently never 
rested while there was work to do. 

The ladies of Bishopville send a large box of stores for hospitals 
in Charleston. 

Charleston Courier, April 20, 1862. 

The ladies and gentlemen, managers of the Gunboat Fair in 
Charleston, met and decided to open the Fair at the Military Hall, 
on the first Tuesday in May. 

The Ladies' Gunboat Fair in Columbia was reported to have 
made $2,300. 

Charleston Courier, April 22, 1862. 

Notice of Tableaux Vivants, held at the Military Hall, Charleston, 
for the gunboat, the band from Fort Sumter assisting. 

Charleston Courier, April 29, 1862. 

At this date is published the second and third quarterly reports 
of the Ladies' Soldiers' Relief Association, of Grahamville, S. C, as 
follows : 

"report of grahamville association. 

"When, in November, the association read the report of their first 
quarter's work, amid the troubles and distresses incident upon the 
taking of Port Royal, very few dreamed of possessing a home here, 
much less of being able to work together for the common cause. 
But 'God has been better to us than our fears,' and, after the lapse 
of six months, we still continue our association, and trust our report 
of two quarters will prove we have not been idle. The first three 
months, the means of the association were very limited, but by mani- 
fold sacrifices on the part of individuals and, after awhile, help from 
without, we were able to support nine hospitals, in which there were 
as many as three hundred and forty sick at one time. These were 

134 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

supplied with two meals a day for two months. Now the govern- 
ment has established hospitals in our village, ours have been dis- 
continued, and we wait, ready and willing to help when help is 

"The association has given in this time — 

"To Hospitals : Twenty-one comforts, ninety-three beds, forty-one 
pillows, thirty-eight shirts, twenty-six pairs drawers, twenty-five 
flannels, eighteen pairs socks, eighteen towels, eight sheets, eighteen 
handkerchiefs, with hospital stores from time to time, independent 
of meals. 

"To Twenty-Fifth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel Clingman : 
Twenty-five comforts, forty-four beds, fourteen pillows, two coats, 
two pairs pants, ninety-six shirts, 106 pairs drawers, thirteen flan- 
nels, seventy pairs socks, eighteen carpet blankets. 

"To Eighteenth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel Radcliffe : 
Twenty beds, twenty pillows, sixteen towels, thirteen handkerchiefs, 
two boxes of biscuits, two gallons of brandy, seven pounds of 
mutton, one bag rice flour, two boxes of hospital stores. 

"To Beaufort District Troop, Capt. I. H. Howard : One pair pants, 
three shirts, three pairs drawers, seven pairs socks. 

"To Chicora Rifles, Captain Whilden : Twelve coats, eighteen pairs 
pants, four shirts, ten pairs drawers, seven pairs socks. 

"To Captain Stokes : Blackberry wine, cordial, and preserves. 

"To Captain Barber : Wine and cordial. 

"To Destitute Soldiers : One coat, three pairs pants, ten shirts, 
twelve pairs drawers, eight flannels, eight pairs socks. 

"Letters of thanks have been received from some of those who 
had sick at the hospitals ; also letters of help. 

"Our thanks are due Soldiers' Relief Association, and Ladies' 
Christian Association, and Miss Huger, of Charleston, for aid for 
hospitals ; to the Black Oak Association, for $30 for flannels ; to 
Mrs. Thompson and Mrs. Dowell, for blackberry wines, etc., and 
slippers ; to some of the gentlemen of Colonel Radcliffe's regiment, 
and the Charleston Light Dragoons, and some ladies of the village, 
for a concert, by which $211 was realized." 

Charleston Mercury, May 6, 1862. 

The Gunboat Fair, in Charleston, opened on this day. The Mer- 
cury says of it : "The ladies emulate the example of the noble 
daughters of the Old Dominion, who have formed an association 
for similar purposes, with this spirited and womanly proviso, 'That 
the work and contribution may be more peculiarly ours, as women, 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 135 

we will give such ornaments of gold and articles of silver as are 
our private personal property ; for should it be our sad fate to be- 
come slaves, ornaments will ill become our state of bondage, while 
if God, in His infinite mercy, shall crown our efforts with success, 
we will be contented to wear the laurel crown of victory, and to 
give to our children our civil and religious liberty, so gloriously 
achieved, and say, These be your jewels.' " 

Charleston Mercury, May 7, 1862. 

There is an enthusiastic report of the Fair held the night before. 

Further reports say that it was kept open five evenings. The last 
evening — May ioth — Governor Pickens was present, and the news 
of the victory at Corinth, which was received at about half past ten 
o'clock, caused many to give vent to their delight in enthusiastic 

The cause of religion was always upheld in the Confederate Army. 
With all this rush of enthusiasm about the gunboat, etc., we see the 
Rev. W. T. Farrow acknowledging a quantity of money, jewelry 
and silverware sent for the South Carolina Tract Society. 

Charleston Courier, May 28, 1862. 

In the weekly report of the Soldiers' Relief Association, of 
Charleston, reference is made to committees of ladies — members of 
the association — who were helping at the different military hospitals 
of the city. 

Charleston Courier, June 17, 1862. 

At this date the Soldiers' Directory, published monthly in the 
daily Charleston papers, mentions the Soldiers' Relief Association, 
President, Mrs. George Robertson; the Ladies' Auxiliary Christian 
Association, President, Mrs. Leonard Chapin, and the Ladies' Cloth- 
ing Association, President, Miss Hester T. Drayton, showing that 
the three societies were still at work. 

Charleston Mercury, June 18, 1862. 

"soldiers' relief association. 
"The regular meeting of this association was held on Monday 
last, when various reports were read. During the week, the follow- 
ing articles have been received : From Mrs. M — , seven pillow-cases, 
nine handkerchiefs, books and linen ; Mrs. C. Porcher and family, 
one bag grits, one bag peas, one bag cornmeal ; 'A Friend,' black- 
berry and other wines ; Mrs. T — , feather bed ; The Charleston Fire 
Engine Company, through their President, John Kenefick, Esq., 
$14.44, handed in by Mrs. James Gilliland. 

136 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"The following donations have been made : 

'To Soldiers' Relief Hospital : One case adhesive plaster, ten 
beds, six hospital shirts, seventeen pairs socks. 

"To Marine Hospital : One case adhesive plaster. 

"To Mazyck Street Hospital: Twelve shirts, six pairs drawers, 
twelve pairs socks, six towels, six handkerchiefs, two pairs slippers, 
six fans, one bottle brandy, tracts, and books. 

"To Captain Henry C. King, Sumter Guards, Charleston Bat- 
talion : Three pairs socks, twenty cotton shirts, twenty pairs drawers. 

"To private applications : Eight cotton shirts, one flannel shirt, 
four pairs drawers, six pairs socks, seven pairs slippers. 

"To the ladies of the committees visiting the various hospitals, 
articles of nourishment have been furnished." 

Columbia Southern Guardian, June 20, 1862. 

In this paper is found the following advertisement : 
"for the ladies' gunboat. 

"We invite attention to a superb oil painting now on exhibition 
at our store, and to be disposed of by lot or chance, the proceeds to 
be given to the noble cause of building the gunboat 'Palmetto State.' 
The painting represents 'Black Hall,' the late residence of Senator 
Townsend, now occupied by the Federals as 'Headquarters,' exquis- 
itely executed from nature by Miss K. Sosnowski, of this city ; val- 
ued at $125 ; 250 chances, at 50 cents. 

"Also, to be disposed of for the same purpose, a very superior 
painting in oil (artist unknown) of the Spanish Beggar Boys, from 
the collection of the late General Gadsden — now on exhibition at 
our store — presented by a patriotic lady of Columbia, valued at $54 ; 
$1 per chance. 

"We trust that the fair donors will have the gratification in a few 
days of transmitting the amount of the proceeds to the proper com- 

"The lists are being rapidly filled, but a few chances yet remain 
to be taken, at the book store of P. B. Glass & Co." 

"concert of vocal and instrumental music. 

"Mr. Koepper, assisted by several ladies and gentlemen of this 
city, will give a concert on Wednesday evening, the 25th inst., for the 
benefit of the Ladies' Industrial Association, to enable them to extend 
their assistance to a larger number of needy families than their 
present limited means will permit." 

The same paper, of the same date, quotes this from the Charleston 

General Work. 137 

Charleston Courier, 1862. 

"The majority of our own wounded in the late battle (Secession- 
ville), from the interior of the State and elsewhere, are now at the 
Soldiers' Relief Hospital and Marine Hospital. Noble-hearted 
ladies are continually visiting, dispensing comfort to all, moving si- 
lently about, cheering both sick and wounded." 

Columbia Southern Guardian, June 20, 1862. 

"The president of the Ladies' Hospital Association acknowledges 
the receipt of the following contributions for hospital purposes, viz. : 
$30 from the communion offerings of Christ Church, through Rev. 
Mr. Pringle; $3 from Mrs. McDonald, $5 from Mme. Fillette, $3 
from Mrs. P. B. Glass, $2 and a package of tea from Mrs. Pearce, 
$5 from a lady of Columbia. 

"Also a box of edibles from Mrs. Fraser, of Winnsboro; a bale, 
containing sheets, pillows, shirts, pantaloons, bandages, one counter- 
pane, one towel, old linen, and sage, from Mrs. Rosemond, Mrs. 
Pegg, Mrs. Wyatt, Mrs. Carne, and Mrs. Atkinson, Equality, An- 
derson District ; five sheets, six pillow-slips, two spreads, from Mrs. 
S — , Columbia; one mosquito net, and package of herbs, from Mrs. 
English ; two boxes and two bags, containing in all blackberry wine, 
catsup, lemon syrup, brandy cherries, crab-apple preserves, eggs, 
hominy, sage, pepper, rice meal crackers, dried fruit, flour, and 

"Also a coop of chickens, from the Aid Society, of Winnsboro ; 
one tierce of rice, from Mr. Polland, of Columbia. Chickens, butter, 
and milk are now the chief articles in demand at the hospital." 

There are also the following acknowledgments : 

"The president of the Soldiers' Relief Association gratefully ac- 
knowledges a donation of 900 yards of Graniteville sheeting, from a 
lady and gentleman ; also forty yards of calico and thirty yards of 
striped homespun, from Mrs. G. Trenholm. 

"Received, at the Confederate Hospital, June 18th, of Mrs. S. A. 
Howe, president of the Ladies' Hospital Association, a bucket and 
box of butter, several small bags of rice, rye, and dried fruit, and a 
bag of flour. H. McKee, 


Charleston Mercury, June 19, 1862. 

Occasional suggestions were made in the papers of makeshift 
substitutes for articles fast becoming scarce. Two are here given, 
the second of which would seem to be of manly invention : 

138 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"Light. — Spirits of turpentine, in a lamp lately invented, and cost- 
ing about $3, makes a beautiful gas light, very brilliant, very safe, 
costs about 3 cents per night. 

"Blacking. — Fill a snuff bottle nearly full of soot from a common 
chimney, put in a good drink of whiskey, and same quantity of 
vinegar, shake well, and you have a first-rate glossy blacking." 

Charleston Mercury, July 1, 1862. 

Acknowledgment is made of a supply of lint sent by "two Caro- 
lina ladies." 

Charleston Mercury, July 2, 1862. 

We see a reference to Mechanicsville Aid Society. 

The Relief Association, of Charleston, announce that they will 
supply soldiers with light reading, at the Depository, Chalmers 
street, and also mention in their weekly report that the ladies of 
Upper and Middle St. Johns have for the week past supplied six hos- 
•pitals with mutton, beef, fowls, and other stores. 

Charleston Mercury, July 7, 1862. 

The ladies of the Relief Association, of Darlington, notify Medical 
Director Kinloch that they will receive and care for ioo sick or 
wounded men. 

Charleston Mercury, July, 1862. 

"fourth quarterly report of the soldiers' relief association, 
of charleston. 

"On the 20th of July, 1861, several ladies met for the purpose of 
forming an association to provide, by voluntary contributions and 
labor, garments for our soldiers in the field, hospital stores, and 
other comforts for the sick and wounded. From this meeting, the 
Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, dates its commencement, 
and now has the pleasure of presenting to the public its fourth quar- 
terly report, with a statement of its work for the year. * * * 
Under all the difficulties and trying circumstances of the last quarter, 
we have abundant cause to feel grateful to a kind Providence, who 
has, in His great mercy, not only spared our beloved city from the 
hand of the ruthless invader, but has continued our health and 
strength, and enabled us to carry on our good work as formerly. 
Owing to the great scarcity of material for clothing, and the absence 
of many of our members, we have not been able to prepare and dis- 
tribute as many garments as before, consequently our attention has 
been more particularly directed to the procuring of hospital stores 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 139 

and nourishment, and the distribution of the same by our committees 
personally among the various hospitals in our city. 

"In this work, we have been nobly sustained and encouraged by 
our friends, both in the city and country, by their liberal contribu- 
tions in money, provisions, etc., all of which have been already ac- 
knowledged. We can only repeat our sincere thanks for the same, 
and renew our promise to do all in our power to carry out the objects 
of this association, as long as our means will enable, and our health 
and strength permit. 

"The Depository, in Chalmers street, is still the headquarters of 
this association, and is open every day, Sundays excepted, from nine 
to two, when contributions will be thankfully received. 

"Mrs. W. Snowden, 

"President pro tern. 
"Miss F. M. Blamyer, 
"Treasurer pro tern. 

"Donations made during fourth quarter : Fifty-two flannel shirts, 
506 cotton shirts, 314 pairs of drawers, 384 pairs of socks, thirty- 
three handkerchiefs, forty towels, sixty-two mattresses, fifty-five 
bed sacks, eight pairs pantaloons, sixty-nine sheets, seventy-one pil- 
lows, ninety-nine pillow-cases, thirty-eight fans, five dressing-gowns, 
ninety-one mosquito nets, ten pairs of slippers, twelve caps, thirty 
quilts, four comforts, besides a large amount of wine, liquors and 
hospital nourishment of all kinds. 

"Donations of clothing have been made to the following regi- 
ments, companies, and hospitals : Colonel Means' regiment ; Captain 
Warren's company ; Irish Volunteers, Captain Ryan ; Charleston 
Riflemen Volunteers, Captain Blake; Washington Artillery, Captain 
Walker ; Charleston Light Infantry, Captain Simons ; Company A, 
St. James Mounted Riflemen, Captain Whilden; Washington Light 
Infantry ; Lieutenant Hall, Confederate Navy, for Gunboat No. 3 ; 
Captain Smith's company, White's Battalion ; Rikersville Hospital ; 
Soldiers' Relief Hospital ; Summerville Hospital ; Adams Run Hos- 
pital ; Roper Hospital ; Citadel Green Hospital ; South Bay Hospital ; 
Washington Light Infantry Hospital ; Marine Hospital. 

"List of clothing, bedding, etc., distributed through the year from 
the 20th July, 1861, to the 20th July, 1862: 4,718 pairs drawers, 
3,495 cotton shirts, 2,483 flannel shirts, sixteen undershirts, 219 
linen shirts, 193 shawl shirts, 339 pairs of pantaloons, 3,359 pairs of 
socks, 287, pairs of slippers, 263 pairs of gloves, 1,006 pocket hand- 
kerchiefs, 447 mattresses, 306 comforts, 141 blankets, sixty-seven 

140 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

quilts, thirty-eight fans, sixty-two coats, 221 dressing-gowns, 238 
scarfs, seventy-seven caps, twenty-two havelocks, 806 sheets, 550 
bed sacks, 673 pillow sacks, 497 pillows, 673 tierces rice, hospital 
nourishment, and over one hundred dozen wines and brandy, cor- 
dials, etc., besides making up seven bales of cotton into mattresses, 
and making of uniforms and overcoats for several companies. 

"Treasurer's Statement. 
April 20, 1862, by cash balance on hand from third 

quarter $92.72 

By cash received from private concert 200.00 

By cash received from private concert 80.00 

By cash received from donations 1,010.00 

By cash received from sale of rags 8.00 

Total $1,390.72 


To cash paid for clothing and bedding materials, etc. $132.01 

To cash for advertising 10.40 

To cash for hospital expenses and stores I0 5-97 

To cash for stationery, postage, etc 3.75 

To cash for freight and drayage 39-30 

To cash for telegram 1.10 

To cash for insurance Soldiers' Relief Hospital. . . . 40.00 

To cash for hall expenses 42.00 

"Recapitulation for the four quarters from July 20, 1861, to July 
20, 1862 : 

By amount received during first quarter $7,676.74 

By amount received during second quarter 2,794.13 

By amount received during third quarter I >599-35 

By amount received during fourth quarter 1,298.97 


To amount of cash expended during first quarter. . $7,658.99 
To amount of cash expended during second quarter 2,794.13 
To amount of cash expended during third quarter. 1,498.73 
To amount of cash expended during fourth quarter 375-14 


Leaving on hand a balance of 1,042.20 

"July 21, 1862." 

General Work. 141 

Charleston Mercury, July 9, 1862. 

The division surgeon acknowledges a generous donation of bed- 
ding, etc., from the Ladies' Relief Association, of Aiken. 

Charleston Mercury, July 10, 1862. 

Mention is made of contributions from the Summerville Ladies' 
Association, and the Summerville Juvenile Association, to the Sum- 
merville Hospital. 

A notice is also given of a Fair held by ladies of Allendale, for the 
benefit of the Savannah River Guard, who had done long service on 
the coast, and were suffering greatly from disease. 

Charleston Mercury, July 12, 1862. 

A Wayside Hospital is reported as established at Kingville. 
The letter given below shows what has been before stated, that 
lead from private houses, churches, etc., wherever available, was 
sent to be made into shot and shell : 

"C. S. Mining and Niter Bureau Office, 
"Sup. Dep., S. C. College, 

"July 12, 1862. 
"In behalf of this Bureau, we beg to tender to Mrs. McCord our 
profound thanks for the very handsome donation of lead received 
yesterday from her plantation. 

"We are sure it will be gratifying to know that more than two 
tons of lead have been forwarded from my office to the chief of the 
Bureau since our appeal last week to the citizens of Columbia; and 
the greater part has been contributed by the energetic and patriotic 
women of our country. 

"With the highest respect and esteem, 

"Your humble servant, 

"Frances S. Holmes, 
"Supt. M. and N. Works Dept., S. C. 
"Mrs. Louisa S. McCord, Present." 

Charleston Mercury, July 14, 186.?. 

A card is published by Dr. John Bachman, acknowledging money 
for soldiers from Charleston ladies and children, refugees in Spar- 
tanburg. Part of it is $88, made by tableaux. He also acknowl- 
edges fruit sent by Mrs. Gregg, Mrs. Fleming, and others, from 
Kalmia and Aiken, and mosquito nets for hospitals, sent from 
Charleston, Newberry, Spartanburg, and other places — 600 nets 
in all. 

Dr. Bachman says Miss Cobia, of Charleston, sent two sacks of 
wool, cotton, cards, etc. ; thirty-six pairs of cotton cards were sent 

142 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

by the ladies of Charleston, Columbia, and Newberry, and six pairs 
by Gravely & Pringle. "These I have distributed according to 
wishes of donors — in every case to those only who were manufac- 
turing clothing for sons, husbands, or brothers, in the army. The 
six pairs of cotton cards for the lady in Spartanburg District who, 
by her own industry, clothed her four sons in the Army of Virginia, 
I carried to her family on the day when the mournful tidings arrived 
that one of these boys had fallen in battle." 

Charleston Mercury, July 17, 1862. 

The surgeon of Mazyck Street Hospital acknowledges supplies 
from ladies of Midway and Barnwell. 

Charleston Mercury, July 19, 1862. 

A correspondent from Columbia says: "I have just come from 
Richmond, without seeing a single intoxicated person, though the 
cars were crowded with soldiers, and at every depot there were large 
crowds to meet the train. At Goldsboro and Magnolia, N. C, and 
at Sumter, S. C, the sick and wounded were liberally cared for." 

During all this time the daily papers are filled with long lists of 
dead and wounded ; but the women went on working steadily, though 
often in need of the simplest and most necessary implements. Help 
was sometimes sent from outside — whenever possible, from the 
warm-hearted women of Maryland. 

Charleston Mercury, July 23, 1862. 

We see the Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, acknowl- 
edging sewing machine needles sent them by ladies of Baltimore, to 
be used in working for Confederate soldiers. 

Salt at this time was got by digging up the floors of smokehouses, 
and boiling the earth until the dirt and salt were separated. This re- 
quired many boilings and skimmings before the salt was left clean. 
Curtains were used for soldiers' shirts and children's dresses. Chil- 
dren's shoes were made by their mothers, of scraps of cloth ; and 
women — many of them — made their own shoes. Tumblers of lard, 
with little cotton wicks, were burned for lamps. Candles were made 
of everything available, including myrtle wax made from the wild 
myrtle berries. As every one was wearing mourning, gloves were 
mended to the utmost possibility, covered with ink, and then rubbed 
over with lard until the black ceased to come off and the kid re- 
mained pliable. 

Among the many charitable organizations of that time in Charles- 
ton was a Free Market, for the relief of the destitute families of sol- 
diers. This was not an enterprise of the women, but we find in 

Soldiers' Relief Association. 143 

the papers that they contributed to it freely. At this date we see 
the following- : 

Charleston Mercury, July 31, 1862. 

"At a meeting- of the executive committee of the Free Market of 
Charleston, held yesterday morning, John E. Phillips, Esq., was 
unanimously elected a member of the executive committee, in place 
of the lamented George M. Coffin, deceased." 

We also find the Rev. W. T. Farrow, general agent of the South 
Carolina Tract Society, acknowledging "$81.50 from Orangeburg, 
to furnish our soldiers with religious reading." Mr. E. T. Kerrison 
was secretary and treasurer of this society. 

It is a cause of wonder and admiration that in these few months, 
so full of excitement, confusion and suffering, every need seems to 
have been considered, and every want, as far as possible, provided 
for. In all these charitable works we see constantly the name of the 
Rev. W. S. Bowman. 

With these other acknowledgements is one from the surgeon of 
Mazyck Street Hospital, Charleston, who has received from Mrs. 
Hamilton Waring, Walterboro, a box of rice and eggs ; Colonel 
Leadon, from proceeds of tableaux, $10; Mrs. Roberts, a supply 
of fruit ; planters of St. Johns Berkeley, through Soldiers' Relief 
Association, various articles. 

Charleston Mercury, July 31, 1862. 

"The regular weekly meeting of this association was held on Mon- 
day afternoon, when various reports were read. During this week, 
the following donations have been received : From Mrs. I. P., of 
Pinopolis, two bed coverlets, one bag apples, for hospital ; from Miss 
McColl, two pounds wild cherry bark ; two pairs socks from Miss 
S. H. B. ; two mosquito nets from Mrs. Schreiner and Mrs. Foran; 
from a friend, six fans ; Dr. Wineman, two bottles brandy, one 
bottle port wine; a member in Columbia, two pairs socks; a friend 
in Greenville, a valuable donation of linen ; Mrs. I. P., of Cedar 
Springs, one barrel grits, one mutton ; Mrs. W. M. Porcher, one bag 
meal ; Miss C, ten pillow-cases ; Mrs. F. D. Fanning, a bundle of 
pavilions, and five fans ; P. T., three nets, and a gross of buttons ; 
Mrs. Bachman, seven bottles blackberry wine, fruit, two pairs 
drawers, and rags; Miss C. E. Godfrey, secretary of Cheraw Aid 
Society, two boxes, containing tapioca, sugar, cornstarch, gelatine, 
cocoa; fifteen bottles, containing wine, honey, jelly, preserves, to- 
matoes ; two tumblers, packages of dogwood bark, wild cherry bark, 

144 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

and sage, one bag rice, one package rice flour, two hams, three bags, 
grits, one bag meal, starch, and sage, seventeen pairs drawers, two 
shirts, five pairs socks, one pair slippers, one pillow-case, six pairs 
drawers ; from a lady in Pendleton, eight bottles blackberry syrup, 
one bottle sherry ; from Mrs. George Robertson, president of this so- 
ciety, and several members, eighty-six nets, four shirts, two pairs 
socks, three bed sacks, one bundle for James Island ; from Mrs. C. 
W., St. Johns Berkeley, one bag okra; Mrs. T. P. R., Middle St. 
Johns, one bag grits, one bag meal, two coops chickens; Mrs. Dr. 
J. S. P., St. Stephens, three barrels and three baskets of peaches ; 
from Lynchburg, through Dr. Bachman, one box hospital stores, and 
two pavilions. 

"The following donations have been made during the week : 

"To Wayside Hospital, Columbia : $100. 

"To Eutaw Regiment, James Island : Twenty bed sacks, twenty 
pillows, twenty pillow-cases, fifteen sheets, thirty shirts, one jar 
pickles, one bottle catsup, one bottle blackberry wine, and one bottle 

"To privates in Marine Hospital : Six shirts, five pairs drawers, 
three pairs socks. 

"To private applications : Seventeen cotton shirts, four flannel 
shirts, seventeen pairs drawers, and twenty-seven pairs socks. 

"The ladies visiting the hospitals on committees have been supplied 
with various articles of nourishment. 

"The following amounts have been received : From Mr. Quimby, 
lithographist, $5; Mr. B. D. Boyd, of Newberry, $10; through Mr. 
Leadon, part of the proceeds of tableaux for Soldiers' Relief Hos- 
pital, $20 ; from five members in Columbia, $75 ; from a member, 50 

cents; through , $1.49; from Miss McCrady, through Rev. 

W. Dehon, $5. 

"As beds are required for the sick soldiers, any one who will 
supply the cotton will have the gratification of adding much to the 
comfort of our brave defenders." 

Charleston Mercury, July 31, 1862. 

The following letter makes a timely suggestion : 

"Home, July 27. 

"To the Editor of The Mercury : Will you not urge upon our 
Southern people the necessity of putting up fruits and vegetables 
and drying herbs to send to our hospitals, reserving some for winter 
use. Every one should now, and as long as the material lasts, be 
making pickles, catsup, drying apples, peaches, figs, and any other 



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General Work. 145 

fruit they may have. Among the vegetables, okra is easily dried, 
and lima beans will keep all winter, put away after they have been 
fully dried on the vines (a little sassafras will keep insects away), 
and tomatoes may be kept in bottles. Let each one think for a 
moment how acceptable all this will be to our soldiers, from 
whom vegetables are debarred by the prices asked for them, and 
none will hesitate. Let no one think, 'it is but little I can do,' but 
each one go to work in earnest, and much can be accomplished. I 
will give you an easy way of putting up tomatoes : Wash and cut 
the tomatoes; when sufficiently cooked, run them through a sieve 
or colander, add salt and a few pods of red pepper, cook till the 
consistency of syrup, then bottle and seal. I sent these to camp 
all winter in the 'boxes from home,' and nothing was more accept- 

"Now, Mr. Editor, do write a piece that will set our people to 
work. All they need is that they should be reminded of what is 
both a pleasure and a duty — working for our soldiers. 


Charleston Courier, July 31, 1862. 

"A box, containing two dozen mosquito nets, kindly sent to Com- 
pany C, Eighteenth Regiment, S. C. V., by one of the most patriotic 
young ladies of the Soldiers' Relief Association, of Charleston, ar- 
rived after the departure of the regiment for another field of service. 
The box, however, was forwarded to one of the officers of the 
Twenty-fourth regiment, and the nets duly distributed. We are very 
grateful to our fair friends for so useful a present, and promise to 
do our picket duty now in contempt as well of the mosquitoes and 
sandflies as of the Yankees." 

The nets referred to were evidently small ones, protecting the 
head. The frequent references to nets and fans for the hospitals at 
this time painfully suggests the terrible sufferings of the poor men 
from heat and mosquitoes. 

Charleston Courier, July 31, 1862. 

"We take pleasure in adding Fair Bluff, N. C, to the list of places 
and railway stations ennobled and honored by the tender hands and 
ministering attentions of fair patriots who do all they can to relieve 
the wants and demands of the soldiers passing over the Wilmington 
and Manchester Railroad." 

Charleston Mercury, August 4, 1862. 

Mrs. Kennedy of the Kingville Hotel is mentioned as devoting 
her entire time to the care of sick and wounded soldiers. 

146 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

At this time, it is touching to see how, with all their deprivations 
and hardships, soldiers in the field are constantly sending home con- 
tributions to assist sufferers by fire, or from other causes. 

Mrs. C. A. Graeser and other ladies of Fort Motte and its vicinity 
are constant workers for soldiers. 

Reference is made to the Cheraw Soldiers' Aid Society. 

Charleston Mercury, August 7, 1862. 

The anniversary report of the Board of Managers of the Aiken 
Relief Association is published — Mrs. J. G. Steadman, President, 
and Mrs. M. A. Farrington, Secretary. 

"Your Board would respectfully report that a meeting was held 
on August 1st, on which day we received, by donations and subscrip- 
tions, $221. Our association was formed immediately after the 
Battle of Manassas, and every one was eager to help our suffering 
soldiers. We have ever since been working industriously, and 
gratefully report the prosperous condition of our affairs. For re- 
plenishing our treasury we have mainly depended on fairs. * * * 
We have been favored by Graniteville and Vaucluse factories in 
being supplied with goods at lowered rates. * * * We ought 
not to omit mention of donations of money, cloth, and blankets. 
During the year, we have distributed clothing and hospital stores 
to the following companies : Captain Denny's, Captain Hard's, Allen 
Guards, Richardson Guards, Bonham's Brigade, Ryan Guards, 
Maryland Guards, Pickens Guards, crew of 'Rattlesnake,' Capt. A. 
Jones' company, Captain William Gregg's, Pickens Rangers, Captain 
Croft, Lucas Battalion. 

"We have also relieved several individuals and sent stores in July 
to hospitals in South Carolina ; in August, to hospitals in Virginia ; 
to Dr. Ogier, for hospitals in Charleston ; to Augusta Wayside Hos- 
pital ; in August, two boxes of brandy to Rev. R. W. Barnwell, for 
soldiers in Virginia. 

"In all, we have distributed 2,535 garments, ninety-two blankets, 
twenty-six comforts, thirty spreads, fourteen sheets, 166 pillows, 
three mattresses. 

"Our stock on hand consists of one bed sack, eighteen mattresses, 
136 pillow-cases, fifteen spreads, thirty-five pillows, fifteen pairs 
linsey pants, four jackets, eleven scarfs, forty-five handkerchiefs, 
eighty-eight cotton shirts, six osnaburg shirts, twenty-seven pairs 
drawers, sixteen gloves, four pairs wool socks, nine pairs cotton 
socks, one pound wool yarn, two gross china buttons, twelve spools 
cotton, two balls sewing thread, forty-four pounds raw cotton, five 

Mrs. Sarah K. Rowe. 147 

and one-half pounds wool, 165 yards osnaburg, 357 yards palmetto 
shirting, fifty-six yards drill, eighty-five yards chintz, 194 yards 
paper cambric. 

"Money received throughout the year, $2,809.25. Money ex- 
pended, $2,324.50." 

Charleston Mercury, August 9, 1862. 

The following advertisement is suggestive of difficulties to house- 
keepers : 

"Housekeepers will be pleased to know that good brooms can be 
bought at the grocery at the corner of King and Broad streets." 

About this time, Dr. Bachman publishes a list of hospitals and 
refers to the w T ork of women in all of them. At Branchville there 
was no hospital, but committees from Orangeburg got on the trains, 
which passed twice a day, and went as far as Branchville, carrying 
with them food and other comforts for the sick and wounded sol- 
diers on the cars. Mrs. Rowe, of Rowes Pump, near Orangeburg, 
was most active in this work, and was known far and near for her 
tender care of our suffering men. The following sketch of her, 
which has been sent this committee, must interest all : 

Written in 1900. No signature. 

"Among the many thousands of noble, self-sacrificing and pa- 
triotic women of the Confederacy, the name of Mrs. Donald Rowe, 
of Orangeburg, S. C, stands out conspicuously, and there are hun- 
dreds of old soldiers of both the Lost Cause and the Federal army 
who can still bear witness to her acts of kindness and charity, and 
her untiring and unswerving devotion to the sacred cause of the 
gallant nation that fell, 'foiled by numbers.' 

"Her maiden name was Moss — Sarah Keziah Moss. She was the 
daughter of Stephen and Ann (Erwin) Moss, of Orangeburg Dis- 
trict, and granddaughter of John Moss, who came from Virginia to 
South Carolina just prior to the Revolution, and Mary Keziah 
Wright. She was born May 18, 1814, and was married to Donald 
C. Rowe, a scion of good old colonial and Revolutionary stock, of 
Orangeburg District. 

"When the die of war was cast, and the sons of Carolina were 
responding as only Carolinians can to the call of patriotic duty, Mrs. 
Rowe deemed it her duty to respond also to the call — as a minister 
to the comforts of the hungry, the sick, and the wounded. Day 
after day, throughout almost the entire war, this noble woman re- 
paired to the depot in Orangeburg and boarded the upbound train, 

148 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

bearing baskets and boxes of food, medicines, bandages, and other 
comforting articles for the soldiers. From Orangeburg to Kingville 
she would pass up and down the cars, handing food and offering 
words of cheer to the well ; to the sick she gave delicacies and medi- 
cines ; she bandaged the wounds of the wounded and gave them 
strengthening cordials, and to all she was as a mother. At King- 
ville, she would take the down train and go as far as Branchville, 
ministering now to the soldiers passing downward. In the evening, 
she would return to Orangeburg by the up train, and again she 
would give her tender care to those passing upward. She was kind 
and generous to Northern soldiers and prisoners as well as to her 
own loved boys in gray. 

"The ladies of Orangeburg and the surrounding country would 
every day send food, clothes and other things, prepared by their 
own hands, or under their direction, often taxing their resources, 
for Mrs. Rowe to use on her trips. Besides, she had much prepared 
at her own home, which was at that time a miniature commissary de- 
partment. Often she would have assistance from the sweet young 
girls of Orangeburg and other towns along the railroad which she 
traveled, and sometimes matrons of maturer years would lend their 
assistance. There was at Orangeburg, during a part of the war, a 
hospital for sick soldiers, and to this she frequently went and assisted 
in caring for the sick. She was so sympathetic that often, when she 
witnessed the sufferings and agony of wounded men, she would 
burst into tears, and a lady contemporary says that, upon one oc- 
casion, just after one of the great battles, she saw Mrs. Rowe so 
deeply affected by the sight of the mangled and bleeding men that 
she herself was moved to pity for the good lady. 

"When Sherman's army was approaching Orangeburg, Mrs. 
Rowe secured a car from the South Carolina Railroad and packed 
all of her household goods into it and shipped them to Columbia for 
safe keeping, her two daughters accompanying the car. A few 
days later, a Federal officer, with a detachment of troops, came to 
her house and called for her. She fully expected to be arrested 
when she appeared ; but the officer politely asked her what had be- 
come of her household effects. She told him what she had done 
with them, whereupon he expressed regret, for he said that his su- 
periors had heard of her kindness to Federal prisoners, and had de- 
tailed them to protect her and her property. He farther expressed a 
fear that the property would not be so safe in Columbia. He was 
right. Not only did the great pyrotechnists destroy the car and its 

Incident on the Cars. 149 

contents, but actually entered a private apartment, where one of Mrs. 
Rowe's daughters was lying ill, and sprinkled powder about the 
room and set it on fire, forcing the girl to fly for her life. And 
here it might be mentioned that the two Rowe girls, with several 
other young ladies from Orangeburg, had to make their way back to 
that place — a distance of fifty miles — with one old horse and a little 
gig. They took turns at riding and walking, and reached home a 
footsore and weary party. 

"Just after the war, the Rowes lost all their property, and Wm. 
Rowe died in 1876; but Mrs. Rowe secured a place in the country, 
about six miles from town, and, directing her own farming affairs, 
managed to struggle along. She always had some of her children 
or grandchildren with her at the farm, and thus the last years of 
her life were happily spent ; but in all her life, her happiest and her 
saddest days were doubtless those spent among the boys who wore 
the gray. She died June 1, 1884, and was buried in the churchyard 
of the Church of the Redeemer, in Orangeburg. A modest little 
stone marks the place where both she and her husband lie; and on 
each Memorial Day, when flowers are placed upon the graves of the 
Confederates who sleep beneath the sod of the same churchyard, 
some one always remembers to drop a wreath and a tear on the grave 
of 'Aunt Sarah'." 

Charleston Mercury, August 10, 1862. 

"incident on the cars. 
"On the down train from Columbia, I've witnessed a scene, be- 
tween Orangeburg and Branchville, well worth describing. A sick 
soldier, unable to keep his seat, was stretched out on the floor, across 
the doorway, panting with heat, wasted with disease, resting his 
head on his knapsack. With the committee of ladies and gentlemen 
who got on at Orangeburg was a young lady, a refugee, with a 
basket of phials, bandages, etc., and when she entered the door where 
lay the poor sick man, she, with the aid of one of the gentlemen, took 
charge of him in the tenderest and most practical manner. Wine 
and milk were given, reviving stimulants used. At first she stood 
stooping over and fanning him, but at last she sat on the floor, and 
in the most modest, sisterly way, bathed his forehead and cheeks and 
fanned him with the utmost patience — and all in silence. There was 
scarcely a murmur heard in the crowded car. As I stood near, I 
saw the big tears gather in the man's eyes. Gentlemen in the cars 
dropped money into her lap. She quietly took it and put it into the 
man's pocket before seeing him put on the train for Augusta. I 

150 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

mention no names, and only wish to show that our women are ready 
to do all they can in these days of calamity and peril." 

Charleston Mercury, August 9, 1862. 

A list of places is published where salt was made in Charleston. 
Messrs. Chisholm, whose salt works were at the foot of Tradd street, 
were commended for refusing to ask more than $5 per bushel for 
salt, in spite of enormous prices asked by others. 

Mrs. Snowden — Correspondence in possession of Mr. Yates Snowden, August 18, 1862. 

The following letter shows how well the women of South Carolina 
had progressed in their efforts to pay for a gunboat : 

"Confederate States of America. 
"Navy Department. 
"Richmond, August 18, 1862. 
"Richard Yeadon, Esq., Editor of The Courier, Charleston, 
S. C. 
"Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 13th inst., asking, in behalf of the ladies of South Carolina, 
that the new steam sloop being constructed by this department in the 
City of Charleston be named the 'Palmetto State.' Captain Ingra- 
ham, before the receipt of your letter, had been instructed to name 
this vessel the 'Charleston,' but, in deference to the wishes of the 
noble women of Carolina, this order is revoked, and he has this day 
been directed to call her the 'Palmetto State.' The funds referred 
to will be received and appropriated according to your wishes. If, 
however, you will permit me to make a suggestion, I would present 
to your consideration the expediency of devoting them to the next 
vessel to be built by Captain Ingraham. 

"If we can identify the patriotic women of your State with the 
construction of a new vessel, an impulse will be given to her speedy 
completion. I will with pleasure, however, adopt the course you 
may desire. I am respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

"S. B. Mallory, 
"Secretary of the Navy." 

To this letter a note is appended in another hand, perhaps Colonel 
Yeadon's, to this effect : 

"the ladies' gunboat. 

"We are happy to announce to the noble and patriotic women of 
South Carolina, as will appear by the subjoined letter, that the sec- 
retary of the navy has, in the most complimentary terms, richly de- 
served by them, consented that the ironclad Confederate gunboat 

Work for the Gunboats. 151 

recently launched in our waters shall, in deference to their wishes, 
be named the 'Palmetto State,' suggesting, however, that it may be 
preferable, and leaving it to their option, to confer that glorious 
time-honored name on the next gunboat to be built by Captain In- 
graham. A final decision will be delayed until a consultation can 
be had with the hero of the Kotzu exploit." 

Charleston Mercury, August 19, 1862. 

Directions are given for making portable soup. This was made in 
quantities and sent on to Virginia. It was in hard, brown cakes, 
which were to be melted down in hot water. 

A pitiful piece of advice is given to soldiers — to fill their pockets 
with slippery elm bark, with which to allay hunger and thirst. 

Dr. Bachman, in another report, says : "In passing along the line 
of the South Carolina Railroad, I had further opportunity of witness- 
ing the devotion of the ladies of Orangeburg to the sick and 
wounded, a committee going daily to Kingville and Branchville. 
* * * At Greenwood, on the Greenville road, the daily practice 
is to set tables under the trees to give a meal to every soldier passing 
through. * * * I don't know how long resources can hold out, 
but if self-denial and effort can accomplish it, it will last for a long 
time yet. Blessed Christian women !" 

"Notice is given that the Winnsboro ladies have established a 
Wayside Hospital in one of the largest halls — a brick building, 
airy, comfortable, with clean beds and bedding and, more than all, 
dear women to daily attend and supervise; all soldiers too sick to 
proceed are carefully attended to." 

Charleston Mercury, August 20, 1862. 

The Charleston Relief Association acknowledges contributions 
from Williston Relief Association, through Mrs. Graham. 

Charleston Courier, August 23, 1862. 

A concert in Cheraw is noticed as having been given for the benefit 
of the soldiers, by Miss M. B. Williams, of Charleston, and the late 
Mr. M. S. Reeves, and several ladies of Cheraw. 

Dr. Morrall, from Palmetto Camp, acknowledges help to sick and 
wounded, from the ladies of Mt. Pleasant. 

Charleston Mercury, August 30, 1862. 

"We understand that the funds raised by the ladies of South Caro- 
lina for construction of a gunboat for the defense of Charleston will 
soon be paid to the Confederate government, under whose direction 
the gunboat 'Palmetto State' has been built. The christening will 

152 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

take place in a day or two. The sum received by The Mercury is 

In the same paper, James M. Eason is referred to as the builder 
of this boat, and as having succeeded when it had been supposed that 
such a thing was impossible in Charleston, for want of proper me- 

A box of lint from children of the Church Home is acknowledged. 

Charleston Mercury, September 4, 1862. 

The women of the State are urged to renewed and continued 
efforts in knitting. 

Dr. Bachman is still going his rounds of Wayside Hospitals, col- 
lecting and distributing relief, and urging still greater effort, as 
"the cars will be crowded with wounded from the late battles." 

Charleston Mercury, September 10, 1862. 

An account is given of tableaux vivants at Pineville. All arrange- 
ments were guided by Miss Huger. Colonel Edwin DuBose acted 
as master of ceremonies, aided by W. D. Bonneau, W. Mazyck 
Porcher, Esqs., and the Hon. S. Warren Palmer. The tables were 
presided over by Miss Camilla Cordes and other "angels of Pine- 

Mrs. Rowe and Mrs. Jeffords, of Orangeburg, acknowledge ar- 
ticles sent for sick soldiers. 

Correspondence Charleston Courier, September 11, 1862. 

"Cheraw, September 2, 1862. 
"R. Yeadon, Esq. : 

''Dear Sir: I enclose you $4 for the gunboat 'Palmetto State,' 
contributed by two ladies of this village. The amount is additional 
to $135 collected here by a young lady, and sent several months ago 
to The Mercury office through Mrs. J. H. Mclver. 

"J. M. Bostick." 

Charleston Mercury, September 15, 1862. 

Our mothers were not accustomed to "society columns," and a 
card is published objecting strongly to the use of names in the ac- 
count of the Pineville entertainment. 

Charleston Mercury, September 16, 1862. 

Dr. Bachman mentions that Mrs. Snowden, president of the Sol- 
diers' Relief Association, of Charleston, had gone to Virginia, carry- 
ing hospital stores. 

After every battle, some women went on to care for their own 
wounded relatives. Mrs. Mason Smith, of Charleston, was one of 

General Work. 153 

those who, going on to nurse her son, was able to do much to com- 
fort others. 

At this time, pieces of cotton shirting, drill, etc., are quoted as 
from 40 to 60 cents per yard. 

At about this date, yellow fever broke out in Wilmington, N. C. 
General Beauregard's staff surgeon, Dr. Choppin, from New Or- 
leans, went on to Wilmington with nurses from Charleston. 

Charleston Mercury or Charleston Courier, September 25, 1862. 

In one of the Charleston papers is an army letter, signed "P. W. 
A.," written from Winchester, Va. It contains an appeal ending 
in the following words. It is difficult for those who have not been 
tried as were the women of 1861 to 1865 to realize how such words 
moved them to the profoundest emotion and most desperate effort : 

"If the Army of Virginia could march through the South just as 
it is, ragged and almost barefooted and hatless, many of the men 
limping along, and not quite well of their wounds or sickness, and 
yet cheerful and not willing to abandon their places in the ranks — 
their clothes riddled with balls, and their banners covered with the 
smoke and dust of battle, and shot into tatters; many of them in- 
scribed with 'Williamsburg,' 'Seven Pines,' 'Gaines' Mill,' 'Garnett's 
Farm,' 'Front Royal,' 'McDowell,' 'Cedar Run,' and other vic- 
torious fields — if this army of veterans, thus clad and shod, with 
tattered uniforms and banners, could march from Richmond to the 
Mississippi, it would produce a sensation that has no parallel in his- 
tory since Peter the Hermit led his swelling hosts across Europe to 
the Holy Sepulcher." 

Charleston Mercury, September 30, 1862. 

A letter is published from the Soldiers' Rest Association, in Or- 
angeburg, acknowledging help for the Wayside Hospital and Sol- 
diers' Rest, and for sick soldiers on the cars. It is signed "A. F. 
Dickson, Treasurer." 

In the Charleston Courier, about this date, "W." says: "Let every 
church, public hall and private dwelling be stripped of their carpets 
to cover our suffering soldiers." Probably this had already been 
done in many cases, but certainly it became very general, and carpet 
blankets, with curtain shirts, are mentioned often in the lists of ar- 
ticles forwarded to camps and hospitals. 

Charleston Mercury, October 3, 1862. 

Mention is made of physicians, nurses and Sisters of Charity who 
have gone from Charleston to Wilmington. 

The Ladies' Soldiers Aid Society, of Barnwell, thank W. Gilmore 
Simms for a lecture given by him to help their work. 

154 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Charleston Mercury, October 16, 1862. 

An account is given of the "christening" of the ladies' gunboat at 
Marsh's Wharf, Charleston. Mr. Richard Yeadon was the orator 
of the occasion. The young lady who had been the first contributor 
had the honor of breaking the bottle of wine. 

Capt. D. N. Ingraham received the orator and others on board the 

Capt. Rutledge, C. S. N., who was to command the boat, was pres- 
ent, with other officers. General Beauregard and staff, and General 
Gist and staff, were also present. 

Mr. Yeadon addressed the officers, and made a separate address 
to the "matrons and maids" who had raised the $30,000 necessary. 
Prayers were made by the Rev. Thomas Smyth and the Rev. Chris- 
topher P. Gadsden. 

Marsh & Sons are spoken of as the builders of the boat. 

During the ceremony, the gunboat "Chicora" came up and saluted, 
with her builder, James M. Eason, on deck. 

Charleston Mercury, October 17, 1862. 

Mrs. D. R., living at the southeast corner of Cannon and Rut- 
ledge streets, gives, to be raffled for the benefit of soldiers, a collec- 
tion of plants which she has been gathering for seven years. There 
are five hundred plants — japonicas, geraniums, roses, etc. 

We see an acknowledgement from the Commissioners of the State 
Marine Battery of $3,579.56, sent by ladies of Columbia to aid in 
building the gunboat "Chicora." Ladies thus apparently helped with 
two gunboats. 

At this date, contributions of money were being sent on to yellow 
fever sufferers at Wilmington. 

Charleston Mercury, October 30, 1862. 

Dr. M. LaBorde, of Columbia, gives notice of the formation of 
the Central Relief Association for the Soldiers of South Carolina, 
through which packages may be sent to soldiers in the field. He says 
that he can say no word of exhortation to the women. "They are 
doing all they can ; their devotion and patriotism is exhaustless." 

This Central Association was a committee of ten gentlemen. 
Their depot was on Main street, Columbia. They publish at this 
time an earnest entreaty for carpet blankets, etc. 

It will interest Charlestonians to know that all through this the 
Ladies' Benevolent Society was carrying on its work for the sick 

General Work. 155 

Charleston Mercury, November 2, 1862. 

At this date, we see the first notice of the removal of non-combat- 
ants from the City of Charleston. Provisions were beginning to be 
very scarce, and fuel hard to get. A committee was appointed to 
care for the women and children who could not get away. 

Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1862. 

A flag for the Brooks Guard is spoken of. It had been begun long 
before, but was delayed by want of material. 

Charleston Mercury, November 19, 1862. 

The Free Market is reported as feeding entirely the families of 
six hundred soldiers, but threatening to close for want of money. 
Subscriptions to it begin again immediately, from women as well 
as men. 

Salt is becoming very scarce. Professor Hume advises the boiling 
of rice and hominy in half fresh and half sea water. 

Mrs. Dr. Sally, of the Orangeburg Relief Association, says that 
as long as the war lasts they will not tire. 

The Ladies' Garment Society, of Charleston, continued its work 
for the poor. 

The Central Committee, through Dr. LaBorde, reports that during 
the three weeks of its existence it had collected $20,000, blankets, 
garments, etc., within Richland District. 

We find the following suggestions for lights : 


"Melt one pound of beeswax and one-quarter pound of rosin; 
make a wick forty yards long, of three threads of loosely spun cotton ; 
saturate well with the mixture, and draw through the fingers, press- 
ing closely to keep the size even; repeat till the size of a quill, then 
wrap round a bottle. Six inches of this, elevated, will burn fifteen 
minutes. Forty yards have sufficed a small family all summer for 
bed-room light." 


"A tumbler full of lard. Draw a soft, long wick through the stem 
part of an old steel pen ; imbed the wick in the lard, with about half 
the pen rising above the lard. The wick can be raised when neces- 
sary by pulling it up with a pin." 

Charleston Mercury, November 19, 1862. 

Ladies of Baltimore send a cord and tassels for the Brooks Guard 

156 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"The Days That Are Dead." 

The story of the War Between the States, in all its political and 
martial phases, has been told and retold by abler pens than mine. 
Looking back to i860, to the scenes through which I myself have 
passed, it is a child's point of view, perhaps, that has become en- 
graved upon my mind ; but, as that has seldom been given, I will re- 
count to you the impressions made upon me then, which have but 
strengthened with my years and experience. 

The atmosphere of Charleston rippled and swelled with excitement 
all through that memorable fall. The Minute Men, who had or- 
ganized on every side, made the streets gay with their uniforms, 
and the young girls devoted their time to manufacturing every kind 
of patriotic device in palmetto and silk ribbon. Military buttons 
were in demand, and every young woman was as defiant, as ardent, 
and as determined, as her brother, or her sweetheart. They were 
ready for all emergencies, and when the first troops were ordered 
down to the islands, they packed knapsacks, sewed on straps and 
buckles, and chattered cheerfully of all things to hide their own dread 
and sorrow from the older women, the mothers who were sending 
their all into the great unknown of the future — ready to answer what- 
ever call their country made. 

The older men met and talked. Constitution, Secession, State 
Rights, Self-Protection, Union, Usurpation, Imposition, were words 
that fell upon childish ears, that soon learned to understand their full 

Mottoes were flung to the winds on hundreds of flags. "There is 
a point beyond which endurance ceases to be a virtue" was one that 
carried with it the whole gist of the occasion. 

The people had determined not to "endure" any longer and, as 
another motto said, were willing to give "Millions for defense, but 
not one cent for tribute." 

The building of the harbor defenses was begun. Stevens' Iron 
Battery was discussed and dilated upon until every boy in town 
could build it in miniature, for the children had caught the fever, 
and all their games were based upon war and engineering. So 
passed the months until the winter came, with excitement ever grow- 
ing, enthusiasm ever increasing. Each man knew he would reply 
when his State called; each woman felt she was ready to sacrifice 
her own heart on the altar of her country ; both believed that their 
State was right, and had faith that a just cause must succeed. 

"The Days That Are Dead." 157 

Secession became an accomplished fact ; the cannon roared ; the 
populace shouted ; in mammoth lettering, the papers announced "The 
Union is dissolved." 

The Palmetto Banner hung upon the outer wall, and every man, 
woman and child in Carolina knew that the future was big with im- 
port, and that their fiery State stood ready for "freedom or death." 

"Hurrah for the rattlesnake bold," sang the girls, and the men 
joined in with "Again 'tis preparing to spring," and even the children 
chanted, "For fearful its wrath to the foe in its path, be he President, 
peasant or king." 

Young people grew up quickly then : each week was so crowded 
with feeling, emotions, events. Each occurrence was so portentous 
that months were years. Children matured in thought and deed; 
fourteen-year-old boys were men. ready to bear arms ; little girls 
were women, capable to work, to plan, to hope, fear and suffer. 

The night after Christmas, when Anderson, under cover of dark- 
ness and storm, stole into Fort Sumter, dishonorably, clandestinely, 
in flagrant violation of the promise made by his government at Wash- 
ington, the glove was flung down to Carolina, and she needs must 
lift it or be craven in her contention for the right. 

Her answer to this defiance rang out when, on January 9, 1861, 
"Tucker" (George E.) Haynesworth, of Sumter, S. C, of the Cadet 
Battery, sent a ball splashing into the waves directly in front of the 
"Star of the West." And the world stood still and listened to the 
protest and assertion of our dear mother State. 

For miles in every direction, the noise of this cannonading was 
heard, and stirred one's very heart. On every plantation, anxious 
groups of planters' families discussed its meaning — for no man could 
tell what a day might bring forth. Many sent their colored boys on 
horseback to the city posthaste to learn the news, bidding them not 
to spare their animals, but to hasten, and then, imagining a thousand 
evils, paced with growing impatience to and fro, until hoofbeats told 
of the courier's return. 

The news meant ivar, to every thinking man, and every woman 
tried to steel her heart and nerves for all that was to come. 

The excitement increased. Various companies were ordered down 
to the islands, and the work of fortifying went on unceasingly. In 
the city, speeches were made from every vantage point, and each 
orator tried to be more eloquent, more fiery, more convincing and 
warlike than the last, until their audiences thrilled in response, giving 
back cheers and words of encouragement and determination. About 

158 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

this time, in the middle of Meeting street, opposite Hayne, a lofty 
Liberty Pole was raised, from which flew the Palmetto flag. A plat- 
form for speakers was erected at its foot, and here the crowds 
gathered and were harangued until they burned with excited patriot- 
ism. One of the speakers who attracted great attention, and stirred 
the people to fever heat by his earnest eloquence, was Sam Ham- 
mond, who had been a resident of Aiken. His speeches were ad- 
mired, and his example followed. He became a lieutenant in the 
Richardson Guards, was in one of the first regiments that went to 
Virginia, and gave his life for the cause, being killed in battle near 
Chester, in that State. 

South Carolinians were not selfish in their patriotism ; their blood 
dyed the battlefields of many States. 

This Liberty Pole stood, and its flag waved through all the long 
four years of siege and shot and shell that Charleston braved; but 
after the city, emptied of its defenders, capitulated on the 18th of 
February, the flag was hauled down, and some time between then 
and April 1st, the pole was removed, cut shorter and otherwise dis- 
figured. Afterwards, the enemy raised it as a flagstaff on the Bat- 
tery, from which flew the Stars and Stripes over White Point 

Time led on to the Battle of Fort Sumter, when the population of 
Charleston sought the water fronts, and men went wild with excite- 
ment and patriotism, and women prayed and wept, smiled and en- 
couraged all at one time, waiting in agony of heart lest some dear one 
be the one to claim the honor of being first to lay his life down for his 
country. But when the two days' fight was over, when the Palmetto 
Stars and Bars replaced the flag which had come to mean to us op- 
pression and wrong, when "the boys came home," and not one was 
missing, nor injured, then arose a very babble of exultation and 
thanksgiving, while sweethearts embraced without shame (for do 
not the brave deserve the fair?), and mothers clasped their sons, 
and fathers wrung their hands and felt proud of their boys, just 
passed through such a baptism of fire. 

The ladies of Charleston had made a Confederate flag, for the 
special and particular purpose of being hoisted over Sumter, for no 
one aClluted our success. 

When the fort surrendered, Captain Ferguson, of General Beaure- 
gard's staff, and Colonels Moses and Dearing, of Governor Pickens' 
staff, raised, at the same moment, the national and State emblems 
above its ramparts — the Stars and Bars, given by the ladies, was 

"The Days That Are Dead." 159 

raised by Captain Ferguson, the Palmetto by the Governor's aids. 
That was on the 13th of April. On the 17th, to the joy of all, came 
the news of Virginia's secession, and immediately our young men 
began to agitate the question of volunteering for service in that 
State, believing it would be the bloodiest battlefield of the Con- 

The Washington Artillery, of Charleston, formed a company of 
volunteers from their ranks, which, with the Washington Light In- 
fantry, became a part of Hampton's Legion. The first named com- 
pany was led then by Stephen D. Lee, but it soon changed com- 
manders and name, and will stand forever gloriously upon the 
records of fame as "Hart's Battery." The Carolina Rifles, the Irish 
Volunteers, and the Richardson Guards also volunteered, and helped 
form Gregg's Regiment, which was the first command to leave 
Charleston for Virginia. 

Many were the hands that had labored to make them comfortable, 
and many were the hearts that were wrung with anguish as they bid 
their dear ones farewell — an eternal good-bye, as it proved with but 
too great a number ; yet no woman there but was brave and cheerful 
when the time came for the last handclasp, the last word ; and no 
man in all the ranks but knew he was right, and had confidence in the 
result. They were heroines then, forgetting themselves and their 
fears, and their heroism made each man eager to be a hero. The 
Southern women put their Southern men upon a lofty height, and 
every man rose to the occasion and justified the belief she had in him. 
It was in June, 1861, when Hart's Battery went to the front in Vir- 
ginia. The fair daughter of Mr. M. C. Mordecai, of Charleston, 
headed the committee of ladies who presented them with the now 
celebrated guidon, which Sherfessee, the young colorbearer, took 
into his keeping, pledging his sacred honor to bring it back unsullied 
when the war should be over. How well he kept his word, our peer- 
less Hampton can testify. The battery was a part of his legion, and 
through 143 engagements the guidon led it on, and Sherfessee 
brought it home at last, unsullied and unsurrendered, a memorial of 
the brave men who fought beneath its folds, a relic to be preserved 
forever, crowned with the glory of a cause grander in defeat than 
any cause that ever yet was won ! 

E. Lindsay Halsey, then a private in the Washington Artillery, 
but afterwards commander of Hart's Battery, came near bringing 
on the battle of Fort Sumter a month or more before it did occur. 
Each day his company had to practice with the guns of the iron 

160 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

battery, aiming at Fort Sumter, and using blank cartridges. Halsey 
wearied of this at last, and told a comrade he "was tired of the 
foolishness," and just to watch him "put an end to it." So one night 
he slipped a round shot into the mouth of one of the dogs of war, 
and the next day when at practice, it barked to better account, for 
the shot struck Sumter fair and square. Immediately all was in 
commotion. Anderson fancied himself attacked, opened his port- 
holes, and prepared for action. Beauregard did not know how it 
came about, supposed it an accident, and sent Stephen D. Lee to the 
fort to explain the affair. Are not all the details in the records of 
the War Between the States? 

The men enjoyed these pranks. They were the leaven that light- 
ened the dread realities of war, and many a funny incident broke the 
monotony of their duties. It was of a Sumter (S. C.) man — Sum- 
merford — of whom they tell that, having been enlisted as a private, 
and put upon guard, he was warned that he must not give up his gun 
to any one, on any pretext. One night, some time after, Lieutenant 
James Salvo, of his company, came up while Summerford was on 
guard, and said : "Here, let me see that gun?" The private saluted 
and gave it. Instantly Salvo called for the corporal of the guard 
and ordered him under arrest. "What for?" asked the man. "For 
giving up your arms," said the officer. "But you were my lieutenant, 
I thought." "No matter what you thought; your instructions were 
plain ; you had no right to surrender your gun." "Do you mean to 
tell me that you will have me arrested and put in the guard house 
for that?" said Summerford. "I do," said Salvo. "Then," said 
Summerford, drawing his revolver (ladies, excuse the language), 
"Damn you ; drop that gun, or you're a dead man," and he aimed 
point blank for Salvo's head. 

The gun was dropped, the sentry picked up his weapon, resumed 
his beat, and no arrest was made that night ! 

The daily life of every Charleston home was now a preparation for 
what must surely come — years of war and trial, battle, death, wounds, 
and want. Every household was getting in order all that a soldier 
could need in camp, or in hospital. Mrs. Robertson, as President, 
and Mrs. Snowden, as Vice-President, had started in Charleston, on 
Chalmers street, the Soldiers' Relief Association. There the matrons 
and maids, and even the children, congregated, to make bandages 
and scrape lint. Garments that were cut out there were taken home, 
to be made for the soldiers ; and they knit socks, woolen comforters, 
and warm caps and gloves, and these were distributed to the men 

"The Days That Are Dead." 161 

as they came through the city, or went to the relief headquarters and 
made known their wants. This place was first opened in July, 1861, 
the day after the first Battle of Manassas. 

It was after this battle that we saw our first sadly glorious spec- 
tacle of a military funeral, when the bodies of General Bee 
and Colonel Johnson were brought home from the battlefield of 

"Sweet and proper it is to die for one's country" was borne into the 
onlooker's mind by pomp and carnival of war, joined to the sobs, the 
tears, the anguish of the mourners. 

Old St. Paul's Church did honor to the full to the knightly gentle- 
men, "the holy dead," "the brave who sank to rest by all their coun- 
try's wishes blest." 

On May 11, 1861, the blockade of Charleston was begun by the 
United States frigate "Niagara," and then commenced the lessons 
of thrift, makeshift and invention, which developed so wonderfully 
through the four years of struggle, and stood the women of Charles- 
ton in such good stead when the final crash came and left them 
broken, bruised, and helpless, upon the barren shore of a seemingly 
hopeless future. 

All commodities went up enormously in price, and those who had 
such things as coffee, tea, etc., on hand, put them away for sickness, 
and resorted to poorer beverages. 

This "Postum coffee," so highly recommended now for the nerves, 
is but our poor mixture of parched wheat and rye, ground and 
dripped, or boiled, as one may have fancied. The seed of the okra, 
parched light brown, and ground, was used, and sweet potatoes, too, 
were cut into tiny squares, dried in the sun, then parched and ground 
and used in the same way, while corn was also made use of as a 
substitute, and was said to be a cure for dyspepsia ; but certainly the 
first mixture was the best of all the substitutes for coffee, and happy 
the housewife who, when company came, could find one tablespoon- 
ful of Java to add to the pot for flavor. The leaves of the blackberry 
vine, dried in the sun, and kept close shut from the atmosphere, did 
duty ordinarily for tea, while others made the leaves of the cassena or 
yaupon do duty, and still others used sassafras, or some of the many 
herbs. The ladies on the plantations soon learned how to make their 
own toilet soaps, as well as all the coarser kinds for laundry and 
kitchen. A substitute for cooking soda was found by burning corn- 
cobs to ashes in a clean Dutch oven. This was put in a jar, covered 
with water, and allowed to stand until clear. One part of this to 

162 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

two of sour milk, mixed into cake, or the various Southern breads, 
made them delightfully light. 

Out of the berries of the mistletoe, the young girls made the 
daintiest of white wax for their fancy work, while from the profuse 
growth of myrtle was gathered, by the wagonload, the berries, close- 
clustered on their stems, from which was boiled and refined a clear, 
green, aromatic wax, which made candles fit for the candelabra of 
a king. These and lightwood knots only illuminated many a house- 
hold, and were packed into many a soldier's box and sent off to the 
camps all over the land, to remind the boys of the dear ones at home, 
and light the evening hour while they wrote to sister, sweetheart, 
or mother. 

The girls learned to card and spin, and to knit socks, stockings 
and gloves for the men and old people at home. Every woven 
stocking was treasured, and when the feet were utterly worn out, 
the legs were carefully unraveled, their thread twisted smoothly and 
firm on the spinning wheel, and knitted into new stockings, or into 
gloves and mits. Old underwear was treated in the same way, and 
helped out wonderfully in the family economy, while every knitted 
woolen thing was valued for its possibilities in contributing material 
for soldiers' caps, comforters, and chest protectors. 

From the waters that laved our coast, planters made their own 
salt, and the children soon knew how to roll and pulverize it into 
the fine table article to which the family were accustomed. Mustard 
seed was raised, and the best and purest table preparation manu- 
factured from it by the young girls, who regarded an old swiss 
muslin dress as a real treasure, for it yielded the bolting cloths 
that were necessary in its preparation. Palmetto, corn shucks, 
and many grasses and straws, were plaited and woven into pretty, 
graceful hats and bonnets, while for their trimming, bits of ribbon 
were saved and washed and dyed, twisted and turned, and served 
times innumerable through all those four years. 

The girls learned to fashion and sole their own bedroom and 
house slippers, and became adepts in all the household arts, first 
making their own vinegar and then putting up their own pickles. 
The ladies manufactured wine and superintended and directed the 
making of syrup from cane and sorghum, using this in lieu of sugar 
in preserves. They soon learned all the dyewoods of the forest, 
and made purples, yellows, crimsons, and browns at pleasure. 

It would take too much space to go further into details ; suffice 
it to say that the women of the household on every plantation were 

"The Days That Are Dead." 163 

the power that evolved something out of nothing, and from the 
slimmest materials fashioned great comforts, rendering it possible 
for all the men to be away at the front while they ran the plantations, 
and raised the crops that fed the armies. 

On the 21st of August, 1863, at two o'clock in the morning, with- 
out warning to the sleeping women and children, the first shell was 
thrown into Charleston. It came from the "Swamp Angel," a Parrott 
gun mounted on a battery built in the marsh between Morris Island 
and James Island, where the enemy had obtained a foothold. This 
gun soon burst, but daily the town was shelled from the Yankee fleet 
and batteries, and it was on the five hundred and sixty-eighth day of 
this siege, as it was chronicled, that the ungarrisoned city was entered. 
All through this dire experience, many women and children re- 
mained, for here were their homes, and here they had to stay, or go 
shelterless out in the world. Numerous families had refugeed into 
the upper part of the State, facing hardships and want among those 
who were strangers to them, but oftener yet receiving kindness and 
assistance from the people among whom they sought refuge. 

Casualties were reported from time to time among the women and 
children left behind ; their homes were shattered sometimes, and 
sometimes burned, but they became at length used to the condition of 
things. That part of the city within range of the enemy was de- 
serted by its inhabitants, who took up their abode in houses beyond 
the firing line ; and soon the little children learned to laugh and clap 
their hands while they watched the shells fly over upon their futile 

During all this time, the blockade runners came and went with 
almost the regularity of packet lines, and beyond the reach of the 
shells was established, in Bull street, in Charleston, the famous Bee 
Store, which put on sale the entire cargo of each vessel as she came 
in. Everything was there, and all to be had for a price in Con- 
federate money, which was plentiful; whether millinery or gro 
ceries, it could all be found in the Bee Store, for the vessels entered 
with their cargoes and departed with their cotton, and laughed at the 
fleet lying big, threatening and belligerent before the city's Seagate. 

Two of these blockade runners, the "Let Her Be" and the "Let 
Her Rip." seemed to bear a charmed life. They were endeared to 
the childish heart by the very impudence of their names, while to the 
Chicora Company, that owned them, they were little mines of wealth, 
bringing, besides, many comforts and necessaries to the people who 
toiled and the men who fought. 

164 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Wherever the soldiers went, and women could reach them, they 
were fed and tended and served. They came into the plantations 
singly, in couples, in squads, in companies ; still, they were fed, and 
the best given them that the place could furnish — their haversacks 
were filled, and they went their way rejoicing and grateful, only to 
be followed by others and others, as the days, weeks, months and 
years passed on. 

Oh ! they were a light-hearted company, and enjoyed the passing 
hour, and made every girl in sight enjoy it with them, I trow — talk- 
ing, singing, dancing, flirting, with each successive one. The young 
people made the most of the present, and looked not into the future, 
for he who was there today, tomorrow might be seen lying stark 
and stiff — his soul to God, his body on his native earth, his life an 
offering for the freedom of his country. 

How we loved them all, those soldier boys, tattered and torn, 
earnest and brave, making love as they fought — with dash and 
daring, and hopeful ever that the best must come to the cause for 
which they were willing to die. 

God bless them all — the sacred dead in their graves, and the old 
veterans that are left to us, living monuments of the spirit and the 
glory of the South ! 

For four years we believed entirely, we, the youth of the land, 
soldier and maid, in the power of our cause to conquer and rise 
superior to numbers. In February, 1865, however, the end was very 

The neighboring planters, too old to join the army, but raising 
food to feed it, sent their young women into the City of Charleston 
to find safety in numbers, and be with their kind out of the way of 
Sherman's marauders. 

For days previous to February 18th, stores were being removed 
and ammunition sent away with each successive body of men who 
left the city. On the 16th, cotton was piled on the public square and 
burned, that it might not enrich the enemy. The rice — tens of 
thousands of bushels — at Lucas' Mill was set on fire. On the 17th, 
the Northeastern Depot, where a large amount of military stores had 
been collected and abandoned, was thronged with a motley crowd of 
people, who bore away to their homes provisions of every kind. As 
the day wore on, explosions were heard on every side ; the gunboats 
"Charleston" and "Chicora" were blown up at their wharves ; the "big 
gun" at the corner of South and East Battery was exploded, and tore 
out the windows and doors and shattered the roof and piazzas of Mr. 

"The Days That Are Dead." 165 

Louis DeSaussure's residence, at the opposite corner. The night 
which followed was a fearful one ; no one slept ; few went to bed. 
Fires started everywhere, and there were only negroes to put them 
out. and they knew the end had come ; that the white men had gone or 
were going, and that the city was helpless and expecting its foe on 
the morrow. Yet, be it said to their honor, not a case of out- 
rage or violence disgraced their record that night. They hauled the 
engines about to the tune and words of "Massa run away; nigger 
stay at home," but they put out the fires, and helped the whites, and 
did their duty manfully. 

Late in the night of the 17th, the "Palmetto State," the gunboat 
that the ladies built, was blown up at the Gas Company's Wharf, 
where she lay. Women who had worked and striven and contributed 
to its building stood at their windows and viewed the flames from the 
burning boat color the sky, and lo ! as the last detonation sounded, 
the smoke arose and, upon the red glare of the heavens, formed a 
palmetto tree, perfect and fair, that stood out against the sky, then 
wavered and broke apart as we watched it through our tears, then 
crumbled into wreck and ruin and was lost in the darkness and 
gloom ! 

It was a terrible, heart-breaking, awful night. The men who were 
garrisoning Sumter had come over in their small boats, bringing 
their flags. In the early morning of the 18th, they were gathered in 
the city on the wharf, and there they cast themselves down on the 
earth and wept aloud. Some prayed ; some cursed ; all said they 
would rather have died in the fort they had so long defended than 
have her ramparts desecrated by the invader's tread. 

About eight o'clock in the morning of the 18th, a terrible accident 
occurred through the carelessness of boys who went back and forth 
from the Northeastern Depot stores, carrying powder in their hands 
and throwing it upon the burning cotton in the yard. The place was 
crowded with plunderers, people of all sorts and conditions, and as 
the powder trickled through their fingers, the boys unconsciously 
laid a train from the burning mass to the depot. There was a fear- 
ful explosion, and the place was torn to atoms ; a hundred and fifty 
persons were killed, and about two hundred wounded ; but no one had 
time to concern himself with it — the flames spread, and soon the fire 
was raging down the entire length of Alexander street, wiping out 
some of the handsomest residences in the city. 

All day on the 17th, the evacuation of our troops had proceeded. 
On the 1 8th, at ten o'clock, on Meeting street, near Anne, the last 

166 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

body of armed Confederates we were ever to see said good-bye to the 
weeping women who pressed around them. Yet, even then, some 
laughed and jested, for, God pity us, we were hopeful still, and they 
were brave, and we could not think that the end had really come. 
We knew we were right, and we still believed that a just cause must 
triumph ; but even then the enemy was landing on our shore. With 
lingering steps and heavy hearts, our men left us there, and on that 
same morning, about twelve o'clock, or later, on the same street, 
and at the same corner where she had told good-bye to the men and 
the flag she loved so well, a young girl came face to face with the 
Yankee column, marching down into the heart of the city, with ban- 
ners flying, bands playing, a victorious army indeed ! Could she 
stand and watch them pass ? Could she make her way through their 
ranks? She turned and fled from the hateful sight, shocked, dis- 
tressed, by the untoward incident. 

Over the west side of Charleston, in the vicinity of the Arsenal, 
every inhabitant of the neighborhood had fled, terror-stricken, from 
their homes, to the Christ Church Chapel, up Rutledge avenue. The 
warning had gone out that a train of powder had been laid, and a 
slow match applied, and that the magazine and building would be 
blown up. They set wide open every door, and raised every window 
in their homes, then fled for their lives. In dread they listened for 
the explosion that would doubtless have left them homeless. The 
minutes passed, but no detonation was heard ; all was still. Soon 
came another messenger, crying that the enemy were in the city, 
and the arsenal was saved; the Federals had hurried to take pos- 
session of it, and were just in time, it was said, to extinguish the 

But another danger threatened, for they were told that all unoccu- 
pied houses would be immediately taken possession of by the troops. 
Back rushed the harrassed crowd of women, children, and servants, 
to go to their homes, close windows, lock doors, and await in dread 
what would be next. 

That day (Saturday) passed without event, but Sunday ushered 
in an era of outrages. They were mostly negro troops, under the 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett, who entered Charleston, 
and these, on the 19th, were permitted to go and liberate their 
"brothers in bondage." They entered everywhere ; they thrust them- 
selves into the apartments of delicate women, cursing and raving at 
them, and ordering them to give up the slaves they were "conceal- 
ing." In the meantime, the house negroes, shaking with fear ; 

"The Days That Are Dead." 167 

came out from wheresoever they were, and meekly allowed them- 
selves to be escorted off. Then began the new life for the women 
of Charleston — the life of service to family necessities. They did 
their whole duty in that sphere, cheerfully and well, in spite of 
the traditions and training of generations of gentlewomen. They 
cooked, swept, and scrubbed ; they split wood, fed horses, milked 
and watered the cattle, and took upon themselves the duties of not 
only the servants of the family, while filling their own places, but 
they had to be the men of the household as well, for some slept on 
the battlefields, some in the burying grounds of distant prisons, and 
others were incapacitated by sickness and wounds, and came home to 
be cared for, and be a precious, loved, but additional burden, upon 
the devoted women who were then, and for long years after, the 
mainstay of the home. 

But the young boys, bless them! of ten, twelve, fourteen, were 
a comfort indeed. They were everywhere, lending a helping hand 
to this old lady or splitting wood and carrying water for some 
girl who had not yet learned how to handle an axe or lift a heavy 
bucket ; going "down town" on many an errand, when women shrank 
from being in the crowded streets, jostled by the negro soldiery. 
And how we valued them ! how glad we were to save for them a nice 
tid-bit, a dainty Cake, a part of whatever we had that was best ! We 
were grateful to them, and tried to show it, and I trust that every boy 
who helped us then, found some help in turn when, grown to man- 
hood, life's stress and strain made him need it most. 

The negroes came straggling back after some days ; but they did 
not stay. There was no money to pay them regular wages, and their 
uniformed friends had taught them that to work without a compen- 
sation in money was still to be in slavery. Some very few were fond 
enough of their "white people" to stay by the children they had 
helped raise ; a good many lingered for a month or two, and then 
went off to some one who could pay them well. No one blamed them 
for that : every human being seeks to better his condition. There 
were some cases of bad behavior, but those were comparatively few, 
and applied to those who, like the woman throwing her arms above 
her head, and dancing down the sidewalk, screamed out : "I'm free ; 
I'm free; I'm free till I'm fool!" 

It was the negro soldiery and their white brethren in arms who 
committed the dastardly outrages but too common in the city. One 
poor lady with a babe but two or three days old was turned out of 
her bed, her mattresses and blankets taken, her house looted, and 

168 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

she was sent out into the street to seek succor. Some kind friend 
took her in and cared for her ; but mother and child both died. That 
was but one instance; there were many others as dreadful. Here is 
one in lighter vein : Mrs. Laura Postell Geddings wrote to a friend 
that she had just come out of the kitchen, where she had been cooking 
Dr. Geddings' supper, while her maid, who had possessed herself of 
her mistress' best silk gown, sat down in her parlor and entertained 
the Yankee officers ! 

This paper has stretched to too great a length, and yet there is 
much more to tell, of how the end came, and of those many years 
after, which tried men's souls. But my tale is done, for to us in that 
sorrowful city the sword had fallen, and we could know neither hope 
nor joy. We drew our sable garments of affliction about us and 
mourned our dead, working on meanwhile for the living who were 
dear to us. Our hearts were the sepulcher of our hopes, and even 
as we loved our heroes and gloried in their faith, honor and bravery, 
so we loved our country and gloried in the deeds and principles that 
were hers. Principles never die; those of that day live on in the 
memory, heart and soul of every true Southerner. 

Lee C. Harby. 

Charleston, S. C, November 14, 1901. 

[Written by request of Dick Anderson Chapter, to be read at State 
Convention, U. D. C, held at Sumter, November 27-28, 1901.] 

A South Carolina Girl's Recollections of 
the First Year of the "War. 

Nullification, States' rights, etc., and the principles thereof were 
as household words to most South Carolina children ; but I having 
had the misfortune to lose my father when little more than a baby, 
knew nothing of politics; although I had often heard the days of 
1832 discussed, and how the State should have nullified and did not. 
Therefore, it was not surprising that secession was almost an ac- 
complished fact before I knew very much about it. My brother, a 
young man of 23, was most enthusiastic, and in his eyes South Caro- 
lina could never be wrong; but even from him, I heard but little. 
The English teacher at the school I attended was a red-hot seces- 
sionist, and from her I may say I received my political impressions ; 
and can recall when, one day at dinner, a political discussion going 
on, I, a shv, awkward, silent girl, ventured a remark, my brother's 

The First Year of the War. 169 

surprise as he asked me, ''Where did you hear that?" "At school," 
I replied ; "Mrs. W r — told us so." He laughed heartily, and said : 
"I had no idea politics was a branch of your education ; I must treat 
your opinion with more deference hereafter !" 

With the voting for delegates to the convention called by the State. 
and the almost immediate passage of the Ordinance of Secession on 
the 20th of December, i860, the whole State became enthusiastic; 
although many were grave, and realized there was a terrible issue at 

At this time, I had gone on a Christmas visit to a friend in the 
country, and as we read of the enthusiasm in Charleston, torch- 
light processions, speeches, firing of cannon, flags flying, etc., we 
thought we would not be behind the times, but try to have a patriotic 
emblem with our Christmas decorations ; so a long board was got, 
covered with blue, on which we pasted, in yellow letters, "Dam spiro 
spero," and nailed to the pillars of the piazza that, as visitors turned 
into the avenue, it would be the first thing to meet their view. This 
was the 24th of December, and with great impatience we awaited 
arrivals from the city, expected that evening. As we ran out to 
greet our host, a genial, good-tempered, warm-hearted gentleman, 
we eagerly asked, "Did you see our motto? don't you like it?" and 
were crestfallen at his answer, "It looks like a tavern sign — cakes 
and ale ; welcome, all !" However, he was kind enough to let it re- 
main, although it was evidently an eyesore. 

On the 26th of December, i860, Major Robert Anderson evacuated 
Fort Moultrie and occupied Fort Sumter, never before garrisoned. 
This was regarded by Governor Pickens as an overt act of war, and 
a detachment of the Marion Artillery, with other companies of the 
State militia, was ordered to occupy Fort Moultrie. My brother, an 
officer of the Marion Artillery, went with this detachment ; thus, to 
me the war commenced from the first, for he was on duty all that 
winter, being among the first appointed as an officer in the "Pro- 
visional Army of South Carolina," and in May received from the 
Confederate Congress, at Montgomery, a commission in the regular 
service of the Confederate States, was ordered to Gen. R. S. Gar- 
nett's staff, and with him shared the dangers, trials, and untold pri- 
vations of that ill-starred campaign in Northwestern Virginia. No 
men in the Confederate Army suffered more than these. Badly 
supplied commissary ; reinforcements denied them ; overpowered by 
the enemy ; sickness rife in their camp ; General Garnett killed at the 
Battle of Rich Mountain ; their forces almost entirely demoralized 

170 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

by their reverses, it needed the news of General Beauregard's 
splendid victory at Manassas to cheer their drooping spirits. It 
was the defeat of this small band of starving men which, in 1861, 
made McClellan a toast throughout the North ! It was under these 
painful circumstances that my brother yielded up his life for the 
cause he held so dear ! — and he was all the war to us. 

But to return to South Carolina. By the middle of January, 
Charleston seemed transformed into a military camp, companies 
from the upper counties came hurrying to the seacoast, batteries 
were being erected at all points, there was a constant drilling, and 
nightly patrolling the streets — all was changed. 

In Charleston, it was decided that the issues at stake were of too 
serious a nature to admit of a gay winter; therefore, the St. Cecilia 
and Jockey Club societies determined to give no balls ; and great 
was the chagrin of the expected debutantes at a season being scored 
against them of which they had had no enjoyment; but as the horses 
had all arrived, the Jockey Club in February held their annual three 
days meet ; and the pleasure of racing was enhanced by the then new 
sight of our every-day acquaintances being dressed in uniform, and 
plain "Mr." transformed to "Captain," etc. 

January 26, 1861, saw our first war experience, when the "Star of 
the West," bearing provisions to the garrison of Sumter, was fired 
into by the Morris Island batteries. The special battery which did 
most of the firing was manned by the cadets from the State Military 
Academy. These boys, being the beaux of our little Friday evening 
dances, the girls felt special interest, and were proud to hear their 
coolness spoken of by their elders as worthy of veterans ! 

It was about this time that General Beauregard first came among 
us, and from then to the close of the war, South Carolina seemed to 
claim him as her very own. He was a small, erect, handsome man, 
of great personal magnetism — all he approached, he made his own. 

All Charleston remembers the first Battle of Sumter — how, before 
daylight, on the 12th of April, we were aroused from sleep by the 
signal gun fired from Fort Johnson. Although some miles from 
Charleston, the sound seems to have passed like an electric shock 
through the length and breadth of the city, rousing even the heaviest 
sleepers. I do not think any would have been found willing to con- 
fess they did not hear that gun! 

The whole community with one accord seemed to crowd to the 
Battery, and adjacent houses, where, with strained eyes, or the aid of 
opera glasses, telescopes — whatever one was fortunate enough to 

The First Year of the War. 171 

possess — for two days we watched the bloodless battle, wondering 
what would be the fate of our loved ones, for every house sent its 
youth ; there was scarcely a family that had not at least one son in 
the fight. Slowly and steadily our batteries fired, and sullenly 
Sumter answered them ; and when, on the second day, the white flag 
was hoisted, on all sides came the cry, "They surrender! they sur- 
render!" and soon we saw the little boat shoot out from Morris 
Island, with those to make the terms. 

On Sunday, the 14th, the transports came up for Major Anderson 
and his men ; as they passed Morris Island, our troops were drawn in 
line on the beach, and saluted their late foe. 

This first battle of the war had many trying circumstances con- 
nected with it — those on whom our guns were turned had lived 
among us as friends and honored guests, and all in one day, as it 
were, they became deadly enemies ; the change was too sudden to 
engender much bitterness of feeling. 

After the battle, we heard many amusing anecdotes of occur- 
rences. One, I remember : the Charleston Light Dragoons, with 
other cavalrymen, had been ordered to the eastern end of Sullivans 
Island, known then as the Myrtles (from the thick growth of this 
shrub), with orders to prevent the landing of the fleet, should it be 
attempted. After all was over, and they came riding down the 
island, they were greeted with the taunt from some countrymen, 
"You'rns look right pert and brave; now that we'uns have done the 
fiteing, you'rns come out to see!" I smile now as I remember the 
indignation of the young Dragoons who told us the story. 

After the fall of Sumter, nearly all of our volunteer companies 
were relieved from duty, and a season of recreation followed. An 
elegant fete champetre, in honor of General Beauregard, was given 
by Mr. Wm. Izard Bull, at his beautiful home, "Ashley Hall," which 
had been the home of the Bulls since colonial days, when Governor 
Bull was one of the Governors of the Province of Carolina. Ashley 
Hall, on this April day, seemed to have donned its fairest dress, as 
though there could not be too much beauty to do honor to the oc- 
casion ; or perhaps there was a foreknowledge that this would be the 
last fete day under those grand old oaks ! though no such feeling 
clouded the gayety of those who joined the brilliant throng that day, 
and in spite of there being comparatively few civilians to be seen, 
none seemed to realize that grim-visaged war was near at hand, and 
that ere the close of the year, many of those with us would have sac- 
rificed their lives on the altar of their countrv ! 

172 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

That spring was marked by flag presentations to the different 
military companies, for it was in May that the companies intending 
to join the Hampton Legion left for their rendezvous in Columbia, 
prior to going on to Virginia. My grandaunt, Mrs. Jane Ancrum, 
a lady of over seventy years, following the example set by her 
mother, Mrs. Jane Washington, who presented the battleflag of her 
husband, Colonel William Washington, to the Washington Light 
Infantry, emerged from her retirement, and personally presented the 
Washington Light Infantry, on the eve of their departure, with a 
flag that had been embroidered by some of her young grand- 

The flag of the Legion was embroidered by a cousin of mine, and 
was made of a crimson silk dress presented by one of the Hampton 
family, the. design a wreath of oak leaves encircling "Hampton 
Legion." Great was the interest with which we watched the daily 
growth of those leaves and acorns ! It was not finished in time for 
presentation before they left for Virginia — this ceremony took place 
at Richmond, President Davis making the speech. Some years 
later, the flag, tattered, stained, and bullet-riddled, was returned to 
my cousin with the request she would add their most conspicuous 
battles — a goodly number ! 

The Battle of Manassas brought sorrow and gloom to many a 
home in South Carolina, for our regiments suffered terribly, the 
Hampton Legion being no exception ; and when General Bee and 
Colonel Johnson were brought home and laid to rest, where they 
first saw the light, Charleston felt she could not do enough to honor 
her dead heroes. After Manassas, things were quiet for a time, and 
attention was turned to providing for our boys in camp, hospitals, 
and those preparing to go ; pickles and preserves were made, socks 
knit ; all material possible was brought into use, for it was incredible 
how soon after the blockade was established articles of every-day 
use became scarce. 

The "Bermuda" was, I think, the first English vessel that ran the 
blockade into Charleston, and for the first time we realized the tre- 
mendous advance in prices ; it seemed as though we were not the 
same people, nor these the same stores. Up to this time, the Charles- 
ton merchants had either kept the same scale of prices or advanced 
them so little it was not worth complaining of ; but when the advance 
once commenced, it did not soon stop and, in comparison with things 
of today, it reads like a page from the Arabian Nights Entertain- 
ment. I often wish I had kept a diary of the times — there is so 

The First Year of the War. 173 

much, both grave and gay, forgotten that would have been worth re- 
membering. Many a laugh have we had in talking over the outre 
things we, as well as our friends, were delighted to get, and the 
marvelous prices paid. What a bonanza the war must have been to 
the English merchants, in clearing off the unsalable stock that had 
accumulated for years, and that we blockaded Southerners were only 
too glad to get. 

In the fall of 1861, the enemy landed upon our seacoast, and the 
planters, with their families, had to make a hasty exit from Edisto, 
St. Helena, Beaufort — in fact, all the sea islands. In most cases, 
the flight was so sudden they were compelled to leave all household 
effects behind; everything had to be concentrated in moving the 
negroes and, if possible, the cotton ; in many instances, this had to 
be burned, and at night the seacoast for miles would be illuminated 
with fires from the burning cotton that meant so much loss of credit 
to the Confederacy ! 

Fort Walker was the first reverse we met with in South Carolina, 
and a terrible one it was, for we were never able to regain what was 
there lost. It was here, too, that was first brought home to us the 
cruel sight of brother arrayed against brother, when the two Dray- 
tons (brothers), one commanded the Federal, and the other the Con- 
federate forces. Our sympathies were much excited for those who 
were driven from their homes at this time, who in one day fell from 
wealth to poverty. Later in the war we saw refugees living in box- 
cars (and glad to get them), but by that time we had all had our 
share of suffering, and were able to resign ourselves to whatever 
came. Nothing ever seemed as pitiful as the woes of the sea island 
refugees. Many of them came to Charleston only in time to undergo 
the horrors of the great fire of December 11, 1861, which swept 
Charleston from east to west — from the Cooper to the Ashley ! 

Although December, the night was warm enough for us to stand 
bareheaded, and without discomfort, on the piazza, and watch an 
apparently unimportant fire that had broken out in a machine shop, 
not more than a square away. As though Pandora had opened her 
box, before 11 o'clock the wind commenced to rise, and we could 
see the flames reach higher and higher, and burn steadily in a south- 
westerly course. All night long vehicles of every kind were passing. 
laden with the effects of those seeking safety, and when some stopped 
at our door and asked shelter for furniture moved from the south- 
western part of the city, it was hard to understand how so much 
damage had been done in so short a time. Direful, indeed, was the 

174 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

tale we heard next day ; many near and dear to us were homeless ; 
the public buildings, the pride of the city, were, many of them, in 
ashes. The Institute Hall, where the Ordinance of Secession had 
been passed, the Circular Church (Presbyterian), St. Finbar's 
Cathedral, St. Peter's (Episcopal), covering an area of certainly a 
half-mile apart, were all in ruins ! 

This, coming so soon after the fall of Fort Walker, and all the re- 
verses we had met with that season, seemed more than our share. 
The working people, in many instances, having lost their all, means 
for their relief had to be immediately thought of, and, in providing 
them with shelter, food and raiment, the woes of the richer were, 
for the time, thrust out of sight. 

Many of those who had lost their homes now commenced their 
refugee life, the military advising the removal of noncombatants 
from Charleston. Columbia was the point of safety ( ?) agreed upon 
by nearly all of the first refugees as being nearer communication with 
their friends — only a few families at this time sought refuge in the 
upper counties. 

By May, 1862, almost all Charleston were refugees. The up-coun- 
try towns were overcrowded, food was scarce, prices exorbitant ; in 
many instances Confederate money was refused at any price, the 
farmers preferring to hoard their provisions rather than sell for 
money they deemed worthless. The refugees all over the State had 
a hard time, although at the hands of many they met with unlimited 
kindnesses which could never be forgotten or repaid. 

The men all away at the war, only those over or under age were 
left to plant the crops. The struggle for food was terrible, and many 
were the shifts the low-country people were put to. Among the ig- 
norant farmers were many who regarded a "refugee" as a bitter 
foe, who was personally responsible for the war, and the privations 
they and theirs were enduring. They refused to sell us provisions, 
except in the way of barter, and in that light, almost everything, 
particularly clothing, had a market, but with no means of replenish- 
ing, it was not often we could spare our clothing. Going out into 
the country on one occasion to see what we could get to eat, we had 
stopped at a farmhouse where the woman refused all overtures we 
had made her. On this day I wore a white waist, known as a "Gari- 
baldi," and then considered most stylish, somewhat on the order of 
the shirtwaist of today. The woman suddenly turned to me, and 
said : "I will give you a turkey for your jacket." I replied : "It is 
not for sale." She kept on urging the exchange; at last she said: 

Coast Women in the War. 175 

"I will give you two turkeys." After hesitating some time, as to 
whether my wardrobe would allow of the exchange, I consented. 
Our household consisted of thirteen women and children, and turkeys 
were a rarity with us ! 

Almost the greatest privation the refugees had was the want of 
wood. The severity of the climate in the upper counties was especi- 
ally hard to them. The farmers having their stock of mules or oxen 
much reduced, needed their services for farmwork, so that it was 
only during a spell of bad weather they would consent to haul wood. 
I am afraid many were the heartfelt prayers put up for a rainy day, 
particularly if the woodpile was growing beautifully less ! 

After this, events came so thick and fast, it is impossible to recall 
them in anything like order, and, until Sherman overran South Caro- 
lina in 1865, most of us were removed from the seat of war. We 
were constantly cheered by rumors of England's recognition, and 
never lost hope. Poles never loved their cause more deathlessly than 
we Southerners our "Lost Cause," although today we may forgive 
and try to forget. 

Forget the rage of the hostile years, 

And the scars of a wrong unshriven, 
Forgive the torture that thrilled to tears 

The angels calm in heaven. 

Forgive and forget? Yes, be it so, 

From the hills to the broad sea waves, 
But mournful and low are the winds that blow, 

By the slope of a thousand graves. 

Martha B. Washington. 

Coast Women in the War. 

Mrs. Thomas Taylor, Columbia, S. C. 

My Dear Mrs. Taylor: During your term of office as president 
of the South Carolina division, Daughters of the Confederacy, you 
urged me if possible to give you some outline of the work done by 
the women of St. Helena Parish for the relief of our soldiers during 
the War of Secession, in order that it may be incorporated with 
others now in your possession. I hesitated thus long to comply, as 
the task seemed well nigh hopeless after the expiration of so many 
years, and was disposed to leave it to some one more able than I to 
do justice to the subject; but how can I consult my own inclination 
when I may recall a few incidents which perhaps will be of interest 

176 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

to some persons and of assistance to you. It is with great pride and 
gratification I am at last enabled through the courtesy of friends to 
preserve for future reference what was accomplished by these noble 
women in six short months for the comfort of our men in the field 
and in hospitals — a record second to none, and should be handed 
down to generations "in letters of gold and pictures of silver." To 
understand the enormous amount of work done, it must be borne in 
mind that the parish was composed of islands on our coast with two 
summer resorts — Beaufort and St. Helenaville — and it was during 
the summer of 1861 only they had concerted action, or the means to 
carry it out, for in November of that year the whole section was 
abandoned to hordes of negroes and unscrupulous confiscators. 
Surely "doth the city sit solitary that was full of people. How is 
she become as a widow, she that was great among the nations, and 
princess among the provinces, how is she become tributary !" 

The first endeavor to effect any definite plan of action for the relief 
of our soldiers was in the town of Beaufort, in the Baptist Taber- 
nacle, August 14, 1861. The Rev. Dr. Jos. R. Walker, the vener- 
able Episcopal clergyman, opened the meeting with prayer. The 
Hon. Edmund Rhett organized the association to be called the Sol- 
diers' Relief Association, and wrote the constitution and by-laws for 
its governance. 

The following ladies were elected : President, Mrs. Wm. A. Mor- 
cock ; Vice-President, Mrs. Thomas Fuller ; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Edward Barnwell ; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Wells ; Treasurer, Miss Elizabeth Barnwell. Enthusiasm was at 
fever heat and work was immediately begun to uniform the Whippy 
Swamp Company. I quote from a letter of one of the co-workers : 
"About this time cloth was becoming scarce. The pants were made 
of bed ticking, all blue, except some which looked like peppermint 
candy and were reserved for the non-commissioned officers." Blan- 
kets also were lined and quilted before distributing them. Dunno- 
vant's Regiment and a command from Kershaw County were in- 
debted to these same untiring workers for caps, uniforms and 
"clothes" marked with the owner's names. In many instances, shoes 
and socks were also provided. Besides the work pledged as members 
of the association, circles of willing workers were formed, meeting 
at private residences. Mrs. Stephen Elliott's parlor was converted 
into a cap manufactory at short notice ; and the home of the Rev. 
Wm. H. Barnwell, "The Castle," was a depot for rival cotton com- 
forts, "which were freewill offerings outside of the societv, amount- 

Coast Women in the War. 177 

ing to a round dozen." These were made and quilted by his daugh- 
ters and their friends. Mrs. Middleton Stuart is particularly men- 
tioned "as having done much apart from the Relief Society." Fancy 
work and delicate stitches were things of the past, giving place to 
sewing machines and knitting needles, which had undivided attention, 
and were in great demand, as no material was too rough or work 
too arduous to supply the soldiers' needs. Mrs. Paul Hamilton was 
treasurer and quartermaster-general for all the organizations, great 
and small. She received moneys from those outside and supplied 
promptly the demands for funds as the occasions presented them- 
selves. She also packed and shipped supplies to several destina- 
tions, seeing personally to this important branch of the work and 
sending the right thing at the proper time, when most needed. Just 
about this time, the Hon. C. G. Memminger (at the instance of Rev. 
Robt. W. Barnwell, then in Richland doing hospital work), wrote 
to Mrs. Jos. D. Pope, describing the sufferings and dire need of our 
sick and wounded soldiers after the Battle of Bull Run, and asked 
her aid in their behalf. No time was lost in bringing this communi- 
cation to the notice of the ladies, and a hospital committee was es- 
tablished, consisting of Mrs. Pope, chairman ; Mrs. Stephen Elliott, 
Mrs. Louis DeSaussure, Mrs. Prioleau and Mrs. James Verdier, her 
able and indefatigable associates. In a short while, lint, bandages, 
sheets, pillows, towels and blankets were packed and hauled thirty 
miles distant to reach the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, and 
sent with all possible speed to the hospitals in Virginia. Delicacies 
also which could bear transportation were not forgotten. But work 
now nearer home demanded their attention. Under their super- 
vision, two rooms on Murray's wharf were secured and fitted up as 
a hospital for the use of the soldiers from the up-country, then sta- 
tioned at Bay Point and Hilton Head. This move was the result of 
a suggestion from Dr. Turnipseed, who was army surgeon, and from 
his experience in the Crimean War recognized the great necessity of 
more comfortable quarters for the fever-stricken volunteers from 
the interior of the State. In a few days, the hospital was reported 
ready. Dr. Jos. T. Johnson, the able practitioner and their towns- 
man, offered his services as local physician, which were gratefully 
accepted by these earnest though sadly inexperienced women in their 
self-appointed task. The care of the sick at home did not prevent, 
however, their continuing their monthly consignments of necessaries 
to Richmond, which only ceased when they themselves, in common 
with the whole community, were homeless and almost destitute 

178 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

refugees, bravely bearing untold privations for the cause they loved 
so well. Ten miles away, at St. Helenaville, the ladies were equally 
busy, having the mounted riflemen of that island as their especial 
charge. These men mounted and equipped themselves for service at 
their own expense. The only thing lacking was a flag. This defi- 
ciency the ladies determined to supply. Contributions were solicited 
and a generous amount realized, which was sent to Charleston for 
the purchase of the necessary materials. Before many weeks had 
elapsed, the handsome banner, the work of the deft fingers of Mrs. 
Jos. D. Pope, Mrs. Daniel T. Pope, Misses Caroline and Ellen Pope 
and Miss Edwards, was completed. This was made of heavy blue 
silk, with the Palmetto tree and crescent on one side ; on the other 
the star (emblem of State sovereignty) and motto "Vive Libertas 
in Patria, organized January 20, 1861," and was presented by Rev. 
Robert W. Fuller in the name of the ladies of St. Helena Island. 
Mr. Jos. D. Pope received the flag in behalf of his comrades. 

As one part of an army always receives the hottest fire and bears 
the brunt of the battle, so too this section of our State experienced 
the most disastrous consequences of our great struggle, and no 
people in our broad Southland gave more in blood and treasure, or 
of the work of their hands, to our glorious cause than these patriots 
— the women of St. Helena Parish. 

The current of our history has not flowed as we once hoped, but 
there must be a future for us, with such heroic men and public- 
spirited women as we have. "He may be unwise who is sanguine, 
but he is unpatriotic and unchristian who despairs." 

Hoping that this sketch, imperfect though it be, may serve your 
purpose, and wishing you every success for the book you are en- 
gaged in compiling, I am, very sincerely, 

Your friend, 

Adeline P. Stoney. 

Columbia, S. C, May 15, 1902. 

Our First Confederate Flag'. 

Would you know why I am a "Veteran" "Daughter of the Con- 
federacy," and of the making of our first flag ? Then must I tell you 
something of my story. 

My father, an eminent lawyer, active in public work, and a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, died at the age of thirty-three, leaving my 
mother and three little children. 

Our First Confederate Flag. 179 

His State honored his memory by the monument which marks his 
grave, and his name is held in loving- memory by his associates. 

My mother belonged to quite an old family, that can count its ten 
quarterings. My great-grandfather owned the first brick house in 
the city of Savannah. There it was that the first General Assembly 
of the State of Georgia was convened by Governor Reynolds, Janu- 
ary 7, 1755. Up to my young girlhood the place still bore the name 
of the old Eppinger house. My grandfather, James Eppinger, was 
Marshal of the State of Georgia during the war of 1812. He occu- 
pied afterwards many positions of trust in his native city, Savannah, 
and was for twenty-eight years Senior Judge of Pike County. 

My mother was the most intellectual woman in her community, 
and often the referee of committees of gentlemen on matters of pub- 
lic business. She belonged to the old school, and thought children 
should be taught early. I do not know when I learned to read. I 
seem always to have known, and loved it. My mother taught my 
sister, brother and myself, and a feature in her instruction was "con- 
versations" on topics of interest, local, literary or historical. While 
we read and talked of those who had done brave deeds, my heart 
would burn within me. I almost envied every Revolutionary heroine, 
and longed to prove my love of country. 

When the war clouds of i860 began to lower, we looked, and 
listened, and read with interest every item on the situation. We were 
all States' Rights Southerners, and the blue cockades of the "Minute 
Men" decorated not only the lapels of the coats, but the girls also 
thus attested their readiness to give themselves to the young Con- 
federacy of States that followed so quickly the lead of South 

When the tidings flashed over the country that the Confederacy 
was formed and her flag flung to the breeze, every town floated a 
banner. My mother was asked to make the one for ours, and I, 
among others, helped to make the first Stars and Bars ever kissed by 
the sunlight in our Courthouse Square. 

Now the roll of the drum was heard daily. The blue-cockaded 
"Minute Men" were organizing into companies ; the women into 
"Soldiers' Aid Societies." One day every week, for four years, 
these societies met to do anything they could for the soldiers. While 
at home they were still first in our thoughts — study of anything per- 
sonal came afterwards. 

We made tents, uniforms, caps, underwear, knit socks, gloves, 
comforters, all with our fingers, and often spun and wove the thread 

180 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

and cloth from which they were manufactured. Lessons were 
learned at night when the day's work was done ; or, we memorized 
lessons and poetry as we walked to and fro at the spinning wheel 
drawing out the soft thread for soldiers' jeans. We conned French, 
Latin and English grammar as we carded the cotton into snowy 
rolls ; read Shakspeare, Scott and other standard authors while we 
plaited palmetto to fashion into hats. Even as we walked in the 
gloaming, the busy needles clicked, knitting for the soldiers, and 
those who stayed at home were also in active service for our 

My mother was the Treasurer and Secretary of our Aid Society ; 
therefore, our home was the depot for the supplies sent through that 
channel. As the war continued, we scraped lint, rolled bandages, 
scoured the country for old, soft cloth, packed boxes of vegetables 
and dainties for the hospital service, and collected for the comfort of 
the wounded whatever we could find. 

But all this came later. I was asked to tell you of the flag of our 
first company, "The Confederate Guards," Company A, Thirteenth 
Regiment, Georgia Volunteers, Gordon's Brigade. 

I had early been taught to sew very nicely. As soon as the com- 
pany was formed, aided by contributions from some ladies, I pur- 
chased the materials and made a beautiful company flag, embroider- 
ing on it the name of the company. When it was finished I wished 
to get one of the young ladies to present it, but my uncle and other 
officers said they knew I had made it, and they wished me to give it 
to them myself. 

The day selected was a militia drill, and there were thousands 
present. My chosen attendants were little girls, dressed in white 
with red and blue sashes, each representing a Confederate State. My 
bouquet was a floral Stars and Bars ; my address, that of a child with 
a woman's heart, responded to by one of the company. 

A beautiful May morning it was. The bright sunlight "shone on 
fair women and brave men," with faces all aglow with patriotic feel- 
ing. The company in their beautiful new uniforms of Confederate 
gray, arms glittering, colors flying, faces illumined and ennobled 
by the high, brave spirit within, marching, marching away. Away 
from home and love, into danger and death ; away from the sunshine 
of hope, into the darkness of the shadows. Ah ! 'twas a picture to 
stir the soul, that of those gallant heroes marching away. Few, few 
shall return of the many who pass from us, with the thrilling sounds 
of martial music. 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 181 

Women gave their husbands, sons, fathers, brothers and lovers, 
and then themselves took up the work left at home. I had seven 
uncles in the Confederate service. 

Nobly, too, did the faithful slaves perform the work given to 
them — true to "Massa," "Missis," and "the chillen" — servants, pro- 
tectors, friends. Tis sad to know that the mutual love of master 
and servant passed away with the Confederacy. Such devotion 
should never die. 

Forty years of change do not lessen our sorrow for the unreturn- 
ing brave or the death of the fair young Confederacy, sleeping 'neath 
her trailing banners. Time, the healer, soothes our pain, and while 
our eyes are dimmed by age and tears, faith sees more clearly now, 
and the rainbow of hope spans the sky. We know the dark things 
will be made plain on the other side, where the loved, who have left 
us, dwell. We know it is well, for God rules. A. S. Arnold. 

Johnston, S. C. 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 

No fairer land under the sun has ever been baptized with the life- 
blood of heroes than the grand old commonwealth of Virginia. Vir- 
ginia ! the very name thrills the heart of every true South Carolinian 
with pride and pleasure — pride in her glorious past and pleasure in 
the remembrance of what she was to us in the dark days of the Civil 
War. Her daughters bound up the wounds of our loved ones, 
cheered the sick and fed the hungry, comforting as only woman can, 
and this unparalleled devotion to those dear to us by the ties of blood 
binds the heart of every daughter of South Carolina to them with 
"bands of iron and hooks of steel," that were forged in the fires of 
Adversity and hammered into beauty and strength on the anvil of 

Look backward with me — skip the long years this afternoon, and 
we find ourselves in full view of the historic plains which lie in the 
mountain-crowned and sun-kissed land of Virginia. 

Whilst I give you a brief and impartial history of the First Battle 
of Manassas, I would, if it were possible, carve in imperishable char- 
acters the name of every member of the glorious Fourth South Caro- 
lina Regiment, composed of the chivalry and strength of Anderson, 
Pickens and Greenville. Oconee was at that time part of Pickens, 
so our sister County, that sits enthroned on a thousand hills, is justly 
entitled to her part of the glory achieved in the great drama. 

182 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

My heart thrills with an exultant pride to be able to speak to you 
of your countrymen and mine, born and brought up under the very 
shadows of our own lofty Blue Ridge Mountains. They sprang to 
arms as one man when the tocsin of war sounded the call, and no 
braver regiment ever looked into the jaws of death. 

Rallying under the leadership of their matchless commander, Col. 
J. B. E. Sloan, they covered themselves with glory, and to his brav- 
ery, and that of the gallant soldiers who loved him so well, is due 
much of the honor of the triumphal victory in this, our first great 

Colonel Sloan is an Anderson County man, and now lives in 
Charleston, South Carolina. The mothers, wives and sisters of those 
who served under him most especially delight to do him honor, and it 
is a pleasure to lay a tribute to his valor in the archives of the Dixie 
Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Let me urge you, my dear compatriots, to hand down these tradi- 
tions, if I may call them so, to your sons and daughters, that they, 
in turn, may do likewise, and thus perpetuate the memories of those 
brave defenders of our rights as effectually as the epitaphs chiseled 
on the hard, cold face of the marble shaft. 

Let me call your attention to this important fact : the Confederate 
Army was composed of volunteers, all newly-drilled men, fresh from 
the cities, villages and farms, whilst a large number of the Federal 
Army was composed of Regulars, veterans who had been drilled for 
years ; were, in reality, what is known as seasoned troops. 

It is a well-known fact that Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, 
who was then the general-in-chief of the army of the United States, 
was considered by far the ablest and most distinguished military 
officer on the Western Continent, and the movements of this army 
of invasion were directed by him. Brigadier-General Irvin Mc- 
Dowell, who was placed in immediate command, had the reputation 
of being an able officer also. So you will perceive the great ad- 
vantage of the enemy in numbers of men, experienced officers, battle 
maneuvers, in commanding in battle, and in numberless other things 
— and to combat all this, and wring victory out of such odds, we 
had — what? that peerless Southern chivalry that has been made im- 
mortal by peerless Southern heroes ! 

This army of McDowell's advanced from Washington City and 
other points along the Potomac toward Manassas. It is conceded 
by competent authority that it was intended by the Federal forces 
to make the attack. In the meantime, General Patterson, who, with 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 183 

a large force, was in the lower part of the Shenandoah Valley, had 
been instructed to prevent General Joseph E. Johnston, who, with 
his force, was in the upper valley, from joining General Beauregard 
before or during the battle the Federal officers knew was soon to be 

In answer to an appeal from General Beauregard, President Davis 
telegraphed General Johnston to join his forces with those of 
Beauregard at once and, with skilled cavalrymen, who skirmished 
between his marching army and General Patterson's, he covered his 
departure and kept the Federal general in ignorance of the whole 
movement until Johnston was on the field of battle. This intrepid 
general double-quicked his men much of the way and, using the cars 
that had been sent up the Manassas Gap Railroad to meet him, dis- 
embarked, double-quicked his men into the left flank of the Federal 
Army. As they rushed into the fight, the terrific "rebel yell" they 
gave was heard amidst the roar of artillery and musketry, screaming 
shells, and hissing minie balls. Although Johnston was the senior 
officer, his courtesy conceded a continuance in command to Beaure- 
gard until the battle was over. 

A slight engagement took place on the 18th of July. It was 
thought the Federals were trying to force a passage of Bull Run, 
although they deny this. 

Beauregard claims that this slight encounter was of immense 
advantage to his men, as they were raw troops ; it certainly made 
McDowell more cautious in laying his plans for attack. And we 
now find ourselves ready to study the positions on the morning of 
the 21st of July, 1861 — the day of the great conflict. 

The Confederate forces engaged were Wheat's Battalion, Hamp- 
ton's Legion, the Sixth Regiment North Carolina Volunteers, the 
Second, Fourth, Fifth, Eighth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty- 
seventh, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third, and Forty-ninth Virginia 
Regiments, the Second and Fourth South Carolina, Seventh and 
Eighth Georgia, Fourth Alabama, and Second Mississippi, and 
Elzey's and Early's Brigades. 

I do not think it would interest you to know the different com- 
mands under the Federal officers, but will simply give the estimate 
of numbers made by General Beauregard, who tells us in a published 
statement that the combined Confederate Army at Manassas mus- 
tered 29,188 men, rank and file, and fifty-five guns — that of these, 
21,923 infantry, cavalry, and artillery, and twenty-nine guns, be- 
longed to his Army of the Potomac. It is estimated that only about 

184 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

18,000 Confederates were actually engaged in the battle, while Gen- 
eral Beauregard estimated the Federal force at 50,000 men, well 
equipped for offensive service. 

Many judges consider Johnston's coming the turning tide of 

General Beauregard arranged his men so that the many fords 
across Bull Run, where it was thought the Federals might cross, 
were guarded by the different brigades, until over a dozen miles were 
covered ; this line extended to the Stone Bridge, which was a promi- 
nent point in this battle. 

Of the maneuvers of the two armies, and their positions, outside 
of the brief sketch I have made, I think it useless to speak, so will 
bring you at once to the orders of General Beauregard when he con- 
cluded to make an offensive movement. The different commanders 
were well instructed, as commanding in battle was new to them. At 
half-past four a. m., on the 21st, the different brigades were ordered 
to be in readiness to move at short notice. The plans were changed 
by the altered tactics of the Federals, who were making a feint of 
attack to cover a movement to fall on the left flank of our army. 

Wheat's Tigers attacked the skirmishers of the enemy and drove 
them back into the woods, but they were rapidly reinforced and 
rallied, but General Evans held them in check until General Bee 
went to his assistance. The increasing forces of McDowell, with 
their batteries of rifled ten-pounders, caused the conflict to be a 
deadly one ; our forces retreated in confusion across Young's Branch. 
About 2,000 men under Evans and Bee could not be rallied, al- 
though the commanding generals joined in the effort. The 
enemy, steadily advancing, were thinning our ranks, when Gen- 
eral Bee galloped up to Jackson and, in a voice pathetic in its 
tones of despair, cried out, "General, they are beating us back!" 
The reply is characteristic of the immortal hero, who, with his eyes 
glowing with the fires of defiance, said, "Then we will give them the 
bayonet!" This inspired the intrepid Bee and, riding back to his 
disordered men, cried, "Look ! there is Jackson standing like a stone 
wall ! rally behind the Virginians ! let us determine to die here, and 
we will conquer ! follow me !" his clarion notes rang out on the sum- 
mer air, and his men followed him to the charge which was the 
death knell of the gallant Bee. From this time on, Jackson was 
called Stonewall Jackson, and his command the Stonewall Brigade; 
the name, christened as it were by the life-blood of the heroic Bee, 
will go down in history as one of the most famous of modern times. 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 185 

Our own Fourth Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers, under 
Col. J. B. E. Sloan, was marched from near Centerville and crossed 
the stone bridge which is over Bull Run at this point, and encamped 
on a small stream beyond the bridge. Being short of rations, the 
soldiers stripped the bark from the elm trees that grew on the banks, 
and chewed it to appease their hunger. 

The body servants of Captain Prue Benson, Wilton Earle and 
Dave Gaillard, of the Palmetto Riflemen, were faithful foragers, 
and many a good fat sheep was pressed into service and divided 
among the members of that company ; this mutton was the only 
meat they had for forty-eight hours before the battle. The regiment 
was formed in line near Stone Bridge, and General Evans rode up 
to give last instructions to the men, saying: "When you see a puff 
of smoke across the Run, fall to the ground at once, for you can see 
the smoke before you hear the report, or the shell or cannon ball can 
reach you." Just as he was concluding, the men saw two or three 
puffs of smoke in the direction of Centerville ; they at once fell to 
the ground ; when they arose, Lieutenant Gus McCalister, whom 
some of you know, saluted General Evans, and said, "That order 
was promptly obeyed !" A grim smile went over the face of the 
general that those who saw will never forget. The forming of this 
line was to prevent the enemy from crossing Stone Bridge ; unfor- 
tunately, it was near a Confederate signal station, which the enemy 
shelled so furiously that the officer in charge beat a hasty retreat, 
leaving his hat behind him. Between the regiment and the Van 
Pelt house, a battery of Confederate artillery was stationed. One 
of the caissons being disabled, the officer in charge prepared to 
blow it up. Seeing this would endanger the lives of our own 
men, Major James Whitner and Mr. James A. Hoyt, both Ander- 
son men, protested so vigorously that the idea was abandoned. 
When it was discovered that the Federals had crossed the Run 
above, and were marching down the left flank, six companies of the 
Fourth South Carolina Volunteers and Wheat's Battalion of Tigers 
were sent to meet them, whilst four companies were left to guard 
the bridge. One company, under Captain Kilpatrick, was sent above 
the bridge to watch the movements of the enemy and, by annoying 
them, lead them to believe we had a large force there. The six com- 
panies and Wheat's Tigers endeavored to drive back ten times their 
number, charging at double-quick ; they held the enemy at bay until 
the heavy reinforcements of the Federals forced a retreat. The 
Federals were all the while shelling above and below the bridge,. 

186 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

following with grape and canister, until the earth was in places 
literally plowed up; still the four companies referred to held their 
position. In the meantime, a courier came galloping up and called 
for a volunteer who would face that rain of shot and shell and take a 
message to Captain Kilpatrick, telling him to retire, or his company- 
was in danger of being cut off by the enemy. As the officer rode up 
and down, not a man answered the stirring appeal, for all saw pos- 
sible death in the effort. A fair-faced lad of seventeen stepped out 
of the ranks and offered to carry the message. As the brave young 
soldier started on the dangerous mission, a shout of admiration rent 
the air — brave men who knew him well wept as he sped with flying 
feet over the open plain. As if he bore a charmed life, the scream- 
ing shells and hissing minie balls, that rained like a besom of de- 
struction around and about him, touched him not, and he reached 
the beleaguered company in safety and delivered the message to the 
captain. Before retiring, Captain Kilpatrick took a Mississippi rifle 
from the hands of his servant, deliberately walked to a tree that 
leaned over the Run, and took a farewell shot at the Federals, who 
could be plainly seen, thousands and thousands of them, marching 
and countermarching, a short distance away. 

The boy who carried that message was John R. Cochran, of An- 
derson, a member of the Palmetto Rifles, of the gallant Fourth. He 
was severely wounded in battle that selfsame day, and as he lay in 
the hospital at Culpeper Courthouse, Virginia, Captain Kilpatrick 
went there to see him and, with eyes brimming in tears, thanked 
him for saving his company ; he also said he would have a man de- 
tailed to wait on him until he was able to go home, and would see 
that he had every care whilst in the hospital. This pledge of the 
gallant Kilpatrick was carried out to the letter. A brave young 
Irishman — George Martin — was detailed for this service, and the 
big-hearted soldier tenderly nursed the wounded boy for months. 
No more loving hands could have tended a brother, and when a 
devoted mother and sister took his place, he went back to. his com- 
pany to face the common enemy. Loyal and brave Confederate 
soldier ! True as the native born, he did his duty nobly. His body 
lies in Virginia soil, waiting for the resurrection morn ! Father, 
mother, sister, brother, in far-off Erin, wept over the news from one 
Southern battle. Their loved one died for our country. 

The four companies were driven from above the bridge, and fell 
back a short distance below it, the Federals pouring out a deadly fire 
of shot and shell. It was here the gallant young Wilton Earle was 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 187 

shot and, supposed to be dead, was left on the field until later in the 
fight, or probably until the battle was over. 

We will now keep in touch with the Palmetto Riflemen of the 
Fourth Regiment. This, you will remember, was our own town 
company, made up of men here and in the county. This company 
bore no colors into the battle, as many suppose. The color-bearer 
of the regiment bore the only flag that was used. First Lieutenant 
Claude Earle commanded the company in the battle; Lieutenant 
Felton was second, and Lieutenant Mike McGee was third ; Mr. 
Prue Benson was orderly sergeant, and Mr. James A. Hoyt was 
second sergeant. From some slight cause — perhaps indisposition — 
Capt. W. W. Humphrey did not command his company during the 
battle; nevertheless, when his company was ready for the fight, he 
shouldered a Mississippi rifle and joined them. His gallantry on 
that blood-stained field endeared him forever to every member of the 
Palmetto Riflemen, and laid the foundation for the reputation among 
his superior officers as being one of the best commanders of a skir- 
mish line in the Army of the Potomac. He was often placed in po- 
sitions where only the most efficient and trusted officers were sent. 
A wreath of laurel, graved in granite, should be placed by Anderson 
women on his tomb. 

The four companies of the Fourth, with some companies of other 
regiments, who were separated from their commands (the Palmetto 
Riflemen were included in these four companies) were placed under 
command of Colonel Thomas, of Maryland, a brave soldier and a 
gallant officer ; he led in the grand charge on Rickett's Battery, which 
had been captured and recaptured by the Federals. The ground 
around the battery was covered with dead men and dead horses from 
both armies. The uniforms of blue and of gray, the bright, fancy 
dress of the New York Zouaves, and the plain homespun suits of 
the Confederates, the glittering bayonets, and the blood-stained 
swords, all made the deadly field a gorgeous picture — one that im- 
pressed those actors so vividly, the memory only goes out with death. 

In the charge of our soldiers through the pines up to this battery, 
Colonel Thomas called out, "Boys, give them hell !" In a short 
while, the ringing voice that gave that order was stilled in death. 
It was near this battery that our Anderson men were wounded, most 
probably by the New York Zouaves, who were in a clump of pines 
on the left of the company. From the most authentic information 
I have received, I am convinced the four companies who were in the 
charge on Rickett's Battery got back in line with the other com- 
panies of their own regiment. 

188 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Major James Whitner rode up and down the line, calling on the 
men to cease firing — the Federals were using a Confederate flag, 
and in this way deceived Major Whitner; but in a few minutes the 
deception was apparent, and the firing was renewed with interest. 
Our men suffered fearfully for water; they had fought nearly all 
day, under the scorching rays of a midsummer Southern sun. 
Water ! water ! was the cry of the wounded and suffering soldiers. 
We recall with pain one particularly pathetic scene : one of the 
handsomest men of Anderson County, the brave adjutant of the 
Fourth Regiment — Sam Wilkes — with more than a dozen canteens 
swung on his shoulders, galloped away toward "Free Robinson 
Spring," thinking only of his suffering men. On, on, he swept, and 
when near the spring, a voice suddenly called out, "Surrender!" 
the click of a hundred guns was heard, by a man hidden in the 
bushes close by ; instead of surrendering to his hidden foe, he drove 
the rowels into his gallant steed, which sprang almost upright into 
the air, and before he barely reached the ground, the bodies of steed 
and master were riddled with bullets from a whole company of Fed- 
erals. This death was witnessed by a man who lived on the battle- 
field, and in 1880 he gave a graphic account of it to my informant. 
After the shooting, a Federal soldier came out of the woods and 
cut the shoulder straps off, took off the boots and spurs, and possibly 
his coat ; taking the military saddle and trappings from the dead 
horse, he put them on the horse he brought with him, mounted, and 
rode away, leaving half-dressed the body of one beloved by all who 
knew him. Brave, handsome, talented Sam Wilkes ! Time heals all 
wounds, but the memory of your priceless sacrifice still lives in the 
hearts of your old-time friends. 

Lieutenant Felton, of the Palmetto Riflemen, was too sick to go 
into the fight, but he dragged himself out to hospital headquarters 
and rendered invaluable assistance to the wounded men ; his big, 
warm heart full of love and sympathy, he would lift them in his 
great, strong arms and place them in the ambulance with all the 
tenderness of a mother for her sick babe. All honor to his memory. 
His brave deeds are still remembered, and whenever the glorious 
old Fourth is spoken of his name will shine with a luster that only 
time can dim. Our boys were wounded near the place where Bartow 
and Bee were killed. This was close to the "Henry House," where 
most of the short-range fighting was done. 

When the Confederates began to yield before the mighty Federal 
host, this order was passed along the line: "Stand firm! President 

Incidents of the First Battle of Manassas. 189 

Davis is on the field, and in command !" Note the magic in a name' 
The Southern soldiers idolized the President of the Confederacy, 
and this appeal made wavering- men stand firm and contest every 
inch of ground against the most fearful odds. The very thought 
that the man whose bravery had been tested on the bloody fields of 
Mexico was in command inspired them with a courage such as the 
world has never rivaled, and the palm of victory was the reward ! 

This incident took place just before Johnston's army joined Beau- 
regard — but it was not true. I do not know how the mistake oc- 
curred. You will remember that the first session of Congress met 
in Richmond, the new capital, on Saturday, the 20th of July, and it 
was impossible for Mr. Davis to leave until he had delivered his mes- 
sage, which law and precedent required. He left the capitol on 
Sunday, the 21st, for Manassas, but did not reach the field until 
after the tide of battle was turned in our favor. As Mr. Davis' 
work, "The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy," gives you the most 
minute details, I will not weary you with anything more on the sub- 

Between three and five o'clock the decisive blows were struck, 
and to grand old Early's brigade of Virginians belongs the honor of 
starting the rout of McDowell's army. To show you how complete 
was our victory, I will quote a few lines from an article in the Cen- 
tury Magazine, written by Major-General James B. Fry, who was a 
member of McDowell's staff at the time of the battle : 

"About half-past three, Beauregard extended his left to outflank 
McDowell's shattered, shortened and disconnected line, and the Fed- 
erals left the field about half-past four." "Cohesion was lost ; the 
organizations, with some exceptions, disintegrated, and the men 
walked quietly off — no excitement, except the frantic efforts of of- 
ficers to stop men who paid little or no attention to them. There 
was no panic until the retiring soldiers, guns, wagons, congressmen 
and carriages were fired upon on the road east of Bull Run." Then 
the panic begun, and the most disgraceful rout ever recorded in 
history left a stain on the army of the Federal government which 
time will never remove. Walt Whitman, a noted Northern writer, 
says : "The defeated troops poured into Washington over the long 
bridge at daylight, on Monday, the 22d, a day drizzling all through 
with rain, but the hour, the day, the night, passed, and whatever 
returns, an hour, a day, a night, like that can never return — it was 
indeed a day bitterer than gall — a crucifixion day." 

This closes that dav for us. 

190 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

When Congress received the dispatch from President Davis on 
the day after the victory, it adopted resolutions of "thanks to the 
most high God, and invited the people of the Confederate States to 
offer up their united thanksgiving and praise for the mighty de- 
liverance." Grace G. Cochran, 

Historian of the Dixie Chapter, U. D. C. 

Anderson, S. C. 

Some of My Reminiscences of the War. 

In looking back through the long vista of years, I think I must 
always have had quite a big spark of patriotic feeling, for I sang 
the "Star Spangled Banner" at each recurring Fourth of July cele- 
bration with unabated enthusiasm, and listened with equal interest 
to the annual reading of the Declaration of Independence. 

And so, by the time the Ordinance of Secession was passed, and 
the year 1861 had dawned upon us, the spark of ardor had developed 
into a flame of rebellion, and I was at once a full-fledged Secession- 
ist, and I determined to do all in my power to further the cause of 
the Confederacy. 

Cheraw, which was my native place, and which was also one of 
the oldest towns in the State, had always taken prominence in mat- 
ters of patriotism, and she now proved no exception in allegiance to 
the cause she deemed right. 

One of the first things attempted was to establish a women's 
sewing club, under the leadership of Mrs. Inglis, she being chosen 
on account of her husband's prominent position in South Carolina. 

I was very zealous, and at this period had my first experience in 
knitting socks. My zeal came very near overreaching any service 
I might have rendered, if there had not been an unusually large man 
in the Twenty-first Regiment, to which command my husband be- 
longed, and that we knew of, so I was much comforted in being told 
I might send this special pair of socks to him, as they were of such 
tremendous proportions we did not know if they would find any 
other owner so worthy. I refer to Colonel Graham, a connection of 
our treasurer, Mrs. Harllee. 

As time passed on, I must have improved wonderfully, for I soon 
became quite an adept in tailoring. I remember, one Saturday 
afternoon, I assisted my sister and a friend in town to turn a coat 
for the friend's brother, which had to be accomplished in those few 
hours, as the soldier had to leave on Monday to join his regiment. 

Some of My Reminiscences of the War. 191 

After that, at different times, I made two suits of uniform, with my 
sister's help, for my husband, and if I may be pardoned for saying 
so, both were very creditable. 

I suppose we were like everybody else in making all sorts of con- 
trivances, and using substitutes, and though on several occasions we 
were quite fortunate in receiving some presents from more favored 
friends, as I look back I often wonder how we made both ends meet. 

The last calico dress I had cost $175, and was purchased in Au- 
gusta, Ga., and in the same place I got two bunches of yarn for 
having some homespun dresses made, paying for each $175. 

One bonnet did me during the whole war. It underwent many 
changes and divers colors of trimmings. Sometimes it would have 
a piece of pasteboard put on in front to give the additional height 
known in those days as sky-scrapers ; then when fashion changed, 
the pasteboard could be taken off to diminish the shape. 

I was the fortunate possessor of a black and brown silk, and as 
it had seen good service, towards the end of the war a friend gave 
me a puff of black silk, which she had ripped from one of her own 
dresses, and which I was charmed to put on the bottom of mine. 

There was a dress with a similar trimming worn by a lady in 
Cheraw during the invasion, where she secreted valuable papers in 
said wonderful puff. A friend of mine sat knitting very com- 
placently while the house was being searched, and had her watch 
concealed in her ball of knitting cotton. At the same time, she had 
a bag of flour slipped into each pillow-case on the bed, and they es- 
caped detection. Lucky escape, as my mother at that time was 
paying $500 for a sack. Cowpeas and rice were two of the prin- 
cipal articles of diet, and we sometimes had molasses pies for dessert. 
We tried all kinds of substitutes for coffee, and I wonder now, even 
with all my patriotism, how I drank it — and it sweetened with 
sorghum. Unlike the provision for coffee, however, we were so 
fortunate as always to have a small supply of genuine tea on hand, 
generally sent as a present to my mother. 

We chanced to have a diminutive teapot, whose capacity was only 
for a small-sized cup, and after my mother and sister had the first 
and second drawings, I came in for the third. This was a luxury 
almost unsurpassed, and I doubt if, even now, I would think of it in 
comparison with the most cheering cup dispensed from a five o'clock 
tea table. All this time my husband was stationed on Morris Island, 
and once or twice had the good fortune to procure a few articles 
from a blockade runner, and from the "Keokuk," which was sunk off 

192 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

its coast. As long as these lasted, we indulged in extras on special 
occasions, one of these being when he came home on a furlough ; 
and I recollect once I bought some other ingredients I needed for 
a whortleberry pudding, costing me $30, and still another time I 
had a poundcake for which I paid out $25. 

Towards the end of the struggle, our work was diversified by a 
hospital being established in the town hall, that being the largest and 
most central place to be found. 

I recall very distinctly a young soldier who was brought in, and 
who had been shot in the skirmish on the river bridge, just as our 
troops were evacuating the town. Rather than let the enemy use 
this bridge, it was, just after the skirmish, set on fire. The poor 
fellow spoken of was so badly wounded as to have one of his legs 
amputated. He was so boyish looking, and withal so good looking, 
I felt much drawn to him. And, I am very glad to say, he finally 
recovered. His name was Charlie Bruce, and I have often won- 
dered where his lot has since been cast. 

The soldiers who died in the hospital were buried in the old ceme- 
tery of St. David's, and the devoted women of Cheraw raised a 
monument to their memory. Their poor dust is cared for every 
spring by loving hands. Some of the mounds are marked "Un- 
known," but the living remember always that "somebody's darling 
lies buried here." 

I do not think it will be out of place for me to mention that the 
Episcopal Church in Cheraw is one of its landmarks, and is one of 
the very oldest colonial churches in the South. It is venerable, his- 
toric, and interesting. The same old wrought nails, the foundation 
of imported English brick, and the identical sash, glass and shutters 
are as sound and perfect today as they were in 1770 and 1772, al- 
though the erection of the church was begun in 1768. During the 
War of the Revolution, after General Gates' defeat at the Battle of 
Camden, the British troops converted the church into barracks and 
stabled their horses there. The burial ground around the church 
is associated with many endearing memories, and in it there are 
many old and moss-grown stones, among them an ancient looking 
mound composed of brick, said to be that of General McArthur, a 
British officer. 

But with all our privations, trials, anxieties, and troubles, so far, 
nothing was equivalent to the greater sorrow still in store for us, 
and which fell upon us in the afternoon of the 3d of March, 1865. 
The town was filled to overflowing with our troops, leaving in at 

Some of My Reminiscences of the War 193 

directions, and my little nephew, in going to see a soldier cousin 
stationed near town, met with a terrible accident. It has been sup- 
posed he lost his footing in crossing the railroad track, and fell back- 
wards, while a car loaded with heavy artillery passed over his left 
leg. Could there be a greater climax of misery? He was borne to 
his home by four soldiers, and immediately visited by several 
physicians from the hospital, who gave orders for him to be kept 
perfectly quiet until the next morning. 

Then the town became infested with Sherman's army, and 60,000 
entered during the day. Our soldiers left by one way as they en- 
tered by another, and it was while a Georgia regiment was passing 
our door, headed by a band of most elegant music, that the amputa- 
tion took place, I standing by and holding the little sufferer's hand. 

In a few hours our miseries increased, for crowds of rough and 
rude soldiers besieged us most continuously. Most unfortunately, 
we had buried all the valuables we were possessed of — most of them 
put in the cellar for greater security — and everything was found. 
One thing I particularly regretted was the capture of one of the 
uniforms before spoken of, as being so proud of having helped to 
make. It was perfectly new, and had been left behind when my 
husband was ordered to Virginia. When found, it was claimed by 
a Lieutenant Dayton, of Ohio, and by a strange coincidence, was 
spoken of some years after in Cheraw by a Northerner as having 
been exhibited by Lieutenant Dayton as a trophy. 

For several days, all we had to eat was what our servants shared 
with us, of what had been given them by the Yankees. We were 
in great anxiety as to getting something to eat for our little boy, 
and several times were annoyed by calls at the door, telling us they 
were sure we had a rebel concealed upstairs. After fruitless at- 
tempts to persuade them of the untruth of such a thing, Dr. Kol- 
lock, our family physician, sought out a Dr. Rose, a surgeon in the 
Northern army, and brought him in to see for himself. I think 
when he did see the terrible sight, and that it really was a little boy 
only ten years old, he was moved to pity, and afterwards sent him 
something suitable to eat. We were also indebted to his influence 
in having a guard placed at our front gate to stay interruptions from 
that quarter. About the third morning after the operation, the news 
flew through the town that preparations were being made to shell 
it, and we were all panic-stricken, and did not know what to do our- 
selves, nor with our little cripple. So, after a consultation with the 
doctor, it was decided to remove him to the upper part of town, 


194 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

which was about a mile from our home. His faithful nurse lifted 
him in her arms, though at the peril of her life, and carried him to 
Dr. Kollock's house, where a shutter was unhinged and he was laid 
upon it, and borne on it until an open field was reached, where, after 
several hours were passed, and only one shell had been fired, he was 
taken to a friend's house, and kept the rest of the day. This same 
shell killed several Northern soldiers in its explosion, and they were 
taken to St. David's for burial, and one of them actually placed in 
our family lot. When I found it out, I had the fence moved, thereby 
putting him outside. He was afterwards brought to the National 
Cemetery here, as well as the others. 

For several days the immense army remained in Cheraw, one of 
those days being Sunday. On the morning of that day, as we lived 
just across the street from the Presbyterian Church, we were forced 
to listen to sounds painful in the extreme, but intended for high 
revelry. A band was placed in the pulpit, so many times adorned 
by the illustrious Thornwell and the gifted Coit, to furnish music 
for a company of dancers in the body of the church. If any 
of us chanced to be peeping from a window, for we never dared to 
take a deliberate view, it was very usual to recognize some friend's 
carriage piled high inside with bacon, or filled with negro women, 
probably lured from their old homes, and going to follow the army. 

The larger portion of our house, during all these dreadful days, 
was occupied by a number of officers and men, and oftentimes the 
back yard swarmed with the rougher class of privates, intent on 
plunder. They destroyed a quantity of furniture, and entirely laid 
waste the contents of a china closet that they broke into. 

My room happened to open on a side piazza, and I. suppose they 
must have found out my name, for one afternoon they knocked at 
my mother's room, where I was, and asked for me. I went to the 
door, and saw one of the most pompous of small men — a very sprig 
of military — who told me he had been informed that I had whiskey 
concealed in my room. I assured him it was not so. In fact, if I 
had wanted to be at all communicative, I certainly could have added 
I had not seen any for several years. But I simply offered him 
my key, and to go with him to the suspected place, which, from my 
view, standing on the threshold, I thought he searched thoroughly, 
and he appeared satisfied, so went his way. In about an hour's 
time, he came back again, assuring me he had been told beyond a 
doubt that I did have liquor. So a second time we made a tour of 
investigation, he still doing the searching very diligently. He 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. x 95 

looked into everything available except the stove, which, as he was 
on the point of leaving, I suggested he should do, but he did not 
notice me, and went out, and I saw him no more. 

It was during this raid that the flag of the Eighth South Carolina 
Regiment, which had been made by some ladies of the Pee Dee sec- 
tion, was concealed in the house of a most loyal and enthusiastic 
matron of Carolina, who sent six sons to its defense. Last year it 
was carried to the Richmond Museum by a captain belonging to the 
regiment, and who is now a prominent veteran in Cheraw. 

All this time, and for several months, I had heard nothing of my 
husband, who, however, was making his way home, under many 
difficulties. He had served throughout the entire war — on Morris 
Island and James Island, near Charleston, and at different points 
near Georgetown, and afterwards was ordered to Virginia. He 
raised his own company in Chesterfield County, promising at the 
same time never to leave them. Once, when at Georgetown, the 
position of lieutenant-colonel was offered him, but he refused, re- 
membering his promise, and preferring faithfulness to his word, 
and fidelity to his men, to an added honor. I have the original roll 
of his company now in my possession, also his commission as captain 
in the Army of the Confederate States, signed by General Harllee, 
wlun he was Lieutenant-Governor of the State — both of which I 
intend sending to the Confederate Memorial Institute, as soon as 
it is established, in order to preserve forever the memory of his duty 
and service to his adopted State and to his country. Loyal in life — 
faithful unto death ! 

And it is in his memory, too, that I am, and always will be, a 
devoted Daughter of the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Virginia C. Tarrh. 

Florence, S. C. 

A Southern Household During the Years 
1800 to 1805. 

I am told it is my duty to write what I can personally recall of 
the days of our hard struggle with fate, and because it is so con- 
sidered, I shall make the effort to penetrate the dark chambers of 
my heart and brain for what I know lies there, hidden away from 
even my present consciousness. To bring it back, I must take 
myself to the beginning of events that bore immediately upon the 
grand tragedy of the century, to the summer of i860, the last time 

196 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

our whole family was gathered together under our mother's roof. 
Our home was on the outskirts of Columbia, a very large, square 
house, great rooms, opening by French windows, on long double 
piazzas, extending along the whole front, and supported by col- 
umns from the ground to the roof. The steps were of rough granite, 
the first stone quarried in this county, and came from "Tickle- 
bury Farm," now the State Fair Grounds and Elmwood Cemetery, 
then owned by my grandfather — Governor Taylor. Ours was one 
of the family places only once out of such possession, and bought 
back by my mother on her return to Columbia, after the death of 
my father — Colonel Elmore — in 1850. 

We made a large home circle — my mother and six daughters : 
the eldest, Mrs. Thomas Taylor, being often with us, for her own 
home was quite near ; the youngest, Rose, a schoolgirl, and two 
sons, Frank and Albert, living with us ; the second, Albert, a stu- 
dent of the South Carolina College. Mrs. Taylor and two of the 
sisters spent part of the summer of i860 in Virginia and New York. 
To us at home it was a quiet time, for, although we felt the dis- 
turbed condition of the political atmosphere, nobody really expected 
what did happen. And when the boys would come in and tell us 
of new military organizations and weekly drilling, and when Albert's 
cap was decorated with a great "M. M.," and he told me it meant 
"Minute Men," ready at a moment's call to fight the "Yankees," I 
only smiled, as I thought how impossible was a war between the 
States ! 

By the time the Legislature met, the leaven had worked ; the Con- 
vention was called, and passed the Ordinance of Secession, which 
placed South Carolina just where she had been before her entrance 
into the "Confederation of the United States of America." 

From that time, all was movement around us. Our home became 
a center of gathering for not only the boys of the family, but for 
their young college friends, who, being away from their own homes, 
depended upon our activity to supply them with army fittings and 
comforts, for all had joined some one or other of the organizations 
made up during the summer. Most of the young boys belonged to 
the "College Cadets," who offered their services among the first, and 
were preparing to take the field. All were working for them — black 
and white. My business, as general housekeeper and provider, was 
to see to the parching and grinding of coffee, making of crackers, 
and filling of haversacks, in which I was heartily aided by our faith- 
ful cook, Cynthia ; while the other girls, being clever workwomen, 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. 197 

with Nellie, Phillis, Phoebe, and others, made up the flannel Gari- 
baldis and gray wool hunting shirts, which were thought indis- 
pensable at that time. Ah ! how much good material and energy we 
wasted in making our heroes fit for the camp ! But, after all, was it 
not buckling on the sword, fastening on the spurs, throwing on the 
mantle, placing our colors, and, lastly, bidding "God speed, and do 
your devoir," to our knights? And did not they do their duty all 
the more gloriously for the spirit which our sympathy put into 

I can see the splendid young fellows as I saw them then, running 
up and down the stairs, seeking what and whom they wanted, in any 
room they pleased to enter, for the whole "Castle" was theirs to 
command ; and my mother, moving in her grand way from group to 
group of workers, suggesting this or that of comfort or convenience 
to be added to the boys' knapsacks, tearless and quite like a Roman 
Cornelia, sending her sons to do their duty ; she who, the summer 
before, at the first suggestion of the possibility of war, had passion- 
ately cried out that her "country was nothing in comparison with 
her children." And when Captain Radcliffe's company, of which her 
favorite nephew — James Taylor — was a member, was called, she 
made me go with her in her little pony carriage to look him up, and 
when she found him on the streets, and called him to the carriage 
she said, "James, you are too young; sixteen is too young." But she 
had no reply to make when he looked into her face and said, "Why, 
Aunt Harriet, I am the very one to go, for I leave behind me no one 
dependent on me ; the fellows with wife and children ought to stay 
at home and take care of them." She felt that he had judged for 
himself and believed himself to be on the line of duty. 

When the other companies were called, we went to the South 
Carolina Depot to see them off, and as the train pulled out of the 
shed, we could hear a deep, continuous rumbling, which we later 
knew was the bombardment of Fort Sumter. The house seemed 
empty of everything when we returned to it ; but soon the loud and 
continuous ringing of the big dinner bell outside startled us, and we 
all came running from our rooms to see what could be the matter; 
and there was our dear old mother, walking up and down the piazza, 
and ringing the bell as hard as she could. "Why," she called out, 
"Texas has seceded ! and I want you all to know it ; come and see the 
star McDonald (our Scottish gardener) has laid out in her honor!" 
And there it was — a beautiful star garden bed, with a fine young 
magnolia in the center, just under the dining-room windows. 

198 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Such was our mother, from first to last — brave, energetic, thought- 
ful, helpful, always ready to sacrifice and to work, and never a word 
of weakness or of unwillingness to give her best and dearest to the 
country she loved next to her God ; and such were the matrons, old 
and young, all over our land. 

My mother owned a large cotton and grain plantation on Broad 
River, in York County, and a mill place, with a provision farm, in 
Lexington County, about ten miles from Columbia. On both of 
these places she had first-rate overseers ; but they had to be super- 
vised, and my mother, with one or other of us girls, visited them fre- 
quently : later we had to give these men up, as they were required in 
the army ; and the plantations were carried on by our faithful 
negroes, under the sole management of my mother and myself. I 
recall my consternation when my Uncle Alex. Taylor told my mother 
that I could manage a lumber mill and make all the lumber accounts. 
My brother Frank, who had been keeping the books for a year, 
gave me encouragement, and promised to coach me ; and thus I be- 
came my mother's business agent to the close of the war, and had the 
honor of supplying to the government most of the heavy timbers re- 
quired here ; and, moreover, had the satisfaction of hearing from all 
parties that the business had never been so satisfactorily conducted. 
This was truly a feather to my woman's cap ; but we feminines, be- 
fore the war ended, were to pick up many a one dropped from the 
helmets of our brave fellows who had work to do beyond our powers, 
and in which we could aid them only by doing what it had been theirs 
to do hitherto. 

Soon there came to be a systematic division of labor in our house- 
hold, and so little did we cross into each other's fields that I really 
cannot say how my sisters were distributed in the work — but work 
they did, as every man, woman and child worked during these years. 
I do know that some were engaged in hospital and relief work; 
others, being clever workwomen, in making clothes, and in spare time 
knitting socks. I remember that I helped with some uniforms and 
shirts ; but my main energies during the four years were concen- 
trated on the matter of supplies, and to secure these, the mill and 
plantation affairs required most careful consideration, and a large 
amount of foresight. So long as we could retain our efficient over- 
seers, the routine of both places was well kept up, and I owe much 
to the application of their practical knowledge, and to the docility 
and faithfulness of the negroes I was called on to manage — for this 
part of the business my mother turned entirely over to me. Both 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. T 99 

men belonged to the class that knew the details of labor, and had 
not yet been removed from dependence upon home supply for the 
necessities of life; and their use of this knowledge on our plantations 
made us independent, and gave me many lessons. In 1861, at the 
mill, our man Walker was able to fit up wheels and looms and set our 
women to spinning and weaving; made a tan vat to cure the leather 
obtained from our cattle, which he butchered and sold in the market, 
but which I had to see properly cut up, as he did not know how to 
prepare the meat for city kitchens. He also readily took in new 
crops of such things as could not be procured from the stores. Rice, 
sorghum, and sweet potatoes never failed, and fruit and vegetables 
were secured to our table. 

At the York place, Inman did even more, for it was a large planta- 
tion, and had to sustain many souls, a large number of them old 
people and children. Being more remote from a city, there was less 
opportunity to secure, before they should be exhausted, the con- 
veniences necessary to the carrying on of such work as was now 
required to be done. But he was clever and resourceful. The cow- 
kettles did double duty, for they were turned into molasses boilers, 
and when barrels could not be procured, he cut down four immense 
gum trees, and from their boles dug out troughs for the syrups and 
to put away the meat in ashes, to secure it from flies. Both men 
made their own cane-presses. 

Salt failing, the dirt floor of the smokehouse was dug up, and the 
clay washed, to recover the salt that had been absorbed. We raised 
the sheep, spun and wove the wool and cotton for our negroes' 
clothes, tanned the leather for shoes, and made them, our old car- 
penter, Daddy John, making the wooden soles. He even improved 
upon the pattern sent us, by making a transverse diagonal cut in the 
sole, which made it move a little under the foot. But, oh ! the clatter 
of those wooden soles on the wooden floors ! Some of our wool my 
mother had dyed and woven by skilful women in the neighborhood, 
and each of us was presented with a lovely black and white winter 
suit. How I wish I had mine now, to send to the relic and record 
room exhibit in Charleston ! It was a skirt and long coat, trimmed 
with great smoke-pearl buttons, presented by my childhood's friend, 
"Daddy Moses," who brought me a quart when he heard me say I 
wanted some buttons just like those on his coat. 

I think it was in 1862 that we had to give up our overseers. And, 
although we found two white men to stay on the places, we soon dis- 
covered they were of no service, and my mother and I had to be 

2<x> South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

constantly on the alert. Finally my mother decided to give up the 
York man, and to depend upon ourselves, and three specially compe- 
tent and faithful men — Ben, Charlie, and Gabriel — not leaving out 
good old Daddy John, who was general supervisor, and truly a gen- 
tleman in bearing and unfailing in devotion to "mistress and young 
mistress." I think our interests were well cared for by these people, 
and certainly they had much in their hands, especially towards the 
last. Indeed, throughout the war, our negroes were our friends, 
and I believe if they had not been meddled with for political pur- 
poses, we should never have had the terrible disturbances which con- 
tinue to this time ( 1901 ) . 

At home we employed a white gardener, who himself suggested 
that the thirteen acres around the dwelling could be made to pay all 
the expenses of the garden, and give the table all of the fruit and 
vegetables we could require. My mother was willing he should make 
the experiment, provided she had none of the troubles, and gave him 
what help he wished, and a little pony and wagon to haul his truck to 
market. This was our first effort in these small businesses, which 
have since become so familiar to our ken. One great benefit we had 
then was that we had plenty to give to the hospitals and to our unfor- 
tunate friends who had taken refuge in Columbia when driven from 
the coast. 

Sad as these days were, taken as a whole, we were not without 
some happy hours. Concerts, fairs and bazaars gave relief from the 
strain upon our hearts and brains, and when our soldier boys came 
on furlough and wanted to dance and sing, who of us would refuse 
to do their bidding, even though there were some croakers who talked 
about the sin and shame of such proceedings when calamity might 
be so near. My good, wise mother was of a different mind, and 
opened her hospitable doors to all the social calls of the situation. 
The city was full of people from the low country and elsewhere who 
desired something more than mere shelter, and soon a pleasant society 
grew up, out of which could be gotten, at any moment, the material 
for a good concert, the proceeds of which would go to some wartime 
necessity. To Signor Torriani, of the Italian Opera, stranded here 
in i860, we owe many delightful evenings, and much valuable assist- 
ance in our musical entertainments. Our first concert was given to 
help the hospital service, by Miss Garnett and her young pupils, all 
school girls, but well worth listening to. Can we forget the splendid 
Gunboat Fair, when our parlors were emptied of pretty things, to be 
supplied again by the purchase at the stalls, of what had adorned 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. 201 

the tables and mantels of our friends ? And so the war-tide rolled on 
to the last heavy days of dread and terror, when we were told to pre- 
pare for the worst, for Savannah had fallen, and the next objective 
point of Sherman's terrible army would be our dear little city — the 
"cradle of secession." 

I will not tell you of the great bazar held in the State House, nor 
yet of the last one, a section of the first, in the City Hall, for others 
have written of them ; but hasten on to the last day I spent in our 

My uncle, who planted near us in Lexington, came one day to tell 
my mother that their places were on what would be the enemy's line 
of march, and she must do as she meant to do — get off all stock, sup- 
plies and able-bodied men to the upper plantations. "And the girls 
had better go, too," he added. How was it to be done? "The girls" 
could go by rail — but the rest ? And so little time ! It was decided 
that the stock, etc., should be brought over and make the start under 
charge of one of the most reliable men we owned — Nick ; and later 
in the day, I and my youngest sister, Rosa, in a little carry-all, with 
two pet ponies, driven by our regular coachman, Dick, and accom- 
panied by my sister's (Mrs. Taylor's) team, should follow and catch 
up with the caravan, consisting of wagons, cattle, sheep, and about 
fifteen young negroes. This plan was carried out to the letter. 
Before night, three of the girls were off by rail, and my party was on 
the road next morning. One of the party — Nick's wife, Liddy — did 
not wish to go, and, to my surprise, slipped off after making the start, 
and went back to the mill. I was sorry on Nick's account, for he 
was a great favorite of mine, and devoted to me. I am told he said 
she "might do as she pleased ; but he had done said he would stick to 
Miss Ellen as long as he lived, and he meant to do it." 

The city was in a furore. Rumors on every side of a most 
alarming character. General Hampton was in command. I knew 
my brother-in-law, Captain Thomas Taylor, was with him, and 
my brother Albert scouting, but I had not time really to attend 
to anybody's business but my own. Mrs. Taylor, and Grace, who 
was to remain with my mother, though she had not told her deter- 
mination to any one but myself, were waiting that last evening in 
the dining-room, and had placed some supper at the fire for Captain 
Taylor, when two young men came in — Peter Trezevant and Julius 
Pringle. My mother offered them supper, but both declined ; and 
Mrs. Taylor said that was a most unsoldierlike thing to do, for how 
did either know when he would get the chance to eat another meal. 

202 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Whereupon both agreed with her, and immediately took up the plate, 
saying they had eaten nothing all day, but had declined because they 
thought they would be taking what was intended for another. Cap- 
tain Taylor came in and said the enemy were indeed upon us, and 
whoever expected to leave had better not delay. I told him I was 
all ready, and my cattle train would be on the road by daylight, and 
his wagon and people with them, but that I would not start with the 
carriage before 10 a. m. He told me to stop the first night with an 
old friend of his — Mr. Nelson — and say I was Tom Taylor's sister, 
and he must give me shelter. How we spent the night I do not re- 
member, nor what we did next morning till the hour came for 

Isaiah came up with his pretty team of black Morgan mares, and 
announced to his mistress, in his best style, that he was ready to 
take her orders, which were to meet her at Chester, where she would 
go by rail. Then came Rosa's and my little carriage and our home- 
raised pet ponies, Selim and Nettie, and our good Dick on the 
driver's seat. What I did, and how I got in the carriage, I do not 
know. I seemed to be turned to stone, and I knew I forgot to say 
good-bye to any one, even to my mother, for she came to the steps, 
saying, "Why, Ellen, you have forgotten to say good-bye to me." 
All of us were deathly quiet, for God only knew if we should ever 
meet again. 

Outside of town, I met Olivia Middleton, of Charleston, with 
somebody in a carriage, and we put them in their right road ; and 
farther on we came upon our travelers, moving along quietly, for 
the cattle were not yet worried, and the sheep were, as yet, quite 
docile, the men as lively as though on a picnic, for my mother had 
seen to their provisions. We traveled slowly, and reached Mr. Nel- 
son's at 9 o'clock p. m. He declined to take me in until I told him 
Captain Taylor had promised for him that he would not refuse to 
receive his sister; then he could not get us out of the carriage fast 
enough, but said he could only give me shelter, as his house was 
taken possession of by a rough lot of cavalry, but he could not let 
Tom Taylor's sister camp out, as I had said I must do if he sent me 
away. We were taken into a neat parlor, where was a handsome 
piano, and Mrs. Nelson asked if either of us played, that she did 
want to hear her daughter's instrument once more before it was de- 
stroyed, as she understood the Yankees always did with such articles 
as were too heavy to be carried away. Rosa was a beautiful pianist, 
and immediately got up and played for the good, kind woman, who 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. 203 

longed for one more touch of the sweetness of life before it should 
be torn from her forever. 

When I next passed that road, returning to Columbia, in October, 
only the chimneys of the kind, hospitable home were left. 

At daylight I was on the road, for little sleep could we get, and 
I think both Nick and Dick were uneasy lest the soldiers of whom 
Mr. Nelson spoke should make a grab at our horses. Dick came 
under my window to tell me we had best be moving, and please to 
hurry. We drew some tea, and ate some cold biscuits and bade 
adieu to our entertainers ; and, to the music of our lowing cattle, 
and baaing sheep, pursued our way, as I said, slowly, reaching the 
house of Mr. Brice, beyond Winnsboro, where we usually stopped 
on our way to the plantation. Old Mr. Brice said he was very 
sorry, but illness in the house compelled him to refuse, and recom- 
mended us to the house of a widow lady at White Oak, a mere coun- 
try settlement, where we spent the night. The poor woman had not 
the remotest idea that she was in any danger, and I advised her to 
secure all valuables, and not to remain in the house alone. These 
houses also were gone when I next passed that way, leaving only 
the tall chimneys like sentinels over the hearthstones. At Mr. 
Brice's, the gateposts were standing, but no friendly roof to shelter 
those who might pass between them. Many, many times have those 
gateposts and those chimneys come to me in appeal against those 
whose cruel hands destroyed the happy homes they represented. At 
this moment, I recall a set of iron steps in Columbia, up which I had 
often gone on festive occasions, and which, with the chimneys, was 
all that was left of the gay, bright home of Mr. Wm. DeSaussure. 

But to my journey : We reached Chester about 2 p. m. and, sending 
the caravan around the town, we in the carriages proceeded to look 
up Mrs. Taylor. We found her, and my sister-in-law, Mrs. Frank 
Elmore, at Mrs. Anderson's ; but she decided to wait in Chester till 
Captain Taylor should pass with the troops, and turned her carriage 
over to Mrs. Elmore and her two children. After much difficulty, 
we induced Mrs. Elmore to accept the opportunity of reaching the 
plantation, as I told her there could be no certainty of when I could 
be able to send for her. I told her if she did not hasten, we might 
be forced to camp out with the children, as there were few houses 
on the road at which we could stay. To be on the safe side, we had 
stopped at a house and bought a lot of fodder, for we had used up 
our supply of horse feed, and stowed it away in and about the car- 
riage till Rosa and I could scarcely breathe ; but the smell was sweet 

204 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

and clean. Night caught us about halfway, and Dick, who knew 
the road and every house on it, recommended that I should try at 
Mrs. Montgomery's, who might take us in. Alas ! She could not, 
and came to my carriage to tell me she was sorry, etc. 

''Then," I said, "can you tell me a good place to camp, and will 
you let me have food for my horses and mules ?" As she was about 
to answer, I heard a tired little whimper from the other carriage, and 
a child's voice crying, "Mamma, I am so tired ; and I want my milk." 
Instantly the woman's voice and manner changed, and she ex- 
claimed : "Have you got children (she saw our faces dimly through 
the fodder blades) in there? Where are they? No, I can't turn 
children from my door this time o' night ; git right out and take 
them children in to the fire." We got out, and so did the fodder, 
and I told her the children, with mother and nurse, were in the other 
carriage; but the size of the party did not change her welcome, for 
she left us and went to the other party, telling Mary and her nurse, 
Margaret, to "bring them children right into the house, and she 
would git them their milk in a hurry." 

We were ushered into a large, what you might designate truly a 
"living room," on one end of which was an immense fireplace, occu- 
pied by a very old man, and numerous little barefooted children, in- 
terspersed with cats and small dogs. At the other end were two 
large beds, which I felt sure were occupied. Poor Mary Elmore 
was one of the impossible kind ; a new situation was something she 
could not take hold of, and here was one utterly foreign to her town- 
bred experience. It was different with us, for we were brought up 
to "take the bull by the horns" and, besides, our experience of life 
had made us acquainted with all sorts and kinds of people. How 
I blessed the teachings of my father and mother, which made us able 
at once to understand the simple nobleness and mother heart of this 
good woman who took us in because that baby cried — our dear, dear 
little Hallie. 

After a while, the door between the big beds was thrown open, 
and we were invited into a large parlor, with a splendid fire, neatly 
furnished in mahogany, and a handsome rosewood piano, whose 
legs were well wrapped as though it were in danger of taking cold. 
On one side, a shake-down on the floor was assigned to Mary and 
the babies, and an adjoining room to me and Rosa. Milk was 
brought for the children, and Mary managed a private inquiry of 
me as to its wholesomeness, etc. Poor woman ! how little she knew 
of the unwholesomeness the changed conditions of the country 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. 205 

would bring to us all. Notwithstanding my protests, and only by 
insistence, could I make the good lady take pay, except for the large 
quantity of feed our horses had consumed. 

Again we were on the road, and reached the plantation about mid- 
day, finding the girls preparing to return, as they had heard nothing 
since they left Columbia, and concluded they had been sent off under 
an unnecessary alarm. A strange redness in the sky had, however, 
made them anxious, but they never dreamed that its true cause was 
the burning of the city by Sherman's soldiers. A sad but excited 
party we made — six young women and two babies — Hallie and May 
— guarded and supported by nearly two hundred negroes, and not an 
idea but that we were safe from all but Yankees. And so we were. 
There were several families upon whom we rested absolutely. Dick, 
Nick, Phoebe, Elizabeth, Africa, and Charles Prioleau, and their 
brother, our old butler, Horace, among his company known as Dr. 
Prioleau, a name he fancied to adopt from our old neighbor in 
Charleston, Dr. S. G. Prioleau, and which Horace fitted to his 
brothers and sisters as they came into house-service, were our per- 
sonal attendants. Dick was our coachman ; Nick my teamster ; 
Charles and Africa, carpenters, and Phoebe and Elizabeth, our maids. 
The others belonged to the plantations, and all were faithful through- 
out our time of trial. 

And now began our strange life as refugees, full of anxiety and 
work, for we could hear only rumors from below, but must keep up 
heart and make preparations for the probable necessities of the 
future. We divided our household, one taking possession of the 
little cottage that had been built for my mother's use, and I, with 
three of the girls, of the overseer's house ; but we all took our meals 
together at the cottage. I took up the roll of overseer systematically, 
as I had seen it practised by Inman. Dick, Gabriel, Nick, Charlie, 
and old Ben and John, were my coadjutors. At daylight, the call 
was made at the overseer's house by old John, for the hands to go 
out ; after breakfast, I went to the lot, looked over the cattle and 
hogs, and learned that Paul was off with the sheep ; looked into the 
corn houses ; called at the children's house, and carpenter's and 
blacksmith shops ; and looked up the sick, but before prescribing, 
went to the house and looked up the case in the old doctor's book, 
which, fortunately, had been brought with us. Thank God! I was 
not called upon for any dangerous case, except once, when I was 
told old "Aunt Rachel was just a-bleeding to death, and she said 
please to come and stop it." I flew down to the cabin and found 

2o6 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

the report not much exaggerated, so flew back to consult Dr. Ewell, 
who told me to administer saltpetre in broken doses, which I verily 
believe saved the good old woman's life. Afterwards I gave her 
quinine and kept up its equivalent — dogwood bark tea — for some 
time. I also had gathered certain roots and bark suggested by my 
advisor, and whether they were rightly administered or not, the 
negroes believed they were, and asserted that ''Miss Ellen was just 
as good as Dr. Sims," in whom they thought all medical wisdom 
was concentrated. I speak of these things because I am told that it 
is desired to have the experiences of our women under new and 
difficult conditions so expressed as to convey a true conception of 
what was being carried on by their steady and systematic work at 

For myself, I never questioned if I could do the work that came 
to my hands, but did it as well as I had ability for, and never looking 
backward with heartbreaking regrets, which I felt would take from 
me all strength. 

But to go back to my day's routine : After dinner, the cows came 
in, and feeding time came round, and Paul brought in his "sheep 
tally," which was compared with mine ; and John brought in the 
keys ; and he, Dick and Gabriel came to give me private information 
and advice. Food began to be a serious consideration, and I found 
it necessary to make many horseback journeys through the ap- 
parently deserted country in search of corn. I frequently rode from 
ten to thirty miles a day, under the escort of Dick, Gabriel, or 
Charles, who always rode as a groom would ride, at my horse's tail. 
One day, passing a blacksmith's where was a group of rough looking 
men, I felt Dick pushing between me and the party. He explained, 
"I was afraid, Miss Ellen, those men might speak to you ; but I 
think they knew who you was." Evidently, I was a great somebody 
in Dick's estimation. 

I thought I might find corn in Union County, on Pacolet River, 
and determined to make the effort through our friend — Major 
Sims — who lived there; but it was too long a journey to make on 
horseback, and Dick advised the carryall, which was light and easy- 
going. Nick was to drive me ; but the night before, the sick nurse — 
Minda — sent me word that Nick was too sick to leave home; and I 
ordered that Gabriel take his place. I heard the carriage come up, 
and told Phoebe to take Gabriel a cup of coffee and some breakfast 
and she came back grinning, and said, " 'Taint Gabriel ; it's Brother 
Nick; and he say he ain't gwine to git off the seat for nobody — 

A Southern Household During the Years 1860-65. 207 

nobody ain't gwine but him, for he clone said in Columbia he ain't 
gvvine to leff you tell he die ; and, .Miss Ellen, Brother Nick won't let 
anybody else go with you today." 

1 went out, and there were both the men ready, but I — the mistress 
— had to give way, and truly I was not sorry, for 1 felt such absolute 
trust in Nick's ability to steer through the difficulties. He seemed 
to be doubly endowed with eyes, ears and intuition. He and Dick 
were the most intelligent negroes I ever saw, and never seemed at 
a loss for a way to do a thing if I — their mistress — said it had to be 

When we got to the river, we found the flat had gone a-visiting 
down below, as it was in the habit of doing, and staying there till 
some one had occasion to bring it back. What was to be done? 
Nick soon solved the difficulty. There was a small bateau, a pole 
and the ferryman. "So," said Nick, "git out, Miss Ellen, and I will 
take the body of the carriage off the wheels, and we will take it over 
on the bateau, and come back for the wheels, and then we'll swim 
over the horses, and come back for you." I suggested going in the 
bateau at the same time, but he said no, for the horses might upset 
the bateau, and I would fall in the river ; and so it was all done much 
after the transit of the goose, the fox and the bag of corn ; but we 
got to Mr. Sims' all safe. Nick became too ill to return with me, 
and I was driven home by a reliable man belonging to Major Sims. 
My poor, faithful, devoted servant and friend never came back alive, 
but I sent for his remains, and had him laid to rest in the little planta- 
tion cemetery, reading the burial service over him, and doing all I 
could to honor the memory of one who had been truly ''faithful unto 

As I said, the problem of how to feed so many mouths began to 
press heavily upon my mind. I had had the wheat ground whole, 
and we ate that at our table, leaving the corn for the negroes and 
stock. A neighbor — Mr. Smarr — sent us a wagonload of peas, and 
helped us in many ways. But at last I had to put both negroes and 
stock on short allowance, which measure the less intelligent of our 
people could not understand, their idea being that their owners could 
command everything. Then began my first difficulties in managing 
them, and I had to go among them in their cabins, and where they 
were at work ; but although they would accept all that I would say, 
it would be forgotten, and their privations and needs be all that they 
could apprehend at the moment. Our neighbors, with the exception 
of Mr. Smarr, held aloof, evidently ranking us as rich people, who 

208 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

could not be in need of their assistance. After a while, it became 
known that we had valuable stores of household goods and wearing 
apparel, and from day to day, one or another young woman would 
come with a chicken, or a pound of butter, or something to trade. 
The first day a girl came in, she caught sight of an artificial rose, 
which, among other ball finery, had been rammed into a chest to 
keep things steady ; and upon that she set her heart and offered her 
chicken in exchange. Imagine the joy of my sister Cornelia, a 
quick, impulsive nature, at the discovery of the direction in which 
the girl's desires tended. Out of the room she rushed, and hauled 
out a lot of flowers, ball dresses, and hats ; and from that time we 
did quite an extensive millinery business, and had chickens and 
butter quite often on the table. Some came for crockery and 
clothing. One day a woman took a fancy to some heavy delftware, 
the remains of an old dinner set, that had been sent to the plantation 
years before; and as I emptied the plates on the cloth (for we were 
at breakfast when she came), my little niece said softly, "Lolla" (as 
she called me) "is going to sell all the plates ; I spec' we will have to 
eat off the leaves." 

In March, we began to hear frequently from Columbia, and I knew 
all that had taken place there. My brother's man — Billy — had re- 
turned from the army to Columbia very soon, for, he said, he "could 
not rest tell he knew how Mistis and Miss Grace were getting on." 
My mother had kept with her Cynthia, the cook; an old family ser- 
vant, Nellie ; our butler, Horace, and a man she thought a great deal 
of, Jim, a good enough fellow, but who would always think of him- 
self first, and was the only one to fail her, for she lost sight of him, 
and a beautiful black pony, entirely. My mother afterwards saw 
the pony and a handsome Gordon setter of Dr. Taylor's — "Jet" by 
name — moving in the Yankee line, as the property of General 

My sister Grace has a diary of what she and my mother passed 
through in Columbia, and I shall only allude to what I have heard of. 
Billy did faithful service, securing to them salt and a hog, which he 
cut up and stored ; then, weighting himself with all sorts of things, he 
took his way to the plantation to see what had come to us. I shall 
never forget his appearance on the Quarter street, and his happiness 
as he emptied his pockets of his gifts — a pound of coffee to one, sugar 
for the children, a candle to another, and a lot of preserves from 
Miss Grace to all — not one was forgotten. Billy, good Billy — I 
do not say one among a thousand, for there were many, perhaps 



THE ] 

Tales of a Grandmother. 209 

thousands, of such among the best grade of our slaves ; but he was 
"our Billy" to the day of his death. 

But my narrative must close, since I have brought it so nearly to 
the close of all the beautiful life that had hitherto been ours. 

The spring brought changes ; some of us returned to Columbia to 
see what could be made out of what was left to us there. Our house 
was not burned, owing to the guard my mother had secured from 
General Sherman ; but our mill place was destroyed utterly. 

I remained on the York plantation till fall, when I left to go to 
Chester, having secured the position of principal of the Female 

The death of my mother caused an entire break-up of the family, 
each going to work in his or her own way, for there was little left of 
old wealth and comfort, and necessity compelled. I am grateful that 
the way was opened to me for self-support in the school at Chester, 
and later in my native city — Columbia — where for thirty odd years 
I had a "Home School for Young Ladies," which was well patron- 
ized from all parts of the State. And this ends my story of a 
"Household During the War." Ellen S. Elmore. 

Columbia, S. C, December, 1901. 

Tales of a Grandmother, 

Recollections of the Confederate War. 

NO. I. 

You have asked me, dear grandchildren, as one of the women of 
the war, to write you my recollections. Were you sitting by me, I 
could tell you pages, but my eyes are weary and dim, and my fingers 
stiffening with age, so I will open the book of my memory and write 
you but one or two chapters. 

To write of war is to write of horrors. No pen can draw a true 
picture of it. No matter how graphic the description, it would fall 
far short of the reality. I will not tell you of shelled cities, of burn- 
ing towns and villages, of miles of country with nothing left of the 
dwellings but the chimneys, all desolated by a powerful, merciless, 
conquering foe. During four years our women lived through the 
anguish of this terrible strife. When the first blast of war was 
sounded, we, almost as one, gave our fathers, brothers, husbands, and 
sons, to duty, to honor, to that which we believed was right in God's 


210 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

In your schoolbooks you have read of the "Act of Secession," and 
know what is meant by it. Soon after it was passed, a friend called 
to see me. (I was living at Columbia at that time.) The only 
topic of conversation then was the prospect of war. My friend said : 
"I do not approve of this thing. What do I care for patriotism? 
My husband is my country. What is country to me if he be killed? 
If your husband should be killed, you will be left provided for; I 
will have poverty and my children for my share." Not long after 
this conversation, coming out of church, on a day appointed for 
fasting and prayer, where we had listened to one of the great Dr. 
Thornwell's stirring appeals, this friend — Mrs. F. W. McMaster — 
said to me : "I feel that I could do deeds of heroism." God spared 
her husband to her, who fought through many bloody battles ; and 
for years after, they walked hand in hand through life's journey, 
without a break in their household of fourteen children. 

The daily life of the women of the war was one of trial, of priva- 
tion, of sorrow; but it was borne by women of patience, of fortitude, 
of trust. Many of us did not see our husbands and sons for months 
— sometimes for more than a year. But our hearts w T ere brave. 
We concealed our cares and bore our trials without complaint. One 
day, a splendid young soldier — Captain William Haskell, of Abbe- 
ville, S. C. — called to see me, with news from your grandfather. 
I said something to him about the privations of camp life. "Ah ! 
madam," said he, "the soldiers do not need pity; it is you uncom- 
plaining women, left at home to struggle with poverty, weary wait- 
ing, ceaseless anxiety, who have the greater hardships." That was 
the last visit of this gallant young man to his home. After his return 
to the Army of Northern Virginia, his father and mother drove 
to their postoffice to hear from their soldier sons. That mail brought 
them triple sorrow. The son above referred to — Captain William 
Haskell — was killed at Gettysburg, and another son and their 
mother's brother — Langdon Cheves — were killed at Battery Wagner. 

No mail came without bringing sad news to some home, and the 
telegraph wires would flash the report of the deaths of hundreds 
and thousands of loved ones, who had lost their lives for the "Cause." 
You go to a funeral now, dear children ; the solemn burial service is 
read in a church ; mourning friends follow the beloved form to the 
grave, and put it away with all the tenderness of the human heart. 
Do you think such was the burial of our brave, dead soldiers ? Ah ! 
no ! no ! Some there were whose mortal remains were brought home 
in rude coffins, and now rest in peaceful churchyards or cemeteries, 

Tales of a Grandmother. 211 

and year by year you go with those who strew their graves with 
garlands and flowers, and thus keep green their memories ; but thou- 
sands fill unknown graves ; thousands were piled in heap? together, 
without even the poor blanket wrapped around them, for a winding 
sheet ; some were blown to atoms, and no trace left of them-, hun- 
dreds languished and perished in Northern prisons. 

Did all these events, wringing our hearts with anguish and dis- 
tress, daunt us and make us give up our "Cause?" No. We but 
clung the more closely to it ; our sorrows purified us ; our necessities 
kept us from sloth and selfishness ; our thousands of hands were as 
one pair. 'Twere idle to try to tell of the sandbags, socks, havelocks, 
shirts, drawers, etc., we made for our soldiers. As secretary of 
"The Woman's Auxiliary" during the war, my book could have fur- 
nished most interesting items of tents made and given, of boxes of 
food, clothing, medicine, blankets, etc. Alas ! like too many other 
more valuable things, it perished with the burning of Columbia. 

At our meetings we were always furnished with a laugh by one 
member interested in the Hampton Legion, whose invariable in- 
quiry after my report was in a piping voice: "Anything for the 
Hampton Legion?" 

We lived through the fiery tribulation. We lost our "Cause" ; 
we seemed to have lost all that life was worth living for; we passed 
into poverty and degradation under the rod. But the smoke and 
din of battle have rolled away. Peace is in our land, and we women 
have again taken up our role. We look back to the days "before 
the war" as a pleasure enjoyed ; we think of them with emotion, but 
not with despair. But, my children, my reflections are for myself, 
my memories for you. I have kept no dates, turned down no cor- 
ners. I try to forget all those dark days. 

When your grandfather, James Pickett Adams, major of a bat- 
talion of cavalry, was with the army, there was always one thought 
present with me — he will be wounded, and I shall have to go to him. 
Believing this, I kept my trunk packed, ready for departure at short 
notice — not with many clothes, dears, for our garments were few, 
and we had to take care that they "waxed not old." (I saw a bill 
not long ago, that I paid a milliner, during the war, of $100 for re- 
trimming a straw bonnet with pink tarlatan.) But I had in it 
also sheets, towels, bandages, old linen, soap, candles, a bottle of 
pure French brandy — all the things I could collect that, in my many 
trips to the hospital, I saw were so necessary for the sick and 
wounded. At the beginning of the war, many soldiers were brought 

212 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

in from the camps near Columbia to the hospital (the buildings at 
the Fair Grounds being used for the purpose), sick with measles. 
Mrs. William Wallace, the dear friend of my girlhood and after 
life, of .whom you have often'heard me speak, and I had our days at 
hospital together. On one of our days, we had gone around, dis- 
tributed mulled wine, arrowroot custard, clean underclothing, etc., 
and spoken all the pleasant words we could to the poor sick fel- 
lows, and we were about to say good-night when one poor 
fellow said to me, "Please, ma'am, look at my blister; it has been 
on my throat all day." Mrs. Wallace held the candle, and I looked 
at the blister. You need not laugh, children, for though your 
"nanma" cannot bear to look at your cut fingers and stumped toes, 
she did look at that soldier's blister. It was large and painful. I 
had no scissors with which to clip it, and it needed it much. An- 
other soldier took his old, dull knife from his pocket, rubbed the 
blade back and forth on his dusty shoe, and handed it to me. I 
picked the watery sacks, dipped some soft cloth in hot water, and 
applied it to his throat, receiving many thanks from the grateful 

The news I was always dreading came at last — your grandfather, 
then a staff officer, was wounded in the Battle of Trevilian Station, 
and was at the house of a gentleman, near Charlottesville, Va. 
Your mother was a little girl then, and was playing at Sidney Park. 
I did not think there was time for her to get home before I would 
have to leave on the train ; but she got there in time for me to press 
her to my heart, say good-bye, and leave her with my kind relatives, 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Crawford. In an hour after I had received 
the telegram, I was, with my old nurse, Selina, hurrying on my way 
to Richmond. At Winnsboro, Mrs. H. K. Aiken got on the train, 
going on to her husband, who was also wounded at Trevilian Sta- 
tion. How glad I was to have her company ! How long seemed the 
night! How the rapidly turning wheels seemed to say, "Coming, 
coming, coming !" How the frogs screamed all along the road ! I 
never hear them now without living over that night. 

When we reached Charlotte next morning, the train had gone. 
We could do nothing but wait until late in the day for the next one. 
As we were about to get on, we were told that the Yankees had cut 
the road at Greensboro. I said to Mrs. Aiken, "Shall we go back?" 
"No, indeed," she replied, "I am going to Hugh," meaning her hus- 
band. The news of the Yankees proved to be untrue. We met, 
however, with another detention at Danville. I was most fortunate 

Tales of a Grandmother. 213 

in having- fallen in with Mrs. Aiken, who, when we arrived at Rich- 
mond, took me with her to the house of her sister, Mrs. Gorgas, 
whose husband was chief of the Ordnance Department. 

Railroad communication with Charlottesville was broken. I could 
not go to your grandfather ; and a few days after my arrival at Rich- 
mond, the Yankees cut the railroad at Burkeville Junction. Thus 
I was shut up at Richmond, unable to go to my husband, unable to 
get back to my child. I do not know how many days passed, nor 
how long, but I can hear it now, as I heard it then, one night, when 
waiting, hoping, a footstep. "Oh! Mrs. Gorgas," I cried, "it is he/' 
and away I ran to be clasped in the arms of your grandfather. His 
wound was in the neck, the place over which your curious little 
fingers have so often passed. It was another of those hairbreadth 
escapes, which so many of our soldiers made. The slightest devia- 
tion from the course of the ball would have caused instant death. I 
wish I had kept the coat he wore ; it was pierced with bullet holes, 
in the skirt, sleeve and collar, in six places. The wound was ex- 
ceedingly painful, and for a time your "old da" was a very stiff- 
necked fellow. As danger of erysipelas disappeared, I felt anxious 
to return home. How to get there was now the question, for the 
road between Richmond and Danville was not open, and the enemy 
held a portion of the Petersburg and Weldon road. Colonel Armis- 
tead Burt, of Abbeville, of whose sad death we heard some time ago, 
was at Richmond, and was made the bearer of important govern- 
ment dispatches to Wilmington, N. C. Your grandfather placed me 
under his care to return home. We went by rail to Lynchburg, and 
there we took a government ambulance for Danville. It was a 
shabby affair, all stained with blood of wounded soldiers ; but we 
seated ourselves in it, Colonel Burt by the driver, and Selina and I 
on the floor, without even any straw, propping ourselves against the 
trunks, without a thought of discomfort. We were told before 
leaving Lynchburg that we would overtake a number of Yankee 
prisoners, who were on their way to Danville. All morning we were 
on the lookout for them — said to number 2,700, besides the guard ; 
at midday, we overtook them, and, as we could not pass them, we 
jogged on behind. A prisoner broke away and ran down the road 
towards us. That was not jolly for us, as the guard fired at him as 
he ran. The man escaped into the woods. Our driver thought he 
had a chance to get ahead, and tried to drive between two trees. 
They were too close together, and the ambulance became fastened. 
Instantly several of the prisoners jumped on the wheels, loosened 

214 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

the top, and lifted us out of our embarrassment. Again we got in 
motion with the prisoners before us. If we passed a house, they 
would go to the well for water, and they would drink it dry; if we 
crossed a stream, it was the same case, and no water was left for us ; 
if there happened to be any vegetables in a garden, as far as they 
would go around, every man, "Reb." and "Yank.," helped himself; 
and as they walked along, peeling the turnips and onions, we could 
hear them address each other familiarly as "Yank." and "Reb." 

When I think of this trip now, I feel afraid ; I did not then. 
Finally Colonel Burt said we must stop and allow them to get a good 
distance ahead of us. We did this at the first house we came to. 
Colonel Burt went in to make inquiries about the roads, distances, 
etc. The good lady of the house refreshed us with hot biscuits and 
apples, a kindness which we greatly appreciated. Colonel Burt had 
talked a little, Selina had smoked her pipe, and our tired old horses 
napped while resting. So we resumed our journey and again over- 
took the prisoners. They no doubt thought, as well as their guard, 
that we had food, medicine, etc. One of the officers of the guard 
asked Colonel Burt to give him something to revive a dying prisoner. 
He had really nothing but a phial of brandy, of which he gave him 
part. The officer said he would have to leave a Confederate with 
him, for he would die on the roadside. That evening at dark we 
crossed Stanton River. The prisoners had all crossed over, and 
were in a field, knocking down shocks of wheat, on which to make 
their beds. I pitied the poor farmer to whom the wheat belonged. 
The old horses seemed to think they should stop too, as they were 
with soldiers, and could hardly be urged to drag us a half-mile 
farther on, where we found a very humble house. The owners were 
very poor, and unwilling for us to stop with them. But Colonel 
Burt found the "open sesame," and we were allowed to go into the 
house. Better by far to have remained in the ambulance. Mark 
Tapley would have certainly been gratified, in finding an occasion 
on which he could "come out strong." We could not have slept 
under such circumstances ; but the fact that there were over 2,500 
of our enemies at the foot of the hill kept our eyes wide open, and 
at daybreak we once more resumed our journey. It was clear, and 
soon got very warm. I heard Colonel Burt say, "William, that 
horse is sick ; lookout, he will fall on the pole." Both jumped to 
the ground, and Colonel Burt bled him in the mouth. Turning to 
me, he said, "You see, I know something of phlebotomy." Our 
journey had become one of anxiety ; we were in a strange and 

Tales of a Grandmother. 215 

sparsely settled country ; if the horse failed us, where could we get 
another? We drove over miles without hearing a cock crow. At 
length we reached a house, at the sight of which we "thanked God 
and took courage." But we congratulated ourselves too soon, for 
the man of the house, who came out to us, was very surly. He said, 
"You must go on; I do not want you to stop; do not want you to 
water your horses at my well." The horse was still bleeding at the 
mouth, and was feeble. Colonel Burt asked the man to sell him 
some salt, to stanch the bleeding. He refused flatly, and not until 
after a long parley, and when he found that we could not "go on," 
did he yield, and sell us the small quantity of salt needed. His 
family knew the hardships of living, had little or no money, were 
far away from a town, and husbanded with jealous care the little 
they had. We moved on very slowly, for we feared we would lose 
both horses from the great heat and insufficient food. At midday, 
we halted. Colonel Burt chewed a piece of tobacco for his dinner ; 
I ate a green apple, one left from those our friend of the hot biscuits 
had given us ; William and the horses looked as if life were a burden 
to them, and they did not care how long they remained where they 
were ; Selina sauntered off to smoke her pipe, but she found not the 
comfort she looked for in her "smoke," for in a few moments she 
came running back, terrified, crying out, "Oh ! Miss Ma'gret, 
Miss Ma'gret, they'se coming, they'se coming!" "Who are 
coming?" I asked. "Oh! de Yankees, de Yankees! I seed 'em wid 
de guns in deir hands, and deir lamsacks (knapsacks) on deir 
backs !" And she clung to me in her fright. They proved to be 
a relay from Pittsylvania, detailed to assist the guard in charge of 
the prisoners. 

At dark, we reached Composition, a town of ambitious space. 
The houses were so far apart, one almost required a vehicle to visit 
her next door neighbor. The townspeople had heard of the coming 
of the prisoners, and when the ambulance was seen, great curiosity 
was excited. A crowd collected and followed us to the tavern, 
where we were to spend the night. They thought I was the wife of 
a Yankee officer. Colonel Burt had often made me laugh by re- 
peating to persons on the road that he was the bearer of important 
dispatches to Wilmington, and that I was the wife of a wounded 
Confederate officer, whom I had left at Richmond. It probably 
helped us on a little. After another long, fatiguing day in the am- 
bulance, we reached Danville, where we took the train for Columbia. 
We met with frequent delays, and did not arrive at Columbia for 

216 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

two days. There I parted with kind, courteous Colonel Burt, with 
whom I never met but once again. 

Now, children, you will think that this trip to Richmond and back 
to Columbia, of which I have written you an account, was not much 
of a feat. It was, however. It was one of peril, of anxiety. I left 
home not knowing where I should meet your grandfather. Con- 
federate money was not worth much, and it took a great deal to 
cover the expense of such a trip. I left your grandfather, on my 
return to Columbia, unfit for service, and did not know when I 
would see him again. We had then ''hearts for every fate." I will 
write you one more letter of my "Recollections of the War," and I 
hope you may never know anything of war — hideous, shocking 
war — but what you may read from the experience of others. 
Your affectionate grandmother, 

Margaret Crawford Adams. 

Wavering Place, Congaree, S. C. 

NO. II. 

My Dear Grandchildren : "From the sessions of silent thought 
I summon up remembrance" and resume my narrative. As early as 
1863, after our repulse at Gettysburg, our men began to lose hope of 
success. Their best efforts had been put forth; the bravest of the 
brave had been laid on the "altars of sacrifice." Those who were 
left were courageous and true, and the "Cause" for which they 
were fighting was as dear to them as ever. Our noble army was still 
making a gallant defense in front of Richmond, but was gradually 
weakening under repeated assaults of a superior force, which, like 
a mighty serpent, was slowly but surely tightening its coils around 
the throat of the Confederacy. What was there to encourage a hope 
of ultimate success ? The wide world was open to our enemy, from 
which to gather forces, supplies, etc., without limit. The Confeder- 
ate States were orphans to all the world, shut in to themselves. 
France and England sympathized with them in their heroic struggle, 
but what did that avail? The few men who were left at home, the 
women, and the negroes, were all to whom the army could look to 
raise supplies. Of the negroes, I can say they were, all through 
the war, our humble friends, and on the plantations, where there were 
but unprotected women and children, with here and there a white 
man, these people worked as cheerfully as they had ever done, and 
not for a moment believed that Southern men, their masters, could 

Tales of a Grandmother. 217 

be overcome. They knew nothing of superior numbers, of superior 
advantages. They knew that Southern men were brave and honest, 
and the thought, with the majority of them, that they were slaves, 
in the abolitionist's sense of the word, had never dawned on their 

Our trouble was in our own midst. There was waste of the pro- 
visions contributed for government supplies, which made want and 
discontent. Our horses were "impressed" without even "by your 
leave." I had already given two to the cavalry service, and the two 
that I had still were too old, except for my own driving about town. 
One day, my old coachman, Louis, was returning from Main 
street, when he saw a man riding one of his horses, as he called them. 
He said nothing until he came to me, when he said, "Ma'am, I saw a 
man riding old 'Dick Allan' on the streets." On inquiry, one of 
the servants told me that a man had gone into the stables and ridden 
him off, saying "he was to be sent to Georgia for the artillery." I 
remonstrated against this, saying the horse was unfit for service, for 
if he were, my husband, who was a cavalry officer, would have used 
him himself. I appealed in vain. Colonel William Wallace told 
me he was very sorry "Old Dick" was taken, for he felt a curiosity 
to see how long the old pair would live, treated as they were. They 
were eighteen years old then. 

To mention defeat to our women was an insult. They would not 
believe it even when it was a reality. 

Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, was, towards the close 
of the war, a city of refuge for wanderers from all parts of the dis- 
tracted South ; a depository for public and private treasure, and 
where were established bureaus, with their attendant officials, no- 
tably the Treasury Department, which furnished means of living 
for many ladies who had lost their property by the war. Its popu- 
lation was quadrupled, and the beautiful city, far from the seat of 
war, was gay and festive. Like Belgium's capital before the Battle 
of Waterloo, it was soon to witness a scene of flight and disorder, 
and the life of the unsuspecting little city was to go out like a bril- 
liant feu d'artifice. 

In January, 1865, the ladies planned and held a bazar at the old 
State House, thereby to raise means for aiding the soldiers. Garrets 
and cellars, closets and trunks, were ransacked, and products of 
the needle and culinary department were brought forth, which as- 
tonished those who made and those who bought. There was no 
Barmecide Feast, but an abundance of tempting food and delicacies. 

218 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

For a week, the old State House was a transformation scene, bril- 
liant and changing. Each Southern State was represented by name, 
having booths arranged tent-shape, draped with the Confederate 
colors, and surmounted by the shield or coat-of-arms of the State 
represented. When I think now of the blockade of the ports of 
the South, its isolation, how long since a ship had brought in aught 
of beauty or fashion, the splendor of the bazar seems marvelous. 
Stately matrons presided at the various booths, assisted by bevies of 
pretty girls, who sold their wares at fabulous prices. My State was 
Mississippi, and, with my assistants, we made $17,000. Does this 
sum seem large to you? It was very small in value, owing to the 
great depreciation of Confederate currency. In our sales, we forgot 
all else but to make money for our soldiers, and we received some- 
times withering glances and angry words. An old man wanted to 
buy of me a piece of cake for his wife. "Now, give me," he said, 
"a good sizable slice." The cake represented to me, not butter and 
eggs, sugar and flour, but something delicious, almost unattainable, 
and when I cut the good man a slice from the center out, and half- 
inch thick, I thought it was indeed "a good sizable slice," and was 
stunned when he said, " 'Tain't worth my money !" 

Mrs. Lallah Adams had given me a jar of sliced peaches, beautiful, 
yellow peaches, the like of which had almost faded from the memory 
of Confederates. For each slice I asked, and got readily, $5. An 
old couple came to the table, looked around, and the old lady's eyes 
lighted on the bright, yellow slices. "I will take a saucer of 
peaches," she said. I handed her one slice, saying, "The price is 
$5." She took it and asked her husband to pay for it. "No, I 
won't," he said ; "it is robbery" ; and, taking her by the arm, led her 
out, looking back at me, muttering, and I imagined they were very 
bad words he was saying. 

I have never known what became of all the money made at that 
bazar. It was perhaps too worthless to be accounted for; or there 
was too little time before the Confederacy expired in which to ex- 
pend it. 

Who that was a looker-on in that vast assemblage could believe 
that in a few weeks all would be scattered, fleeing they knew not 
where, or remaining to see the city laid in ashes? Such was the 
case. The 17th of February, 1865, witnessed the destruction, by fire, 
of Columbia, by Sherman's invading army. Who can describe the 
dismay of the people when it was known that Sherman was thun- 
dering at her gates, like Alaric, with his horde of Goths, before the 

Tales of a Grandmother. 219 

ancient city of Rome, who, however, barbarian though he was, in 
sacking the city, spared her churches, while this modern Goth burnt 
them? To flee, to get away from the approaching host, was the 
feeling communicated from one to another, and few remained who 
could get away. Oh ! the wild confusion, the headlong haste. 
Many, who had not thought of leaving their homes, caught the con- 
tagious panic, and, at the eleventh hour, determined to flee too, 
though it was then possible for them to take with them but a few 
necessary articles, the railroads having more than they could do to 
take off government supplies and treasure. Among this number 
were your mother and myself. On Thursday morning, February 
1 6th, we went to the Charlotte depot, intending to go to Winnsboro 
and decide there on our future movements. What a crowd was 
there, shoving, pushing, cursing, swearing, trying to find room on 
the train for their worldly goods. I saw a man with a box so heavy 
that six men were staggering under its weight; one of these men 
moved aside for a lady, when the owner of the box rushed at him 
and beat him furiously with an umbrella. It was very cold, and 
sleet covered the ground and trees. I was told, after I had secured 
passage, that I could take no luggage. Your mother said she would 
not go without her clothes, so we returned home. Late in the day, 
we heard from a gentleman, Mr. Rufus Johnston, who had char- 
tered a box car for transportation of his servants and their effects, 
that we could go in the same box, and take two trunks with us, and 
also that that was the last train which would leave Columbia. We 
decided at once to go. In one trunk I packed my silver ; in the other, 
summer and winter clothing. To give more room in the trunk, 
your mother and I put on as many of our clothes as possible — Wem- 
meck like, making our property "portable." I was so much incom- 
moded by the weight and tightness of each successive garment that 
I took them off; but your mother kept hers on. She wore a half- 
dozen pairs of stockings, and underclothing in proportion, several 
dresses, two cloaks, and two hats. She was a picture of fun, not 
easily recognized. When she passed through a door, she had to go 
sideways. She was just recovering from measles, and this great 
weight of clothing, which she wore for twenty-four hours, gave her 
a severe cold, from which she did not recover for months. I was 
glad I had not gone on the morning train, as I had now a little time 
to arrange my household which I had left as if going to pay a call. 
I put some blankets and a few other things, a bag of flour and some 
bacon, in a wagon of a friend, and sent them off to Winnsboro with 

220 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

my faithful old servant, Louis Brooks. It was a trial for me to 
leave your grandfather's well-selected library, my furniture, valuable 
pictures, bought in Rome ; my glass and china, one set of which had 
been brought from Ireland, of exceeding beauty, and I was the fifth 
Margaret who had inherited it; my father's portrait, painted by 
Scarborough, after he was eighty years of age; all to be left for the 
destroyer. I tore up all the letters which I had received during the 
war from your grandfather, a matter I now much regret, and pro- 
vided for the servants, who were to be left behind. Only one of 
them — Charlie Brown — showed any fear. The city was shelled at 
intervals through the day, and whenever he would hear an explosion 
he would sink to the floor, overcome with alarm and blanched with 

Some of the negroes had no conception of what was meant by 
"Yankee," and on first sight of them, one said, "Why, dey's folks !" 
I parted with my servants with sorrow, taking with me only my 
cook — Hannah — a servant whom my Grandfather Crawford gave me 
when I was a child, who had no children. 

About dark, your grandfather, who was then in the city, went to 
the depot with us, and saw us safely packed in the aforesaid box car. 
In it was a family of six or eight negroes, with their possessions. 
At each end, they had chicken coops, piled one above the other, 
which, when the train got in motion, threatened to topple over on 
our heads. It was the last box of the train, except the one next, 
which was filled with gunpowder. Wheeler's Cavalry, a noisy set, 
was encamped all around the depot, and occasionally one of his men 
would come to our car door, saying, "Fellows, let me in ; I say, fel- 
lows, let me in." I had the door closed except about an inch, left 
open for air, and held a lighted candle in my hand. When these 
prowling soldiers came near, I would have the door fastened, and 
then we would almost suffocate. Your grandfather had left us, 
thinking the train had moved off; but it was simply to run a short 
distance, then return to our starting point. We kept up this see- 
sawing until midnight, when we went on to Winnsboro. Meantime, 
we did not know what was going on in the city, but in our occasional 
sliding of the door, we saw that it was lighted up, and heard that it 
was from the burning of Congaree bridge. 

Arriving at or near Winnsboro, we found the train which had pre- 
ceded us broken down on the track, and no probability of its early 
departure. We got out of our train, and into a wagon which was 
there, and went to the house of a relative. My purpose, when I left 

Tales of a Grandmother. 221 

Columbia, was to go to Union with my uncle, Mr. Andrew Crawford, 
but we found that there was risk of being overtaken by the Yankees, 
and we determined to remain at Winnsboro. The wind blew a 
furious gale all day, and with the storm without, and the distraction 
within, I was without hope. Vainly did I wish I had remained at 
home. Some time after dark, we saw the horizon towards Colum- 
bia reddening, and until a late hour we watched it growing brighter. 
We doubted if it could be Columbia burning, as we did not suppose 
we could see light from a fire thirty miles away; but we were not 
long in doubt, for evil news flies fast, and next day we heard that 
Sherman had laid "the cradle of the rebellion" in ashes. 

On Sunday morning, our army, under Beauregard and Hampton, 
entered the town of Winnsboro. Was it from this handful of men 
we looked for victory? I could but admire the sublimity of their 
courage. This army was near to Winnsboro for several days, and 
thus we saw your grandfather and many of our soldier friends. 
Knowing that Sherman would soon be upon us, we busied ourselves 
in hiding our valuables. My aunts dug holes and put into them 
their silver and watches, which, when they took them up, they found 
seriously injured by being soaked in water. I called to my aid my 
faithful servant — Louis Brooks — and gave into his charge my silver, 
which he hid securely, and my watch and jewelry, which he concealed 
on his person. He told me he thought it best for us that he should 
go off the premises and stay away until Sherman's army had passed 
through, to which I assented. My aunt sent all of her servants into 
the country also, leaving in the yard only my cook and a strange 
young woman, with a baby a few weeks old. In the house there 
were eight females, including one very sick lady, who had asked to 
be brought there from her own home, and who died a day or two 
after Sherman left the town. Into the room occupied by her we 
carried most of our wearing apparel. 

Our first intimation of the approach of the army was seeing a 
"bluecoat" rush into the house, and commence a search. He was 
soon followed by a number of others. The house, located on the 
outskirts of town, was first reached. I had "laid the table" and put 
on it two cooked hams, a large quantity of biscuits, and other food, 
supposing these men would eat like other people. One man came 
in, stuck his bayonet in a ham, and marched out with it ; another did 
the same ; and in a moment everything was swept off the table — 
plates, knives, forks, everything. A hundred men were in the house 
at a time, searching every part of it, breaking open doors, closets, 

222 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

drawers, trunks, in their "search for arms." The noise they made 
was as if they were a herd of cattle. Finally, my aunt said to a new 
arrival of them, "There is indeed nothing left in the house for you 
to take; suppose you remain here below and send one man up to 
search." They did this, and their fellow soon came back with empty 
hands. The sick lady was lying insensible, unconscious of what was 
going on around her. All of us took refuge in her room, as it seemed 
to be respected. One fellow came to the door, putting his hands on 
either side, and said, "I'm a bummer, I am ; I'm a bucktail." I 
thought he should have said he was "the flower of the land," as he 
wore a girl's hat, with a wreath of flowers around it. I said to him, 
"Please do not come in here, for you will disturb that lady, who is 
very ill." He looked at her and said, "Oh ! I have seen plenty like 
that ; she's pretending." But he did go away. A young soldier took 
his seat by her bedside, and remained there all day, watching her, 
wiping the damp from her face, raising her up when she was deathly 
sick, and caring for her as tenderly as if he had been her son. He was 
ashamed of the conduct of his comrades. He was from New Haven, 
and gave us news of the family of Dr. Wills, who had formerly lived 
at Columbia, and was our family physician. 

These men came in advance of the army. What a contrast was its 
entry to that of the Confederates, a few days before! An army sixty 
thousand strong, with bands playing, banners flying, wagons two and 
three abreast, disregarding roads, but driving right across the fields. 
The burning of Columbia seemed about to be repeated, but the burn- 
ing of a number of houses seemed to satisfy hate, and the fire was 

The lady of the house where I was staying — Mrs. Fraser — a 
fragile, timid woman, when she saw the approach of the head of 
the column, went out alone, stood in the road by the Presbyterian 
Church, waved her hand, and halted it. An officer rode up to her 
and said, "What do you want, madam?" "I want a guard for my 
house, and for two others," pointing to them. "You shall have 
them," he said, and he told a soldier to follow her. An officer went 
with her also. On their way, he saw a soldier carrying off a box of 
tobacco on his back. He rode against him, knocking him down, 
and cursing him as he rode on. When he got into the yard, he found 
a soldier setting fire to the kitchen. He had him arrested at once. 
In his fury, he called for an axe to cut away the burning part. The 
axe had been taken; but he thought we withheld it, and shouted at 
us, "Will you do nothing to help me save your own property ?" He 

Tales of a Grandmother. 223 

was a huge man, sunk low in his saddle, on a sheepskin. He soon 
restored order in the yard, and left two men to guard the house. 

The cats and goats seemed to feel it in the air that something was 
approaching, for they had disappeared, and did not reappear for 
days. The watchdog had, in fear, crouched under the dining table, 
when a soldier, spying him there, shot him ! All day the bummers 
were passing through the yard and garden, searching, prodding, 
digging, for hidden treasure, which, happily, they did not find. They 
did find, and took off, everything we had to eat. One man carried 
off sorghum in a trunk. Hundreds of them passed through, loaded 
with poultry of every kind, which hung in strings from their saddles 
to the ground. They could not catch the guineas ("little speckled 
chickens," as they called them) ; they were too fast for them. Others 
drove herds of cattle. They turned my aunt's cow out of her house, 
which, when my aunt saw, she rushed out, crying to them, "Oh! 
don't drive off our cow ; we have nothing left but her !" Seeing her 
distress, one of the men said to her, "If you can separate your cow 
from the others, you may have her." Think of an old woman, over 
seventy, going through this crowd of rough men, with their drove of 
cattle, with a stick in her hand, trying to save her cow ! One fellow 
laughed and called to her, when he saw her cape falling off from her 
shoulders, ''Look out, old woman, you are losing your coat !" She 
followed after a long time, but at last returned, exhausted, failing 
to get her cow. 

Night closed in on us, hungry and uncomfortable. None of us 
went to bed, and we had no light but firelight. I was watching the 
sick woman and had made my cook and the woman with the young 
baby come into the room with me. The baby began to fret, and, 
having seen a bottle of asafetida on the table, I dropped, as I sup- 
posed, a few drops into a spoon, and gave it to the mother to give 
her baby. Before putting the bottle down, I looked at the label, and 
great was my consternation when I found it was "elixir of vitriol." 
I did not speak, but sat down by the woman and her child, staring at 
it, fearing every moment it would go into convulsions. If it moved, 
I jumped. I was afraid, if the child died, those dreadful Yankees 
would think I had given it the dose intentionally, and would murder 
me. Putting my hand to its neck, I found it all wet, and then I knew 
that the sleepy mother had spilt the medicine. 

While Sherman's army remained in Winnsboro, none of us left the 
house. For days after it left, we lived on bread, which we made 
with meal, sifted from wheat bran, or on corn, which was gathered 

224 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

up from where the horses had been most abundantly fed, and which 
was scattered on the ground. Our guard told us we had more to 
fear from stragglers than from the army ; but after it moved out, we 
were not again molested. When the people began to mingle together 
again, each one had a thrilling tale to tell, some indeed shocking — 
of old men who were hung up, time and again, by the neck, to force 
them to disclose the hiding place of their treasure; of women who 
had spoken sharply to some of the soldiers, who, for so doing, were 
tied in chairs in their yards and made to witness the burning of their 
own houses. 

When one of the ladies in our house said something to a gay 
young Prince Rupert of an officer about the unnecessary destruc- 
tion of the articles in the house, he laughingly said, as he, too, pro- 
ceeded to put into his pocket an elegant copy of Campbell's Poems, 
"Sich is the fate of war." 

The coming, the going, of this army was a horrible nightmare. 
We awoke from it to realize we were destitute. Your grandfather 
bought us some supplies at Yorkville; among them, I remember a 
bandbox, filled with lard, and some corn. A lady from Charleston 
had a hand-mill (every mill in the country was burnt), and with 
this we ground our corn into hominy. We would boil a small piece 
of bacon with hominy, for our breakfast, and for dinner we had a 
small slice of bacon each, with bread. We did not have even the 
luxury of rye coffee or parched sweet potato or persimmon seed. I 
noticed that my aunt, the old lady who tried to recover her cow, did 
not eat her allowance of bacon, and that every day after dinner she 
went out. I said to her, "Aunt Margaret (Miss Margaret Craw- 
ford, of Winnsboro) , why don't you eat your bacon ? You are getting 
thin and feeble." "Oh!" she said, "I take it to Elymos (a negro), 
who is sick ; and today he was very vexed, and told me if that was 
all I could bring him, I had better not come." She was always doing 
something for somebody and forgetting herself. 

Louis came back after the army had gone. I did not recognize 
him, he was so thin and haggard. A Yankee soldier had taken his 
shoes from him, and my watch and chain were at the time in his 
sock, which he restored to me, with my jewelry. A negro man, who 
belonged to one of our family, in returning to his home, called at 
the yard to see Louis. When I was telling him of how the house 
had been pillaged, he exclaimed, "My God! Miss Margaret, where 
was Mas' Jimmy?" showing, as I have said before, the confidence 
the negroes had in the power of Southern men. 

Why I Am a Daughter of the Confederacy. 225 

The Confederacy seemed suddenly to have changed, a glory had 
passed from it, and, without acknowledging it, we felt the end was 
near. It came sooner than we expected. In April, 1865, the war 
ended. Would that with it all the heartburnings, caused by the 
deluge of blood which flowed from the first drop shed, could in some 
wise have ended ; that the millions of property lost could in some 
wise have been restored. But it was not to be so. Long years of 
toil were before us, with all the corruption and demoralization of 
interstate war. 

We have rebuilt on the ruins of our buried hopes. The lava of 
time encrusts the past. We poor "Rebels" have found new homes, 
new hopes, and we strive to forget the bitterness of defeat. But 
memory often carries us back over the bloody chasm to that other 
life, to commune in those then happy homes with loved ones now 
absent and dead. Your affectionate grandmother, 

Margaret Crawford Adams. 

Wavering Place, Congaree, S. C. 

Why I Am a Daughter of the Confederacy. 

(A few extracts from a diary.) 

I was in the country when the first sound of the war bugle reached 
my ears. This is an extract from my diary at that time: "How 
bright the sun shone on this, my natal day. How the birds seem 
trying to welcome its coming with their songs. But alas ! I am far 
away from home and loved ones, and it is a sad time with us all. 
News is rife even in the country : even here, the sound of the tocsin 
of war has reached the ears of old men, young men, and even boys ; 
and as every mail brings some account of added provocation from 
the North, they rise up in the glory of their manhood and feel that 
they must go forth and fight for the rights of our own fair Southland. 
The quiet of the country is broken ; confusion runs riot. Each day 
some pupil leaves the school, and soon I feel that I will have to close, 
as the patrons have become demoralized and think they will soon be 
on the verge of starvation, and fear to spend a dollar." 

In a few weeks from the time this entry was made I was at home. 
I found our village full of enthusiasm, and the ladies and girls busy 
as bees, making a Confederate flag. Oh ! how many hopes were 
stitched into the folds of those Stars and Bars ! often with bleeding 
fingers, for that was before the day of sewing machines in the South. 
How proudly we watched the men run it to the top of an immense 


226 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

pole, while our voices joined in the huzzas as its folds floated to the 
breeze. There was no time to sit with folded hands and grieve over 
the situation. Indeed, we of the younger class felt it almost a picnic 
to assist in making fatigue shirts, knitting socks, and cooking dainties 
to send to "our boys" in gray. 

My home, being on the W. & W. R. R., a great number of the 
soldiers had to pass there, en route to Richmond. A committee of 
nearly every one in the village was formed to have lunch for the 
troops, whenever the train would stop to take on wood and water. 
The older ladies would have something substantial ; the girls, flowers 
for the gallant boys ; while the boys too young to take up arms would 
take buckets of water for all. Until now I had only sympathized 
with others in parting with loved ones. My father had been dead 
many years, and my oldest brother was just twelve years old ; but his 
youth was no drawback to his patriotism. When the first company 
left, my mother appealed to the captain to tell him he could not go. 
Another company was soon raised and, the colonel being from our 
town, words, tears, nor anything else, could keep him at home. A 
proud boy he was when Colonel Parker made him his orderly. He 
soon marched away to Virginia, where so many of our brave boys 
fought, bled and died. 

Now came a time of dire trouble and suspense. We feared to scan 
the list of dead and wounded after each battle. One day, news came 
that Colonel Parker's orderly had been wounded while carrying dis- 
patches during the fight around Richmond. Alas ! the news proved 
only two true, and a widowed mother boarded the outgoing train with 
a sad, anxious heart. But fate was kind, and she was so happy to 
find her soldier boy only slightly hurt. There was a warm welcome 
for both when she reached home again, bringing Orderly Wallar S. 
Turner, who had been honorably discharged from duty on account of 
his youth. I think he was glad to be back with mother, for awhile, 
at least. 

Those terrible years of war crept on, as a wounded snake drags its 
weary length along. Slow, tedious, as they were, each day was full 
of interest and work for those left at home. Soldiers were passing 
constantly. Sometimes we would hear that several regiments were 
on the way to the "seat of war." What a lively, hurrying time we 
had then. The women made cakes — the best our material afforded ; 
the older ones would tie up packages, socks, or woolen comforters, to 
give to those who needed them ; the girls would gather huge bouquets, 
to be divided into small boutonnieres, to pin on the pockets of the 

Why I Am a Daughter of the Confederacy. 227 

brave soldier boys; while each small boy considered himself a com- 
mittee to see that buckets of fresh water were ready for them. Then 
we would meet near the depot or "water tank" and wait their coming. 
The trains did not tarry long, but sometimes long enough for an ex- 
change of hearts, and on one occasion that I knew of resulted in 

At that time, I had no soldier sweetheart, but was more interested 
in the conductor who had charge of the train than in the soldiers ; 
so my buttonhole bouquet was generally pinned on the lapel of 
"Captain Ivey's" coat whenever he was aboard. Just here let me 
say that Captain Ivey raised a company of cavalry and reported for 
duty, but the president and superintendent of the W. & \V. R. R. 
would not let him leave the road ; he was detailed and brought back, 
and served in the civil service during the war. 

Those were times that tried women's souls as well as men's, and 
though we worked hard and prayed often for those who were giving 
their lives for us, there were times when the young folks, at least, 
had fun. A soldier boy would come home on furlough and persuade 
his sweetheart to marry him before he returned. Then we were all 
alive. Old trunks were opened and ransacked for remains of finery 
that had been long hid away. Sometimes we were fortunate enough 
to find white slippers, discolored by age ; we would chalk them, mend 
the holes, or would beg or pay the old negro shoemaker "at the 
quarters" to put soles on jeans uppers. Happy the girl whose mother 
or aunt had once been a belle, and had left some embroidered or 
India muslins. Sometimes a light silk would be found and utilized. 
An old threadbare black silk apron was considered a treasure ; when 
picked to pieces and mixed with wool, it made a nice filling for cotton 
warp ; and when woven, such a lovely soft gray dress the bride would 
have, trimmed with persimmon seed, or with buttons made of round 
bits of pasteboard, covered. Then the hat was made of shucks or 
oat and wheat straw, plaited and trimmed with paper or feather 
flowers. Having secured the dress, now we turned our attention to 
the wedding supper. The old black "maumers" would try their skill 
in this and, with preserved watermelon rind for citron, dried cherries, 
and other small fruits, we would have a delicious fruitcake. 

So the years rolled on — sometimes sunshine, sometimes shadow, 
but with never a doubt as to the final success of our Cause. I can 
never forget the first news we had of Lee's surrender. It was a 
warm Sunday afternoon in April. Several girls were down by the 
river bank, where the falls make a miniature Niagara. We were 

228 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

chatting or singing, all thinking of loved ones and wishing "this 
cruel war was over" when we saw a ragged, sick-looking soldier 
coming slowly along the dusty road. A spring of cool water bubbled 
near; he saw the gourd hanging by a nail that was driven in a 
tree, and stopped and asked for a drink. We soon gathered around 
him, each one with a question. One girl asked why he was coming 
home alone. "Indeed, Miss," he replied, "I am not alone ; others are 
behind, and all that are left of the army are coming, for the war is 
over; General Lee has surrendered." In a few moments, two other 
soldiers came up and confirmed what the first had told. We were 
quite indignant, turned away from the "deserters," as we called them, 
and then hastened home to repeat the news. In a few days, our 
worst fears were confirmed. The soldiers continued to come, all 
telling the same story. Lee had indeed surrendered. He was con- 
fronted with overwhelming odds. Our boys were compelled to lay 
down their arms ; but never conquered. 

To this day, the Lost Cause is ever green in the memory of those 
who lived and acted through the vicissitudes of that cruel war. For 
this reason we are banded together, that our children, and their 
children, may not forget our wrongs. Our flag is furled ; but the 
bravery of the men on the field, and the women at home, will live in 
the memories of the lovers of freedom while the sun shines on our 
beloved Southland. Eleanor S. Ivey, nee Turner. 

Some Heroic Women. 

As historian of this Chapter, I feel it an honor, as well as a privi- 
lege, to be able to testify to the many acts of heroism among the 
women of the South during that trying period of the four years' 
war. As my life at that time was not cast among the hills of old 
Edgefield, I must beg that I be not confined to that County, not even 
to the State of South Carolina, in telling some of the reminiscences 
of heroic deeds. 

Those of you whose lives have dawned since the blessed Angel of 
Peace spread her wings over our dear Southland, or even those who 
were children at that time, can have no adequate conception of the 
labor and trials the wives and mothers, and even the young girls, 
endured. There was work for all. While the mothers were looking 
after the carding and spinning that had to be done, not only to supply 
the family with clothing, but to send to the soldiers ; or riding over 
the farm, directing the hands, so that the crops would not fail ; the 

Some Heroic Women. 229 

young girls were busy knitting socks, or making garments to send 
to the loved ones in the camp. "They also serve who only stand 
and wait." And those brave women who took the part of man, as 
well as woman, deserve as much praise for their heroism as those 
who left home and followed the loved ones in the battlefield. History 
does not tell of those, but they deserve more than praise for their 
patience in waiting, and their energy in doing. 

There are others who won for themselves names that will live so 
long as the historian's pen shall immortalize their bravery in giving 
up the comforts of their homes, leaving all that a woman holds most 
dear, to share the dangers, trials and privations of a soldier's life. 
Edgefield had one daughter whose name will be honored together 
with her generals and great men while a veteran of the Rebel army 
lives : Mrs. Neal Horn, who left her home and went with her hus- 
band and son to Virginia and, sharing their tent life with them, 
served through the war — not with guns, pistols, and swords, but ever 
by their side, to supply, as far as she could, home comforts in cooking, 
and keeping their clothes clean and mended. When the God of 
Battle held high carnival, and the wounded and dying were all 
around, her womanly ministrations were not confined to her own 
loved ones, but many a mother's boy was comforted, and his dying 
hour made easier, by her presence. 

There are many in Edgefield who know and love the name of 
Mary Ann Bowie, "the soldier's friend," as she was called. While 
she was never amid the frightful scenes of the battlefield, still she 
gave her time and life, and traveled all over the country, soliciting 
contributions of money, clothing, or anything that could be used for 
their comfort. 

Among those whose deeds were prompted by charity and love of 
country, there were others who were wild over the excitement and 
romance that the war offered. Belle Boyd sprang into notoriety first 
as a Southern spy and newspaper reporter. Many were" the acts of 
bravery she did in obtaining useful information for our generals. 
About a year before the close of the war, she was on the privateer 
"Greyhound," bound for Nassau, when she was captured by the 
Yankees and suffered all the privations of a prison until she was ex- 

Of all who have gained a reputation for reckless daring and deeds 
of valor during the Civil War, there are none who outrank the brave 
Cuban girl, Loretta Valesque. Naturally of a romantic turn of mind, 
she became so enthused over the wrongs of the South that she 

230 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

determined to have a part in the tragedy there being played. The 
first act in her life of adventure was to marry a young American 
officer who was serving in the United States Army. She was only 
fourteen at that time ; but the girls of Cuba mature so much earlier 
than here, she had a woman's form and a woman's heart. When 
war between the States was declared, his regiment was ordered 
back to the United States, and such was her influence over him that, 
yielding to her persuasion, he left the Union Army and enlisted with 
the South. Loretta, full of the excitement pertaining to war, wanted 
to share the danger with him. She longed to be where she could 
hear the music of the bullets as they whistled past, and see the 
lightning of the swords as they flashed from the scabbards. Pleading 
with him to let her accompany him, she was, as she thought, justly 
indignant when he refused his consent. Womanlike, she concealed 
her impatience, and while he thought she had given up the idea, she 
only bided her time. "When a woman wills, she wills," and you may 
depend on it. His farewell kiss was scarcely cold on her lips when 
she sought a tailor, to have him make and pad a suit of clothes for 
her. Thus disguised, she boarded a train for New Orleans. Alas ! 
Lieutenant Harry Buford, her "nom de guerre," had not calculated 
on the heat of the city, consequently the padded garments became un- 
endurable; so she had to find another tailor to substitute wire for 
cotton in the padding ; these she fastened under her arms, giving her 
the necessary squareness to her figure. After getting rigged up, her 
next step was to raise a company of recruits, and, at the head of 
these, she made her way to Pensacola, to join her husband. Words 
cannot express his surprise and chagrin when she was shown into his 
presence and made herself known to him ; but he was a wise man, and 
appreciated the romantic side of the situation, so instead of giving 
her away and opposing her, he helped to drill her soldiers. Unfor- 
tunately for her, her husband was killed not long after by the burst- 
ing of his carbine. Nothing daunted, she succeeded in having her 
company transferred to Virginia, and marched into line at the Battle 
of Bull Run. A writer, in speaking of her on that occasion, says, 
"No man on the field fought with more energy than she did ; fear 
was not known to her." 

Getting tired of active duties, she decided to assume her female 
dress and take the part of a spy. Having bribed an old negro to 
ferry her across the Potomac one freezing cold night, she arrived 
safely in Washington. There she renewed her acquaintance with 
some officers of the Northern Army. Bringing all her powers of 


fascination to bear upon them, she gained what valuable information 
she could and then returned to the Confederate lines. 

In giving us a short history of her life as soldier and spy, the writer 
remarks that, in the midst of her varied experiences, she found time 
to be married three times, and left the romantic adventures of her 
life as a legacy to her children. A wound on her arm caused her 
sex to be discovered. Once known, she managed to escape to some 
other section of the country, and again assumed her masculine garb. 
The last that was heard of this wonderful woman, she had gone to 
California as a miner. Mrs. James H. White. 

Johnston, S. C. 

Reminiscences of the Confederate War. 

I can recall the four years of the Civil War with many sad and 
some pleasant recollections. I was young, and the dark days, inter- 
spersed with those of sunshine, kept us ever watching and wishing 
for the "silver lining" to deck our clouds of despair. We did not 
realize the suffering and privation that would inevitably befall the 
South until 1864-65 ; then, being deprived of any foreign aid, as 
recruits for our army, clothing and the usual luxuries in our culinary 
department, we resorted to devices which would at the present day 
seem quite commonplace and ludicrous. Coffee was not in store; 
therefore, wheat, rye, and sweet potatoes were substituted; syrup 
made from the sugarcane ; the ripe pulp of watermelons and per- 
simmons were used for sugar; our choicest cakes were made with 
syrup ; corncobs burnt, and the ashes were used for soda. Clothing 
also exercised our ingenuity. Silks, worsteds, and even calico, were 
seen in a few tattered garments left to remind us of the "days gone 
by." All of the old cards and spinning wheels, looms which had 
been stored away so many years, covered with the cobwebs of 
antiquity, were brought into use, and homespun was the most fashion- 
able material, dyed in all of the colors of the rainbow ; and although 
we had no Paris Delineator from which we could cull patterns, we 
imagined our costumes adorned us quite becomingly. Gloves, hose, 
shawls, and scarfs were knit with Confederate thread, not only for 
our use, but our soldiers. Hats and bonnets were made of wheat 
and rye straw, bleached or dyed, braided and fashioned into shape; 
our domestic feathery tribe were deprived of some of their plumage, 
a small bow of faded ribbon (if such an article could be found among 
the war wreck) ; and we donned our Confederate tiara with as much 

232 South Carolina Women in the Confedei acy. 

self-conscious loveliness as some of our Rock Hill butterflies of 
fashion do nowadays. Buttons were made of wood, seed of per- 
simmons, and palma-Christi ; quite a pretty button was made with a 
needle and thread. 

I was living twelve miles northeast of the town of Chester, within 
three miles of the Southern Railroad, about ten miles west of Lands - 
ford, on the Catawba River. It was surmised that Sherman's army 
would pass through our vicinity. Oh ! the horrible suspense ! I can 
recall each day and night as a dreadful nightmare; sleep seemed to 
haunt us, and when Morpheus wrapped his alluring mantle around 
us, visions of bluecoats would startle us in our dreams. Our silver 
was deposited in a spring near our home, by one of the servants, 
and all other valuables hidden. The rain poured in torrents un- 
ceasingly for two weeks ; the Catawba River and creeks were over- 
flowing their banks ; bridges demolished ; roads impassable, which 
impeded Sherman's march through that portion of Chester County. 

It would consume pages to unravel some of those thrilling experi- 
ences ; yet we were blessed in comparison with those unfortunate 
ones whose homes were within the line of Sherman's march from 
the sea to Virginia. "May the night of sectional hate be rolled away, 
and our beautiful Southland stand in perfect day," with face ablaze, 
with eye hope-lit, that Peace will spread her wings abroad, heralding 
forth the tidings of a free field under the favor of a just God. 

Mrs. W. B. Dunlap. 

Rock Hill, S. C, February 7, 1901. 

A SKetch of Life During' the War Between 
the States. 

What a blessing it is to us that God, our Heavenly Father, has so 
ordered it that time softens our sorrows. When a great grief comes 
to us, it seems as if it is more than we can bear, and so it would be 
if the pain continued as sharp as we first feel it. But time, while it 
cannot obliterate our troubles from our memories, rubs off the 
sharp points that are so painful at first. As the shadows of the 
evening subdue the fierce rays of the noonday sun, and give us the 
soft, beautiful glow of twilight, so the events of our lives, if we live 
submissive to God's will, soften the pangs of grief and make our 
lives as beautiful as the light at eventide. 

Living now in peace and prosperity, the time of trial and peril 
through which we passed during the Civil War seems like a troubled 

A Sketch of Life During the War. 233 

dream, from which we have slowly awakened. Time has softened 
our grief for the loss of dear ones who gave their precious lives 
for the Cause so dear to every true son and daughter of our loved 
Southland, and we can now see how merciful God has been to us 
through it all. 

At the beginning of the war, in 1861, both of my brothers volun- 
teered, which left my mother and myself alone on our farm. It was 
very lonely for us, but the Cause was so dear to us that we were 
willing to make any sacrifice. But little did we then think, when we 
bade them good-bye, that it would be four long years of anxiety be- 
fore they would live in the old home again. Many of the leading men 
of the South thought the war would not last more than six months or 
a year ; some of our more thoughtful statesmen read the future better, 
and predicted a long and bloody contest. The South only thought of 
establishing her rights, or dying in the struggle. 

My mother, being almost an invalid, the whole care of the farm, as 
well as most of the housekeeping, devolved on me. I managed the 
farm, with a great deal of worry ; but had it not been for the faithful 
negroes, I could not have done it. We made not only an abundance 
of food for ourselves, negroes and stock, but, at the close of the war, 
had $1,800 worth of cotton. We welcomed to our home sick and 
wounded soldiers. We gave them all the dainties we could make, 
tenderly nursed them, and, as far as we could, replenished their ward- 
robes. We had yarn spun, and cloth woven, to make them clothes. 
I knitted undervests of homespun yarn, also socks and comforters. 

In the summer of 1861, I asked the mothers and sisters whose sons 
and brothers belonged to Waxhaw Jackson Grey's company — Com- 
pany B, Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regiment — to assist me in 
getting a flag for the company. We got a beautiful silk flag, and I 
was selected to present it to the company July 4, 1861. My brother 
belonged to this company. The first year of the war, we had not 
learned what war meant to a country, nor what a soldier's life was. 
When we sent our loved ones to the army, we thought that they must 
have all the luxuries of home except the house, so we packed trunks 
with everything we could put in, that we thought a gentleman going 
on a pleasure camping trip ought to have ; and as we could not put a 
servant in a trunk, we sent him outside, to look after the trunk and 
its master. The two last years of the struggle, we learned what war 
meant, and how a soldier lived. One was considered well equipped 
who had shoes and clothing, though they were threadbare, or well 
patched, and not ragged ; a blanket, gun, and a canteen. 

234 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

My brother, Thomas Cureton, who was captain of Company B, 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regiment, was wounded four times 
during the war. Once he was disabled for five months, and he was 
with us most of the time during his sickness, and what a comfort it 
was! My younger brother, Taylor Cureton, took fever at Peters- 
burg, Va., and was at one time very ill. I heard of his sickness one 
Saturday night. The next day, I went twenty-five miles alone in a 
carriage, with a colored man driving, to my uncle's plantation, to get 
him to go with me to my brother. We didn't get to Petersburg until 
Wednesday. Oh ! the dreadful suspense of those three days no one 
can ever realize unless they have had a similar experience ! I knew 
the regiment had left Petersburg, and my poor, sick brother left alone 
among strangers. It seemed that I would never get to him. I 
brought him home and nursed him for weeks. Long ere he was well, 
he would return to his regiment. It was always so with the Con- 
federate soldiers ; they felt that every man was needed at the front, 
and many died from returning to the army before they were well 
enough to bear the hardships and exposures of camp life. 

Thus the days, months and years passed wearily by, the remnant of 
our brave army fighting overwhelming numbers to protect us, and we 
praying, with hearts full of trouble and anxiety, and busy hands, 
trying to make food for the army and keep homes for those dear ones 
who would come to us when the cruel war would end. In February, 
1865, came news that struck terror to every woman's heart, viz. : that 
Sherman, a cowardly monster in human form, was coming through 
our State. The few, very few, men (for the Yankees said we robbed 
the cradle and the grave to fight them) too old to join the army, tried 
to protect us by moving us out of that portion of the State through 
which he was passing. It was sad indeed to see frail women and 
little children camping out in cold, wet weather, risking their lives 
rather than meet the bluecoated fiends of Sherman's army. I was 
persuaded to start with a few friends, leaving my mother at home, as 
we then thought, with very devoted and faithful servants. In a few 
hours, I grew so uneasy about mother that I could not go any farther. 
I got a horse and rode twelve miles alone to get back home. That 
was a ride of terror to me. I was afraid to look before, for fear I 
should see a bluecoat. The joy that came into my mother's face 
when she saw me ride up to the door, I shall never forget. It more 
than repaid me for that dreadful ride. 

The life of the Confederacy was now drawing to a close. We 
still hoped, but it really seemed in vain to do so. I cannot describe 

Trials of a Confederate Officer's Wife. 235 

my feelings when the news of Lee's surrender reached me. Our 
cause was right, just, and noble. For it was not the question of 
slavery for which the brave men of the South poured out their life 
blood on the battlefields of Virginia, Tennessee, the Carolinas, and 
the States of the West. It was the right given us by our forefathers, 
in the Constitution of the United States of America, of separate State 
action. How reluctantly the Yankees acknowledged this ! 

Our fathers and brothers were brave patriots, fighting for their 
rights. This is the truth that every Southern mother should instill 
into the hearts and minds of her children, as did Jochebed teach the 
little Moses to love the Hebrew people and give his life for their 
freedom. God bless the memory of our dead Southern heroes, and 
may it ever be kept fresh in the hearts of their children in all the 
coming years. Mrs. Anna Cureton Stevens. 

The Trials of a Confederate Officer's 
-Wife in I864. 

From the four years of our Confederate history I select a brief 
period of the last, the summer of 1864, as embracing some of my 
most trying experiences. My husband was the colonel of one of the 
four South Carolina regiments of infantry that belonged to the 
Western Army — the Twenty-fourth S. C. V. — regiments that did as 
hard fighting and lost as many gallant men as any four of the regi- 
ments of our State that followed the glorious banner of Lee, and 
were true and faithful soldiers to the last. 

I cannot restrain the promptings of my heart, and must mention 
the names of two heroes who belonged to that band of Carolinians 
in the Western Army, both of whom fell in the forefront of their 
brigades, dying, as said the gallant Gregg, "for South Carolina." 
The names of Brigadier-Generals States Righ'ts Gist and Clement 
H. Stevens, written by the women of Charleston in enduring brass, 
will never be forgotten by their children while the spirit of their 
State animates the hearts of their mothers. 

At the period of which I write Atlanta was invested by the army 
of General Sherman. To be near my husband, I had removed, 
with my little boy, then just three years old, to Oxford, near the 
Atlanta and Augusta Railroad, and forty miles from the besieged 
city. Here I had a comfortable house, and here I could receive 
letters or telegrams from my husband, and we thought ourselves 

236 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

most fortunate in the arrangement. His letters had apprised me 
of the results of General Johnston's campaign, and of the battle 
of the 20th of July under General Hood. I was given fully to 
understand that Atlanta was in danger, and that hard fighting for it 
was before our army. We could hear the great guns occasionally, 
and now that the siege had commenced, my letters did not come, 
and I was in all the anxiety of constant suspense. Those only who 
have felt this anxiety know what it is. With nothing but the great 
fact ever before us, that any moment might record our deepest sor- 
row and loss, what had we to relieve our hearts but a sense of His 
protection, whose providence could cover the heads of our loved 
ones in the day of battle and deliver us from trouble. 

From my husband's letters I was encouraged to hope for the best. 
It was impossible for me to remove from the place where I was 
living, as our little daughter was but six days old. On this day, 
as I lay in bed, the only white adult in the house, a lady friend 
rushed into my chamber and exclaimed, "Mrs. Capers, the town is 
full of Yankees !" 

The famous raiders were indeed upon us ! I had no one with me but 
my nurse, Maria Wall, a faithful free colored woman from Charles- 
ton, two young servants, my little boy and babe. Vivid pictures of 
the cruelty to which so many of my countrywomen and their children 
had been subjected rose to my mind and agitated my heart. I felt 
almost overcome. One thing saved me — a powerful sense of God's 
omnipresence, and an almost immediate remembrance of an incident 
of which I had recently read in the wars of Napoleon. A cottage 
lay right in the path of his conquering army, the inmates of which 
consisted of an aged grandmother and her grandchildren. Dreading 
the approach of Napoleon's army, and trembling with apprehension, 
the aged Christian, at family prayers that night, had prayed that 
God would raise up a wall of defense for them against their dev- 
astating foe ! This was the prayer of faith, but the young people 
ridiculed the prayer and told her that this was not the day of mira- 
cles. During the night, however, the snow fell heavily and drifted 
before the winds in great banks, so that the cottage was literally 
hidden from the highway by a "wall of snow," and the invader 
passed by ! This incident came to my mind with so much force that 
I felt strengthened for the terrible ordeal that was before me. 
Nothing, I felt, could harm me unless it was the will of my Heavenly 
Father, and if it was His will that I should be molested, it was my 
dutv to submit. 

Trials of a Confederate Officer's Wife. 237 

I was nerved to think what I had best do to save the huge flag of 
my husband's regiment, which he had sent me to work the names 
of battles on, and which hung from the staff in one corner of our 
chamber. I got the nurse to tear it from the staff, which she hid 
under the house, and, taking the flag from her hands, I folded it up 
and wrapped it around a little pillow, sewed one case over it, and 
slipped it in another in the usual way, and put the little pillow under 
my baby's head. I then concealed some pictures and little articles 
I valued about my person, but, finding I became feverish and over- 
excited, I determined to let everything else go, for I was looking 
for the soldiers to come in and rob the house every moment. My 
nurse saved our silver. This was her expedient : Taking it from a 
trunk in an adjoining shed-room, she put it into a carpetbag, mean- 
ing to bury it in the garden, but while in the act of leaving the room 
the soldiers entered the house. Hearing them, she threw the bag 
into a barrel containing some bran, and threw a number of old 
stockings and socks over them. 

One of the soldiers walked up to the barrel and took a pair of 
socks. The nurse pleaded with him to spare me the stockings, as 
they could be of no use to him. Her earnestness overcame him and, 
throwing back the old socks, he ran his hand round among them and 
turned away from the barrel, little dreaming what was hidden there. 
As soon as he left the room, Maria took the silver and concealed it 
more effectually. But for her activity and intelligent thoughtful- 
ness, all of it, including the valued and valuable gifts of our mar- 
riage, must have gone into the treasures of the raiders, for the trunk 
from which Maria took it was broken open and robbed of every- 
thing in it. 

The lady who brought me the news of the presence of the soldiers 
had promised to spend the night with me, but her heart failed her, 
and well it might. She resided in the family of a most excellent 
gentleman, a Methodist minister, the Rev. Walter Branham, whose 
house was immediately opposite ours. He promptly proposed that I 
should be brought over to his house for safety, and, accordingly, I 
was put into an easy chair and carried across the street, Maria bring- 
ing the baby, with her flag pillow, the house and its contents being 
surrendered to General Gerrard's soldiers, who made good use of 
their opportunity, breaking every trunk open and emptying them of 
their contents. 

At Mr. Branham's, I was put on a bed in a chamber on the first 
floor, the baby on another, and the excitement being intense, every 

238 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

one rushed out to be absorbed in the scenes of disorder and confusion. 
As I lay on my bed, I heard the uproar of voices in the street and 
the passageway, the tramp of horses on the stone pavement of the 
yard leading to the smokehouse, the rude demands of the soldiers, 
and the pleadings of the ladies to be spared something for the family 
to live on. I feared every moment that the door would be forced 
open, and that these raiding soldiers would enter my room. 

Alone in the chamber with my baby, too weak to take her from 
the bed on which she was to my arms, and my heart beating at fever 
heat, I remembered my little boy Frank, and wondered where he was, 
for in the haste and confusion of my removal he had escaped from my 
chamber before I had time to tell him to remain. He was only three 
years old, and he might be trampled by the soldiers under their 
horses' feet ; or, for their amusement, they might have taken him up 
for a ride. I could not call to any one, and my only refuge was in 
prayer. Too weak to stir, and fearing the worst, I resigned my boy 
to God's holy keeping, and tried to compose my anxious heart. At 
this moment the door opened, my little son came running in, his 
face beaming with intense excitement, and exclaimed, "Ma ! you 
know pa is come !" I cannot describe my feelings at this announce- 
ment. How could he escape capture, or death ! Every man capable 
of bearing arms was being seized, and resistance was death, for he 
must be the only Confederate soldier in the town ! 

Revolving these thoughts in hurried succession in my mind, the 
door again opened, and my husband entered the room, kissed me 
and the baby, hastily explained that he had just arrived; that the 
raiders had cut the railroad and torn up the track for miles; that 
the soldiers in town were only stragglers from Stoneman's com- 
mand ; that our cavalry were after them ; that to prevent capture, he 
and his faithful servant had left the cars, and had walked more than 
forty miles since the night before, and had been "dodging Yankees 
all the morning!" He told me that, learning from General Hardee 
that "Red Jackson" was in the track of Stoneman's raid, and taking 
advantage of the time when our army had fallen back to the trenches 
of Atlanta, he had obtained leave for a few days to remove me, if 
possible, to South Carolina. 

At this moment we were warned that a squad of cavalrymen were 
approaching the front door, and in another moment my husband 
was gone. He had arranged with Ben where he would be, and, 
going into a wood back of the house, he passed the night there, his 
faithful servant taking him a blanket and something to eat. 

Trials of a Confederate Officer's Wife. 239 

Oh ! the horrors of that night ! When the morning came, my 
husband again entered the room and assured me that the cavalry 
were all gone. But how was I to get away from the town? Now 
that my removal seemed impossible, the perplexity of my husband, 
and his anxiety to return to his regiment, only made me feel more 
miserable. The baby grew sick and cried incessantly, and hourly 
alarms of "Yankees coming!" kept me fearfully nervous, for I knew 
not at what moment I might be apprised of my husband's capture 
or death. 

After four such days, Mr. Capers told me that he must either risk 
my removal or return to his command. We resolved on the risk. 
Ben was commissioned to pick up an old broken-down horse, left by 
the raiders, to take what was left to us, with our young servants, in 
a cart to Madison, and to wait for us there. Mr. Capers obtained a 
carriage from a kind friend who resided nine miles from Oxford, 
on our way to Madison, and, putting me into it, with our children 
and Maria, we bade adieu to our friends in Oxford, and I was 
driven safely to Mr. Graves', the kind old gentleman who had loaned 
us the carriage and invited us to stop at his home to rest. My baby 
was only ten days old, and it was evident that I could not go on to 
Madison. The delay was necessary to my life, but it made me 
more unhappy, for the Federal cavalry was reported within a few 
miles of us, being in retreat after their defeat and the capture of 
their general at Macon. The cavalry actually passed at night, and 
my husband again left me to escape capture; and again was I in 
dread of the presence of the soldiers in my chamber. 

After a few days of such anxiety of mind, we learned that the 
cars were now coming within five miles of us, and we determined to 
go on, for Mr. Capers told me he could not remain another day. But 
what were we to do for horses ? The retreating raiders had stripped 
the place of every available horse and mule, and left only poor, jaded 
and broken-down creatures in their places. Selecting a pair of 
these, Mr. Capers hitched them to the carriage, and again we were 
on the road. It was a terribly rough way, full of stumps, and great 
hills to climb. To reach the train for Augusta, it was necessary to 
drive fast, and the jolting at one time was fearful to endure! A 
thunder and rain storm coming up, the horses refused to pull on a 
steep hill, and the carriage commenced to descend the hill. Mr. 
Capers jumped down and held it, and. after working to no purpose 
with the horses, he took us out in the rain, forced the horses up the 
hill, carried me up and put me back on the pallet in the carriage. We 

240 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

knew that all this was running a fearful risk of my life, but I had 
deliberately chosen it rather than be left in the country which my 
husband feared would be overrun by the Federal cavalry. 

We reached the railroad just in time to get on the train about 
starting for Augusta. At Madison, we took up Ben, who told us 
that the retreating raiders had robbed him of his money and of all 
he had to eat ; had "swapped" horses with him ; had again ransacked 
our effects, and that he had shipped the remnants on to Augusta. 

I cannot express my sense of relief, the power of hope, the feeling 
of restfulness, that came over me when, as we left Madison, Mr. 
Capers told me all danger of his capture was now over, and that we 
would be in South Carolina by morning. Arriving at Kalmia, near 
Aiken, very early the next morning, my ever kind uncle and aunt, 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Yeadon, were waiting to greet us. I was 
made as comfortable as the tenderest love and kindness could make 
me, and at three o'clock I bade farewell to my husband, who took 
the train for Augusta and returned to his regiment, leaving Ben to 
rest a few days, and to bring him tidings from me. 

My nerves were shattered. The reaction came, and I was fearfully 
prostrated. But for the loving care of my sister Eliza, and my ever 
kind aunt, I must have died. Every emotion that can stir the heart 
had kept me up under the excitement of hourly dangers, but now 
that I was safe under the roof of affection, my bodily weakness made 
itself felt. 

The mails were interrupted, and I could not hear from Atlanta, 
except that the city was closely besieged, and that our gallant men 
were falling daily in the trenches. This burden of anxiety which I 
was now to bear in my weakness none can ever know but those of 
my Southern sisters with whom I shared it in common. 

The remainder of the summer of 1864 was passed at Kalmia, and 
in the fall I went to my mother's plantation, "Cherry Grove," in the 
upper part of Charleston District, to spend the winter. Atlanta had 
fallen, and my husband was now with General Hood on his unfor- 
tunate Tennessee campaign. Early in December, I received, by tele- 
gram, intelligence of his being severely wounded in the Battle of 
Franklin, where so many of our soldiers gave their lives for the Con- 
federacy — and among them the able and gallant Brigadier-General 

The army of General Sherman was investing Savannah, and it 
became apparent that our low country would be overrun by the 
enemy. Arrangements were being made by my mother to remove 

Trials of a Confederate Officer's Wife. 241 

from the plantation, and before they were perfected, my husband 
arrived from the West, badly wounded and worn down from the 
long journey. He decided to take me to the up-country of our 
State, and as soon as he could travel, we went to Charleston, and 
thence to Columbia. 

A friend had imported successfully through the blockade supplies 
of provisions from Habana, and offered to share with us if we would 
go up to Spartanburg; and this decided our destination. We re- 
mained in Columbia until it was announced that General Sherman's 
army was approaching the city, and were among those who left on a 
crowded train, probably the last to leave from the Charlotte depot 
before the arrival of Sherman. It was intensely cold, the freight 
car in which we were being without doors, and crowded with people. 
My baby was very unwell and fretful, my husband too lame to be 
of much use to me, and my head throbbing with a violent sick head- 
ache ! We could get no milk for the baby, and some kind ladies fed 
her with bread and water. 

Our route was to Blackstock, then by stage across to the Spar- 
tanburg and Union Railroad. The journey was terrible to con- 
template in such weather. Arrived at night at Blackstock, there 
was but one room for the accommodation of every one, black and 
white, with no chairs, and no bed. A lady from Spartanburg had a 
lounge mattress which she kindly put at my disposal. I was too 
sick to hold my head up, and most thankfully rested on this mattress 
in one corner of this crowded room. The next day, we crossed 
Broad River and took the train for Spartanburg, where we arrived 
in safety, and were most kindly welcomed and cared for by our 
friends, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Chapin, until my husband could 
make arrangements for our living. A cottage was taken together 
with a brother soldier, Capt. C. C. Chichester, and we arranged to 
live together, my husband thinking it fortunate that he could leave me 
in good hands when he returned to his command. Nothing worthy 
of note occurred here except our visit from the brigade of the Federal 
General Palmer immediately after the surrender of our armies. 

At Oxford, near Atlanta, I had not seen a single soldier, though 
they were in the same house with me. Now that they were riding 
into Spartanburg, I was intensely excited, for we had not heard of 
the arrangement between Generals Johnston and Sherman, by which 
hostilities had ceased east of the Mississippi River. My knees trem- 
bled with excitement. I walked out into the piazza to witness their 
approach, and to make the best of it. 

242 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The sight of those soldiers changed my feelings and fired me with 
indignation. I realized for the first time how men could fight with 
zest in a war like ours. All my fear left me, and, ridiculous as it 
now seems, I felt an impulse, hard to suppress, to hurl defiance at 
the whole of them. Captain Chichester, with whom my husband 
had rented our cottage, was too much disabled from his wound, re- 
ceived at Battery Wagner, to rejoin his command, and we were 
now under his protection. To secure us from harm, he invited two 
officers to make their quarters in our house. One of these officers, 
an Ohio man, asked my little boy to come and sit by him. This was 
too much for my indignation to stand, and I promptly forbade his 
complying with the request. I had fully purposed not to speak to, 
or be spoken to by, these officers, but my resolution was overcome 
when the Ohio man said to Captain Chichester, "I would like to 
talk this whole matter over with you, but it would seem mean, now 
that we have whipped you." "I would be ashamed," I said, "to 
mention it, since you have taken four years, with the help of every 
nation under the sun, to crush, not to whip, a handful of Confederate 
soldiers." He looked amazed, made no reply, and resumed his talk 
with Captain Chichester. I astonished him again at supper. He 
remarked that he admired "the pluck of Southern women," and said 
if he were not a married man he would like to marry one of them. 
I could not keep quiet, and, in spite of my resolution not to open 
my mouth to these officers, I exclaimed, boiling over with indigna- 
tion, "And what Southern woman do you suppose would marry a 
Yankee?" The other officer, a lieutenant from Massachusetts, 
looked daggers at me ; but the Ohio captain, who was evidently a 
gentleman, behaved very well. 

Palmer's Brigade did not remain long in Spartanburg. The gen- 
eral, as we learned, was in pursuit of President Davis ; and it was 
with great satisfaction I saw our Ohio and Massachusetts protectors 
leave the cottage. 

This is but the record of a few facts. It tells not of the long pri- 
vation of wholesome food which our families endured ; and of the 
pain we suffered in seeing our little ones languish and die for the 
sheer want of proper nourishment and comforts ; of the heartaches 
which telegrams and letters brought in from Virginia and from the 
West; of the sad bereavements which befell us in the loss of those 
we loved most dearly ; of the ruin of our homes, and the wreck of 
our property ; of the grief and disappointment which defeat and 
surrender brought. Here I leave the record. I write with no 

The Last Bazar. 243 

bitterness, and without the feeling of resentment which I once felt 
at the bare mention of the events I have referred to. The sense of 
duty done, and the knowledge of God's providence overruling all 
things have brought peace and quiet to my heart, and many blessings 
have come to my life to make me feel abundant gratitude to Him 
who is the God and Father of us all, and whose sovereign will orders 
all things well. 

Charlotte Palmer Capers, 
Wife of General Ellison Capers, afterwards Bishop of South Caro- 

The Last Bazar. 

A young soldier on furlough passed through the streets of Colum- 
bia on the 26th of January, 1865. When he reached the State 
House, he entered the open portals, and, mounting the stairs, passed 
into the Hall of Representatives. The midday sun streams in 
through the red-draped windows. In front of the entrance is the 
Speaker's desk, canopied with gray moss ; the delicate tendrils over- 
hang it, and give a fairy lightness to the structure, increased by 
garlands of evergreens, flowers and vines which decorate the white 
pillars by which it is upheld. From among these shine out, in 
letters of gold : 

"A tribute to our sick and wounded soldiers." 

From this center extended a half-circle of booths, each marked 
by the shield of one of the Confederate States, the lady in charge 
being, in most instances, from the State designated. Each held 
equal rights, and exercised her own ingenuity in making the booth 
attractive. The variety was wonderful — green garlands every- 
where; the rich embroidery of a white crepe shawl, caught in with 
tiny Confederate flags, which had run the blockade ; groups of gaily 
dressed dolls which, on inspection, proved to be of cloth or paste- 
board in tissue paper ; flowers closely watched in the garden till they 
opened their hearts to serve the soldier. 

But, besides many make-ups, there were many articles of intrinsic 
value. Much had been received from over the waters ; and much 
had been sent from depleted stores of households where there was 
ever willingness to spare a blanket, some yards of calico or flannel, 
a pair of shoes, home-knit socks and stockings, and homespun. 

As the young soldier glanced around that semi-circle, he recog- 
nized, among the cheery matrons and girls, many whom he knew 

244 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

to be bereft of home and fortune. Columbia had been for some 
time the city of refuge for the women and children of other States 
which had been subjected to the horrors of war. Elegance of 
bearing in plainest of attire there was in plenty in this assemblage 
in the State House of South Carolina. There was youth, beauty, 
joyous laughter, fuss, feathers, and fun. 

Our soldier, Frank Elden, sees his Cousin Nellie coming across 
the hall, with her hands full of small wares and strips of colored 
ribbons ; he draws away from her sight as she nears the Virginia 
table, next to which he stands, under the gallery. 

"See!" she says to the starry-eyed matron in charge, "I've suc- 
ceeded; give me the book to make an entry. Here are four pen- 
knives, two four-bladed knives, ten papers of pins — now this box of 
hairpins must be divided up, six in a parcel — and — oh! Mrs. Ches- 
nut, look at these sugarplums ! Only one box. Aren't they lovely I 
Two almonds and two creams, to be tied in the papers stamped with 
the Confederate flag, did you say was enough ? My gracious !" she 
exclaimed, as she lifted the dainty bits from their nest. " 'Tis like 
drawing her eye-teeth to get these blockade goods from Mrs. 

Mrs. Chesnut laughs. "Virginia appreciates the spirit that re- 
signs individual rights when a common interest demands it ; so go 
and ask Mrs. Snowden if she wants some eggs. The supply from 
Camden is more than I need." 

Nellie leaves the booth as Frank puts himself in range of her 
vision. She comes rushing toward him with a glad cry. His first 
inquiry is : "Where is Alice ?" 

"Oh, you can't see her just now. She is in the Louisiana restau- 
rant, giving breakfast to the officers who are on their way to Beaure- 
gard ; they have only till the next train leaves, and Mrs. Slocum 
has put Alice and one of the Goodwyn girls to serve them." 

"How long do you suppose that breakfast will last, Nell?" 

"As long as they will eat. The length of time depends upon their 
capacity. They have been living on rancid bacon and moldy hard- 
tack for weeks, and on nothing at all for the last twenty-four hours. 
That is the kind we love to serve, and see them enjoy the best we 
have. And how they rave over real coffee !" 

She leaves him to deliver Mrs. Chesnut's message. On her return 
Frank says : "Nellie, that last letter of yours played the mischief 
with my peace of mind; till Alice's letter set all straight, I was 
jealous enough to have killed Harry Hey ward." 

The Last Bazar. 245 

They saunter around the hall, pausing at the booths as Nell points 
out distinctive features in each. "See this baby house; isn't it beau- 
tiful ? The handiwork of Dr. Julian Chisolm ; as skilful in making 
doll furniture as he is at the Wayside Hospital, healing wounds." 
Frank tries to keep up with the keen interest of his cousin, but he is 
longing for the moment when Alice's guests shall be seated. "You 
haven't seen the crepe shawl given to the bazar by Mrs. Joe John- 
ston. We had a live calf given to our table; as we can't serve it 
whole, we mean to raffle it. Won't you take a chance?" 

Their course is frequently broken into by the girls who flit about, 
robin redbreasts, with white caps. They give Frank joyous greet- 
ing, and make him take chances on baby dresses, berry spoons, and 
grabs from bags, which bring up horns of popcorn and peanut 
candy; but one grab brings him recompense; he recognizes the to- 
bacco bag as a piece of one of Alice's well-remembered silk gowns. 
Reaching the booth on the right of the Speaker's desk, Nellie pauses 
and says : ''No woman here ever passes this spot without paying 
homage to those Paris bonnets. All admire, but none buy. What 
could we do with that lovely pink velvet, or that blue, with ostrich 
plumes, gowned, as we are, in calico, homespun or woolens of four 
years' wear?" 

While inspecting the bonnets, Frank and Nell overheard a warm 
discussion between the lady of this and the matron of the adjoining 
booth. Designating the spot with a majestic sweep of the hand, the 
first said : "Indeed, this space is not common property. Louisiana 
is taking more than belongs to her." "That is as it ought to be," 
answered the Louisiana lady, standing on her border with arms full 
of bundles, ready to be lodged on the disputed territory, "when she 
has more than Carolina has to show ; said Carolina being dreadfully 
stuck up with Paris bonnets and blockade goods! She does just 
what she pleases to, anyway." 

Louisiana withdraws into her boundaries, but not before the 
South Carolina lady remarks : "Well, South Carolina didn't choose 
any of the best places, and if she does choose to be stuck up in a 
corner, she doesn't intend to be hemmed in, and if you don't infringe 
upon her rights she will never meddle with yours." 

Nell enjoys the spat between her elders, and answers to Frank's 
question: "What part do you take in this affair?" "Everything by 
turns. I pick up news mostly for the 'Night Blooming Cereus,' the 
bazar paper published by Virginia. Tonight I'll have in it that 
funny dispute on States' rights." 

246 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Suddenly turning, Frank meets the stare of a great wax doll. 
"Why, Nell ! Where did this come from ? All the finery of the 
country seems collected on this child." "A wonderful doll ! I would 
be envious of its silk and lace if not so grateful for its safe arrival. 
It braved the whole United States fleet, and the swamp angel besides, 
to be present at the bazar." 

Familiar voices call his attention. In the doorway of a committee 
room stand two sisters — Mrs. Isabella and Mrs. Amie Snowden. 
They take each a hand of the young soldier, and he stands linked 
with the genius that brought forth the bazar. The younger lady — 
"Miss Amie," as everybody called her — from her girlhood had taken 
part in works of charity and patriotism. Among the very last to 
serve the Confederate soldier, her voice was the first raised after 
the war in behalf of a home for Confederate widows and orphans. 

"Now, Bella," said Miss Amie to her sister, "be sure you give 
Frank a cup of Mrs. Huger's cafe au lait — made by her own hands, 
Frank, in the very coffee pot Mr. Huger brought years ago from 
France." Then she reads a number of notes handed to her. "Oh, 
my ! how am I to manage everything? Here, Bella, is a letter about 
those Calhoun bonds that I have sewed in the lining of my frock, 
and another to say there is a trunk from Liverpool in Charleston 
awaiting my orders ; and Dr. Chisolm wants brands ; and there is a 
box of eggs at the Greenville depot and two muttons at the other. 
I'll take Mrs. Singleton's carriage — but, Nell, you girls must eat. 
Eat chicken salad, if you can cut around Ellen Elmore. She is at 
the Texas table, but Carolina feeds from Texas, and she won't let 
you girls have it if the supply is low." 

Nell finds Alice and secures an interview for her cousin. Leaving 
them, she encounters the gaze of a handsome man, whose figure is 
well set off by a new uniform. He accosts her abruptly : "The 
bazar seems little patronized by military men." 

"Of course not; they are at the front, which I judge you have not 
visited lately," looking at his fresh uniform. 

"Perhaps not; I have been walking the streets of your beautiful 
city for some days, and I'll not forget its handsomest residences." 

"It is lovely ; I wish we could entertain visitors as we used to." 

"Yes, I've heard of Columbia's hospitality, and some day I shall 
partake of it. Now my friends here are few, but in a short time I 
shall have lots of them." 

"In Hampton's command, I suppose?" He did not answer, but is 
deeply interested in all that she tells him of the city, its prominent 

Experiences During the Civil War. 247 

people and their homes. Nell has forgotten her suspicions of his 
being a sneak or a quartermaster, when they return in full force with 
his next words : 

"This gayety is ill-timed. It is like Nero fiddling while Rome was 

"We have smiles for our men; our tears are for ourselves." 

"Your self-control is wonderful," he replied, sneeringly, "when 
you know that the Confederacy is at its last gasp, and Sherman is 
almost here." 

Nell flashes her eyes upon him. "Thinking this, your duty is out- 
side of the city, to guard it." 

A cynical expression passed over his countenance. "My duty is 
here, though it subjects me to the sharpness of a woman's tongue." 

Anger leaps into her eyes. "And to being taken for a well- 
whipped man, or perhaps — a spy." 

His face turned white, and he hurried away. She saw him several 
times talking with Eugenia Goodwyn, after which the mysterious 
stranger was not seen again in the State House bazar. 

Several days later, a New York Herald, which came by under- 
ground railway, was received in Columbia. It contained a graphic 
description of the bazar, and among the beauties was mentioned 
Eugenia Goodwyn and her glossy curls. 

The 17th of February, Sherman was in Columbia. 

Grace Elmore. 

Experiences During' the Civil War. 

I went to the depot the day before Columbia was burned — on the 
1 6th of February. My father and mother went with me; but as I 
got on the train, I looked back and saw mother all alone, so I got 
out and went back home. After we got home, it wasn't very long 
before they began shelling the city. The shells were falling so that 
we got a stage and horses and hitched up and started out towards 
the sand hills, got as far as the Hopsons, where we thought that 
would be far enough, so we went in and asked them if we could stay 
in the yard. They said no, but we must come in the house; spent 
part of the next night there and about four went back home. The 
next morning the Yankees came in. The delegation that went to 
meet them was composed of Mr. McKenzie, Mayor Goodwyn, Mr. 
Bates, and Mr. Stork. Mr. Stork is the only one living. These 
went to the bridge to meet the Union forces, carrying a flag of 

248 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

truce, and surrendered the city, and asked for protection, which was 
promised. Our house was Janney's Hotel, on the corner where the 
Jerome Hotel used to be. It was about eleven o'clock when the 
Union forces got into the city. People asked for guards ; my father 
asked for guards to protect his property, and they gave them to him, 
but they did no good. The negroes were demoralized. Colonel 
Stone came and took up his quarters at our house, and as nearly 
every one had left, father invited Colonel Stone in to tea with us. 
We were sitting at the tea table when the fire alarm was rung ; some 
one told Colonel Stone, and he said he would go and see ; he got up 
and went out. We never saw him after that. 

Among the guards, we had one named Allen. This young man 
told father he was of a Quaker family ( father, being a Quaker, was 
opposed to the war). Allen did his best to protect everything he 
could. When the house was nearly falling in, we went to the Hitch- 
cocks. While there, Colonel Cohen, from Augusta, came and sat 
by me the whole evening, and protected me. While sitting on the 
Hitchcock steps, the guard Allen came to me and said if there was 
anything he could bring to me from the house he would do so. I 
told him I wanted a trunk and shawl, told him where he would find 
them, and, to my surprise, he brought them. While the place was 
burning, my parents stayed to see if they could save something. 
Two of our servants were helping, when two Yankees came in the 
room and seized father, one on either side, and tried to wrest his 
watch and chain from him ; but he proved to be more than a match 
for them, and saved it. They saved a great quantity of provisions, 
about fifty barrels of flour, twenty-four of sugar, several tierces of 
rice, and hogsheads of molasses, and numbers of boxes of candles. 
All of this the Yankees took, immediately he had piled it in the 
middle of the street. When father said to them, "It cannot be pos- 
sible that you are going to take all of my provisions, and leave my 
family to starve," one of them said, "Oh! no; we'll give you some." 
They did give him some rice, flour and molasses, and three sides of 
bacon. This was divided among our fellow sufferers until we had 
barely enough to last till father could get supplies from Alston. The 
piano was saved. The Yankees danced over it, but it was not seri- 
ously injured ; it was carried into the Lumsdens' house ; we have the 
piano now. Near midnight, father and mother came for me and said 
that I must come with them ; they had gotten two omnibuses from 
a stableman, who wanted father to save the horses, who told him to 
take the omnibuses and put his trunks between the seats ; so we did 

Experiences During the Civil War. 249 

that, and rolled up the beds, etc., and put them in also; saved four 
featherbeds, four mattresses, etc. As we got in the omnibuses, one 
of the Yankee colonels rode up and asked where we were going. 
Father said, "I don't know where." The colonel said, "If you go 
with me, I'll take care of you ; you can go to camp." Father said he 
would go. 

Colonel Maddox called up an orderly and told him to take us 
to camp, and tell the general that Colonel Maddox sent them. 
We went to the camp, and the soldiers tried to steal everything ; the 
orderly had to drive them away by main force. 

The camp was at Fisher's millpond. The orderly told the officer 
that Colonel Maddox had sent us, and they treated us well. They 
offered us (father and mother) wine, coffee, and crackers; but I 
wouldn't touch a thing ; father and mother gladly accepted the coffee. 
We stayed there until some time in the morning ; we lay down in the 
omnibus with our clothes on. The next day, they told us that the 
regiment had to move. The colonel said he would take us back to 
town; told father to select a place — any place he wanted — and he 
would see that he had it. Father said the only place he had a right 
to go was the Methodist Female College — he had given a good deal 
of money to it. The place was full; we had the use of the dining 
hall ; we stayed there until the following Thursday — about a week. 
The officers were very kind to father all that week ; they came back 
to see that he was not disturbed. They were Orderly Davis Terrell, 
Surgeon J. W. Hostetter, and Colonel Maddox. 

At the end of the week, Caroline Randall, a colored woman (Joe 
Randall, her husband, was given $5,000 for informing about the in- 
surrection in Charleston), came to us. She owned two or three 
houses between the Lumsdens' and the Roses' Hotel. The Buists 
and the Lambs lived in the colored woman's house; they had left 
before Columbia was burned ; they left their furniture, and Caroline 
came to father and begged him to move in the house where the 
Buists had lived; said she didn't want any money; all she wanted 
was protection. We went there, and carried our belongings ; were 
there about two months, until the ferry was built ; and then we went 
to Mr. Leaphart's father's and stayed there. Before we left the 
college, the omnibuses were taken away from us. Some one brought 
an order for the horses, and emptied everything we had out; they 
carried some people North in the omnibuses. The man that went 
North lost nothing ; his house was not burned ; but they had relatives 
there, and went to them. 

250 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

I carried money in my shoes — two twenty dollar gold pieces, one 
in each shoe. The day Columbia was burned, I said I was going to 
take a bath and put on clean clothes, so I would be ready for what- 
ever happened. Father brought me the money, and I took off my 
shoes and put the money in them. Had my clothes on for a whole 
week. The Yankees were just as gentlemanly as rough men could 
well be. At the Hitchcocks, the rabble tried to come up on the steps, 
but Colonel Cohen told them he would knock their brains out if they 
didn't stay away. My father's bookkeeper — Mr. Schuler — came 
back from the war ; he lost his leg, and was unfit for service ; he also 
sat by me, with Colonel Cohen, and helped protect me. I didn't see 
any bad behavior. 

I remember when Hampton left Columbia. It was in the morning 
before the Yankees came in. Also remember when the cotton was 
burned ; saw the people running with the engines ; the Yankees cut 
the hose ; they prowled around and looked into everything. Our 
best things had been sent to Charlotte ; but few things were saved 
out of the house — an armchair, looking-glass, and piano. There were 
about one hundred and twenty sleeping rooms in the hotel. Father 
had corn, flour, etc., stored at Alston, where the train had been 
wrecked. He got a wagon and brought down several loads. 

Mrs. Mary Janney Leaphart. 

Two Equipages. 

In the year of unblessed memory to Carolinians, there stood on 
the outskirts of Columbia a residence of broad white front, with a 
colonnade springing up from arches, well set back from the public 
road, in grounds ornamented with forest trees, magnolias and flower 
beds. On the left of the house grew a red oak, under the shade of 
which the family children of several generations had located their 
doll village, where they passed the sunny hours of the days, as 
was the general Southern custom, watched and checked by the 
"maumers," who, placidly stitching their own work, sat by, on guard, 
so that nothing dangerous or unseemly might come into the children's 
play of the game of life and village visiting tattle. 

Under this same oak took place an interview which was the his- 
torical finale of views taken by the owner of a toy which had for 
many years been a treasure to Mrs. Elmore, the lady of the mansion, 
and an appanage well known in Columbia. Colonel Elmore, in a late 
year of his life, had superintended the building of a light vehicle, to 

Two Equipages. 251 

suit a pair of tiny marsh tackeys ; and this personal equipage of his 
widow was ever regarded with a species of reverence by the daugh- 
ters of the household ; the great family compliment was conferred 
when one of them was invited to a seat in this phaeton with their 
mother. Many tackeys had dragged that carriage, and the last pair 
of the series had made their exit some weeks before the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1865, being retired, for safe keeping, to the plantation in York 


There was a chariot of very different dimensions, style and majesty 
in the city. Columbians called it "the Boozer glass case." 

The summer evening dissipation of Columbians before the war 
was the drive — and soda water. Old ladies went out in demure 
caps, and the girls appeared bareheaded. The coachmen knew, with- 
out orders, that they were to draw up in front of the druggists' 
stores, from which the waiters dashed, tray in hand, with the 
foaming beverage. I remember an old lady of unmitigated right- 
mindedness who always called for pepper, sassafras and ginger. She 
said she liked to put together profit and pleasure ! 

Later in the season, the heads of the girls were covered with gay 
hats. Light wraps added tints to the picture, which made the heart 
of the wayfarer give thanks that Youth was a part of Life. 

The Boozer coach, with the glass windows partly folded back on 
hinges, "exploited" a rare vision. A mother and daughter — Mrs. 
Feaster and Marie Boozer — the one rich, dark in coloring and cos- 
tume, the other (occupying the whole front seat) a girl of golden 
hair, rose shades, blue orbs, healthy, poised, delicious, pressing into 
the soft cushions, wrapped in ciel blue and swansdown, leghorn hat, 
from which the white plumes fell, curling under upon the white and 
pink throat. It was an angel's seeming — and she, beautiful as 
Venus, the goddess of the chariot. 


These scenes are changed. Pale tints of tenderness and peace give 
place to fierce, lapping, red flames of burning cotton bales, charring 
homes, and toppling chimneys. 

Sherman was entering the town. Mrs. Elmore walked down the 
stone steps of her dwelling, and on through a crowd of terrified 
people for a mile, to seek General Sherman. A number of old men, 
women and children had come to her home, fearing the bombard- 
ment, and Mrs. Elmore hastened to secure protection from the in- 
coming: armv. 

252 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

General Sherman rode several blocks after turning into the Main 
street with his forces. Mrs. Elmore took her stand at a corner, 
watching her chance. She reached over the shoulders of the crowd, 
and with her umbrella touched the foot of the "great enemy." He 
looked towards her and, answering her request for a guard, said, 
"I will see you at headquarters." In telling of this, an irresistible 
flash of fun sprang into the haughty face of the lady as she said, 
"And it was a cotton umbrella I poked him with." We all know the 
ignominy a cotton umbrella bore in days of yore. 

General Sherman was scarcely at the house of Blanton Duncan 
before Mrs. Elmore also was there. He recalled politely enough 
having met a gentleman of her name in Washington, and promised to 
send a guard. Mrs. Elmore replied, "I will wait for them." The 
general smiled, and ordered a lieutenant to see to the detail ; and Mrs. 
Elmore marched out of town at the head of the men, a long crepe 
veil hanging to her feet behind her deep poke bonnet. Good and 
civil the men proved. 

The second day of the occupation, the city was given over to 
pillage. From an upper window, Grace Elmore saw the pony car- 
riage being dragged off by men, through the lane from the stables 
to the road which ran along in front of the grounds towards Cam- 
den — the memorable road by which our army preceded the Yankees — 
just to the spot where Mrs. Elmore gave to Gen. M. C. Butler a 
sword of General Leonidas Polk, which Mrs. Polk left in the house 
when on her way after the death of her husband. 

The carriage was going, and within it was moving flour, bacon — 
everything the men could stow away inside — and on the top, with 
tied legs, jerking heads, and sad eyes — sad as those beholding them 
from the upstairs window — were the turkeys, geese, and chickens — 
every one. 

The trees intercepted the view ; but other conveyance must have 
been at the road, for the contents never reappeared in the yard, 
though the carriage was left at the bridge over the drain, and was 
rehauled by Horace and Billy, the house boys, to the red oak tree, 
where had flourished the baby town of ante-bellum times. 

Yet a day ! — and Mrs. Elmore saw a second grip upon her treasure. 
She went to the dining-room to speak to a guard. He was lying 
upon the sofa where her sacred head was wont to rest. He asked if 
she had had her coffee. "No," replied the lady; "it is months since 
we have used coffee." "Then you shall have some now," said the 
kindly young fellow, springing to the table. Mrs. Elmore says, "He 

Two Equipages. 253 

didn't even zvash the cup he had been drinking from, either, and the 
coffee was hot ; but I wanted him to save my carriage, and I drank to 
the dregs." He did his best, but the detail had the order of (I think, 
General Howard) for a "light carriage." He seemed particular! 
One must understand that choice of vehicles was limited just then : 
most of any sort were on the road — gone off on private travels, heavy 
with old men, feeble women, babies, flour, hominy, candles, sauce- 
pans, as many and as much of such things as make up a home, 
chucked and filled in with despair and anxiety and suffering — and 
strange consternation. 

"That is my carriage," said Mrs. Elmore, on reaching the tree. 
"What are you doing with it?" "We want it for a good Union 
lady," said No. 1. "Then you do not want it for any one you will 
find here," said Mrs. Elmore. "Oh ! yes ; we've got two loyal ladies, 
and we've got to have a carriage for them to go along with us," 
spoke No. 2. "But that is my carriage," persisted Mrs. Elmore, "and 
your loyal ladies have no business with it. If you have any Union 
ladies, you must have brought them with you." "No, we didn't; 
they've been here all the time," replied the soldier. So they had been, 
and hiding a spy in their home, under the shadow of the State House. 

Meanwhile the vehicle was being gotten ready for departure. 
Then the owner asked a question. She says she fixed what she meant 
to be an eloquent eye upon the marauder and asked, "Young man, 
have you a mother?" He looked at her saucily, but respectfully, and 
replied, "Yes, ma'am — a nice, sweet looking old lady, just like you." 
She laughed, and recognized how small a thing is self in face of 
universal calamity. "The carriage must go," said the guard — the 
fortune of war. It went, but whether Mrs. Feaster and Marie 
Boozer went in it I cannot tell. But they also went, and must have 
enchanted those amongst whom they settled. We heard they got 
$10,000 for burnt cotton which they never owned. Miss Boozer 
made a rich marriage, much world-wide reputation — of a sort — a 
second real marriage with Count Portales. And the glass coach 
was sent by the Mayor — Dr. Goodwyn — in exchange for that little 
carriage. For years it remained in the carriage house, big as a boat 
cabin, and useless as any big thing which cannot fit to a small need. 

A daughter of the house married and moved to Fort Motte. One 
winter, a faithful adherent of her husband's arrived at the old man- 
sion with two animals. "I come for de Boozer," he announced. 
Hitching up his mismatched, scrawny horses, with patched reins, 

254 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

himself arrayed in old boots and dilapidated military vesture, he 
drove to the door. We heard him murmur from the high seat of 
dignity, "Now, I tell you, if Miss Rosa 'spects me to git up here, wid 
all de winds whistlin' 'round, she got to find me a overcoat some- 
whar." The humor was, where was the possible "whar"? 

Later the car of Venus fell from its high estate, and was used for 
hauling between the station and home. In after years, the material 
still reappeared in sundry carts, wagons, etc., till all its usefulness 
followed its glories into nothingness. Mrs. Thomas Taylor. 

Personal Experiences with Sherman's 
Army at Liberty Hill. 

My Dear Children : What I write today seems more a dream 
than a reality of thirty-five years ago. In fact, it seemed then a 
dream that we were passing through. As you know, I was married 
November 24, 1864; and your father, being retired on account 
of the unhealed wound in his arm, that he received while carrying 
the flag at the Battle of Sharpsburg, September 17, 1862, he was 
placed on duty in the quartermaster's department in Charleston, 
and we lived at your grandfather's plantation, old ''Gallant Hill," 
twenty miles from Charleston. He would go in town every morning 
at five o'clock, returning at five in the afternoon. The whole country 
was in a most unsettled condition, and we had become reconciled 
to the war continuing this way for ten years, or longer. One day 
we had reports of a victory ; the next day of disaster to our scantily 
clothed and poorly fed soldiers. Prisoners were often carried by the 
plantation gates, and your dear grandmother was often terrified at 
the thought of some of them escaping and entering the house. 

When your father left us at 5 a. m., we would busy ourselves 
knitting and sewing for the soldiers, helping to make Confederate 
coffee of potatoes, cut in little squares, dried, parched, and ground; 
and Confederate candles of myrtle wax, until he returned at 5 p. m. 
for dinner. The evenings were spent by glowing pine-knot fires, in 
exchanging the hopes and disappointments of the day. One after- 
noon he came in with a look of anxious distress on his face, and told 
me to pack my trunks, ready to leave by the next train. Sherman was 
marching through Georgia ; South Carolina would soon be invaded ; 
Charleston was to be evacuated, and everything to be destroyed; 
the enemy had threatened to lay the city in ashes and sow it in salt. 
We must leave for a place of safety; must try and get up to your 

Experiences With Sherman at Liberty Hill. 255 

Grandfather Bouknight's plantation, on Saluda River, fifty miles 
above Columbia. We took the train at Mt. Holly, a small station 
on the N. E. R. R. My six trunks and four servants were hurried 
on in great confusion, for all the plantations were unsafe, and every 
one trying to get away. At Strawberry, the conductor put all our 
servants off, to give place to soldiers. I told Frances, the oldest 
woman, to find her way back to the plantation, and take my room 
and contents into her possession, if I never saw her again, as the 
Yankees were destroying everything in their march. At Florence, 
the confusion and crowd was terrible; conflicting rumors flying 
everywhere ; trains running all night ; soldiers hurried from place 
to place. When we reached Kingville, there was a long wait, and 
we did not realize the condition or the cause until we saw a great 
red glare in the sky towards Columbia. Sherman had reached Co- 
lumbia, and the city was burning. The railroad was all torn up 
between Kingville and Columbia, and we must find a way to get 
around and above Columbia before Sherman and his army left. 
Miss Fanny DeSaussure and father, and the two Misses Drayton, 
were with me in the depot at Kingville. We all looked in dismay 
on the fire of burning Columbia, and felt a horror at the thought of 
Sherman and his cruel army being there. The railroad being torn 
up, we could go no farther in that direction, but must find a way to 
get above Columbia and strike the C. C. & A. R. R. at Blackstock, 
and cross the country to reach the home of your Grandfather Bouk- 
night's, which I had left not three months before as a bride. We took 
the train for Camden, and saw one of the most gorgeous sunsets on 
the way; once there, we found a small hotel that could barely feed 
the hungry people on the piazzas. We all sat around a table in the 
little parlor, with dimly lighted tallow candles on it, and asked each 
other what was best to do. When we went to our room, fatigue and 
anxiety struggled, until finally we fell asleep under difficulties, and 
awoke early in the morning to make hurried preparations for the 
day's journey, not knowing where it would end. A two-horse wagon 
was secured (all other vehicles, carriages, buggies, and everything on 
wheels, had been driven out of town by people seeking places of 
safety), for the baggage — my six trunks and a few others belonging 
to the men of the party, who were wounded soldiers on furlough, and 
trying to reach their families in the up-country. 

Only one woman — myself — was the safeguard, for the men said 
wherever your father went they would go, and be safe; and their 
chance to go through Sherman's army, or surround it, would be 

256 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

sure if they followed Mr. Poppenheim and his wife. Now, after 
thirty-five years, I can recall the names of five of the men, viz. : Dr. 
R. A. Kinloch, Dr. Aimar, Captain Atkinson, Mr. Wm. Steinmyer, 
and a Mr. King; one man servant — Adam — and one woman servant 
— Rachel — who stood faithfully by me under the most trying cir- 
cumstances, in the midst of Sherman's army. 

The trunks were piled in the wagon, and I was seated one one of 
the trunks, and Rachel, the maid, near me. How queer I felt, riding 
through the streets of Camden, seated on a trunk in a wagon ! We 
traveled all day, cheering each other as best we could, the men 
walking and taking turns to rest themselves in the wagon. At night, 
we came to a deserted plantation house, with comforts and con- 
veniences enough to give us a good night's rest. The family had 
hastily taken their flight, on hearing Sherman was burning Co- 
lumbia. Here we made ourselves comfortable for the night. One 
of the party, a blockade runner, presented me with a five-pound 
package of green tea, which made a deep and lasting impression, as 
I had not tasted a cup of "bought tea" for a year. It was stored 
carefully away in one of my trunks, amongst my valuables, and a 
few days later was stolen by the Yankee who plundered my trunk 
and carried the tea off as valuable "booty." 

The baby's empty carriage in that deserted home told its pathetic 

As we approached the old plantation home, a grand and glorious 
sunset spread out before us, giving pleasure and a topic of conver- 
sation to the thoughts of many ; to me it seemed a harbinger of joy 
and protection, a promise of safety; and I slept sweetly, dreaming 
the everlasting arms were still around us. The morning came, 
bright, balmy and beautiful. I was happy, full of hope, and con- 
fident all would be well. I mounted my seat in the wagon as if 
I were going on a drive with a gay party in a coach, with four-in- 
hand. I had my world, my joy, my protector, by my side ; and there 
was no fear of danger, no dread of fatigue. 

The above was written from memory, after thirty-five years ; and 
today I find an old diary, from which I copy : 

"February 16, 1865. — Leave Mt. Holly an exile; everything left; 
nine o'clock at Florence ; great excitement ; everything in confusion. 
The question, must we go to Wilmington, then to Goldsboro, 
Charlotte and Winnsboro and then to Newberry, or go to King- 
ville and risk getting through Columbia, is being eagerly discussed 
when the glorious news reaches Florence that we have fought and 

Experiences With Sherman at Liberty Hill. 


defeated Sherman at Columbia and at Kingville; so we go the King- 
ville route. Leave Florence at half-past eleven o'clock at night, 
travel all night, arrive at Kingville at 5 a. m. 

"Friday, February 17th. — The prospect not cheering to go to Co- 
lumbia. General Clayton is camped here ; hundreds of soldiers and 
negroes light the place with their campfires; couriers from Colum- 
bia bring very discouraging news ; Sherman shelling the city, and 
every one leaving in confusion ; much uncertainty which is safest, 
Wilmington or Camden; at Kingville, old Mr. DeSaussure, his 
daughter — Miss Fanny — the Misses Drayton, and their father, were 
in the party. At 2.30 p. m., we leave Kingville for Camden ; a blind 
musician on board adds to the novelty and excitement as we ride 
through a beautiful country ; and many on the cars are attracted to 
a most magnificent view of sunset. Arrive at Camden at 6.30 p. m. ; 
the depot half-mile from the town ; the party go in search of a con- 
veyance, and I feel very lonely in this quiet depot, with a package 
of over one hundred thousand dollars on my lap. At Florence, 
Christie introduced me to' Capt. I. A. Atkinson, who immediately 
joined us; and tonight Air. Charles Steinmyer also joins us, and 
all try to get one conveyance to carry us to Blackstock, on the 
Charlotte and Columbia Railroad; Christie in search of a convey- 
ance ; Messrs. Atkinson and Steinmyer attending to baggage ; I 
am alone, with only Rachel, in the depot. Mr. Atkinson goes 
with me to the stage and gets our baggage, on the way to the 
hotel. The Draytons also stop at Robertson's Hotel with us, 
and we have a quiet, pleasant time before retiring. Have a miser- 
able, small, poorly ventilated room to stay in, so we are up early. 
Am trying to get off. At 10.15 a. m., we leave Camden, I having 
a most comfortable seat that Mr. Atkinson took great pains to 
prepare for me ; take my first view of a beautiful country from 
a wagon. Camden is a lovely little town, with considerable wealth. 
The long, long road to Liberty Hill has few houses to relieve 
the monotony ; but most beautiful scenery on both sides of the 
W'ateree River. We wind along the bends of the river and in 
view of the water for many miles ; at last we near Liberty Hill 
and, through the kindness of a Mr. Cureton, put up at his unoccu- 
pied house, well furnished and comfortable. There we find a train 
of refugees from Columbia, including Governor Adams' daughter : 
and very unexpectedly I meet my old schoolmate and friend, Harriet 
Sophia Clarkson. Spend a pleasant night. Stopped there at 6 
p. m. and leave next morning a t 5.45 o'clock: in a little while we 

258 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

reach Liberty Hill, and must stop awhile, admiring the grandest 
and most extensive view my eyes ever feasted on; told Christie I 
could spend one month on that spot and my eyes would never tire 
of the scene, little dreaming then how many days of fearful anxiety 
I would spend at this lovely place. 

"Sunday morning, ride through the place and lose our way for 
two miles ; but it surely gives us a splendid view of the Hill ; return 
and cross at Peay's ferry; a miserable road, a tiresome jolting in 
the wagon, and excitement grows greater every mile. Stop a few 
minutes at Mr. James Caldwell's. Dr. Kinloch kindly invites us in ; 
his wife sends us out a hot lunch, and we conclude to go on as far 
as possible, though every one is wild with excitement and hourly 
looking for the Yankees. Arrive at General Clayton's headquarters 
at dark ; have a beautiful view of campfires ; all stop and doubt the 
safety of going on to Blackstock; Christie goes in to see General 
Clayton, who advises him not to go on, as the Yankees are very near, 
and Kilpatrick's raiders all through the woods. All hopes are dis- 
appointed ; with heavy hearts and tired limbs, we turn our course 
back to Liberty Hill as the only place of safety, there to remain until 
the Yankees pass through and we have a safe road. In the wagon 
until 10 p. m. Stop at a large brick house — Dr. Hall's — and there 
we find two lunatics from the lunatic asylum in Columbia, placed 
there to preserve the house from destruction by the Yankees. It 
was a night of horrors ; the crazy woman walked into my room, 
with a candle in her hand, after I was in bed, drew the curtains aside, 
and peered into my face to see if I was asleep, I suppose, which I 
did pretend to be. We left the place bright and early, and felt that 
our escape from danger had been very narrow. A long, tiresome 
day's ride ; recross Peay's ferry ; much excitement all the way ; met 
many of Butler's men, and do not feel safe until we cross the ferry ; 
joy that we have crossed the river. Arrive at Liberty Hill at 4 
p. m., put up at Mr. John Brown's ; very kind people ; large house, 
and every appearance of abundant means ; large grounds, and hun- 
dreds of poultry around. 

"Tuesday, February 21st. — The excitement has even reached here, 
and the place that we thought, of all others, safest, seems to fear the 
Yankees ; so we calmly resign ourselves to our fate of meeting them. 

"February 22d. — Great anxiety; many of the citizens send off 
trunks and bury all their valuables. Mrs. Brown feeds a great many 
of our soldiers. Several scouts come in, and Christie wants to go 
to Columbia with one 'Orchard,' who lives in Columbia. At 4 p. m., 

Experiences With Sherman at Liberty Hill. 259 

several horsemen came dashing in ; we are eager for the news ; I 
beg Christie to go and hear; he had not left me five minutes before I 
saw the bluecoats and realized I had sent him to meet the Yankees ; 
I ran to the front door and down the steps ; saw them halt him, then 
pass and seize a negro boy, take his horse and made him lead them 
to the lot. In a few moments, a band of ruffians, a wild, savage 
looking set, dashed in the house, into the dining-room, and swept all 
the silver from the table, that was set for dinner ; ran upstairs, broke 
open doors, locks and drawers, and the utmost confusion prevailed ; 
the hammering sounded like one dozen carpenters were at work, 
and soon all the floors were covered with scattered papers, in their 
search for money and valuables. I go to the commanding officer and 
ask for assistance; he promises protection. Christie and myself go 
upstairs ; my trunks broken open, and everything scattered in con- 
fusion over the floor. Oh ! what a scene, impossible to describe ! 
Money, jewelry and clothing of every description taken by these 
demons ! Lieut. B. Ulrich gives us a guard, and stays himself in 
the house, to protect us ; but little sleep for any of us this night. 

"February 23d. — Thousands of Yankees coming in ; one command 
follows another in quick succession; all robbing and plundering; 
poor Mrs. Brown is robbed of provisions, silver, and almost every- 
thing; they go down in the cellar and pour kerosene oil, molasses 
and feathers all together, then stir them up with their bayonets. 
Mrs. Brown and myself go out to meet General Logan. What an 
awful feeling to come so close to hundreds of Yankees who are 
burning and destroying everything on the face of the land ! Several 
staff officers tell us General Logan has just passed ; but if we wait 
long enough, another corps will pass, and we can see General Wood. 
While waiting for the Yankees to pass, and looking on their fine 
horses, and hundreds of stolen cattle, the refugees from Columbia 
who followed Sherman's army began to pass ; among them, I recog- 
nized Mary Boozer and her mother in a carriage, she in a lively con- 
versation with a gay looking officer riding by the carriage; the 
scene is so sickening, I beg Mrs. Brown to let's return ; waiting for 
the general won't pay! 

"Friday, February 24th. — Today, Yankees throng the house, search 
and rob what others left. They ask Christie repeatedly how he keeps 
out of the army. Mrs. Brown and myself again go out and wait to 
see the general, but again he has just passed ; the staff officers whom 
we meet look and speak as heartless as stones. Another sleepless 
night of suspense. 

260 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"Saturday, February 25th. — Still they go through — hundreds and 
thousands — all gayety, with bands of music, and burning houses light 
their march; last night we could count twelve burning residences, 
and imagine the horror of those who dwelt in them. Mr. Brown's 
large mill burnt. 

"Sunday, February 26th. — Anything but a quiet Sabbath; Yankees 
still plundering, and the negroes following them. Mr. Brown's 
large store burnt. A sleepless night of suspense, expecting every 
hour to have the torch set to the house we were in. 

"Monday, February 27th. — The wicked Yankees ! How they tor- 
ment the people ! The brutal wretches ! How they insult helpless 
women ! they take every morsel of food that is being cooked in the 
kitchen ; every fowl and every living thing they have killed and 
destroyed but one lone goose hidden in the cellar by a faithful 
servant. We had no meat for three days-, when this servant at- 
tempted to save and cook the goose for us by cooking it in the 
dining-room ; the savory smell of roast goose was perceived by 
Mrs. Brown and myself, who go to the dining-room and find a 
horde of ruffians devouring the last remnants of the goose, and 
we only say, 'The last morsel of meat gone !' A foraging party, 
led by a lieutenant, and a squad, led by a captain, plunder every 
corner of the house that has not been already searched. Christie 
goes up in the garret to keep them from setting fire; they want 
to arrest and carry him off to camp ; they say he is a captain in 
the Rebel army by his gray vest, with brass buttons ; and they find 
an old sword up in the garret, which they swear is his. I fear he is 
up with them too long ; I fear foul play, and tell Mrs. Brown I must 
go up and see what they are doing, although my knees tremble at 
every step, and I fear they will hear the bumps made by the sound 
of the money sewed up in the lining of my dress ; I had over one 
hundred thousand dollars sewed up in this lining, to save it from 
the Yankees ; they had taken four thousand dollars out of one of 
my trunks, and thought that was all. When I reached the top of 
the stairs, the sharp little captain had him, and Christie said, 'Mary, 
this man thinks I am a captain in the Rebel army, and wants to take 
me prisoner to camp.' I had to swear that he was not, and that we 
had been married a very short time, and now were on our way to 
my father's plantation. Then I gave him the Masonic sign of dis- 
tress (which my brother gave me before going to war) ; he looked 
down, shut his mouth tight, then said, 'Go on.' And we lost no 
time in going. When this party came downstairs they captured 

Burning of Columbia. 261 

Mr. Atkinson and Mr. Steinmyer and took them off to camp. How 
we all pitied their fate ! 

"Tuesday, February 28th. — Still harassed by the vile Yankees, 
and spend sleepless nights, seeing the skies lit by burning fires ; at 
midnight, the academy is in flames, and we expect every moment to 
see the flames burst out from the house we are in ; once a vile Yankee 
was caught with the torch applied; the flames were put out, and I 
appealed to an officer to give us a guard for the night. 

'Wednesday, March 1st. — Dr. Robert Kinloch and Lieutenant 
Swinton Bissell come in quite early and tell us of their escape from 
the Yankees, after having marched several days through mud knee 
deep. The Yankees were pushing rapidly for Camden, to plunder 
and rob the peaceful, quiet little town. We are starving here ; have 
nothing left to eat but sorghum molasses and black shorts bread. 
Sherman's army has left no living thing on their route ; nothing but 
blackened chimneys and smoking ruins mark his path from Colum- 
bia here ; pillage, robbery, fire and ruin marked their footsteps here ; 
a sigh of relief and a prayer of thankfulness that our lives were 
spared was breathed as we saw the last Yankee soldier disappear 
from the devastated little village." Mrs. C. P. Poppenheim. 

Charleston, S. C. 

Burning' of Columbia. 

Many friends insist upon my giving a narrative of that sad event, 
the burning of the capital of South Carolina by General Sherman. 
In introducing my subject, I must state that we occupied at that 
eventful crisis the beautiful buildings known as Barhamville, for 
years an institute of learning, where the daughters of the South 
received a polished and thorough education. The venerable head, 
Dr. Marks, and his lady, feeling the need of repose, placed the build • 
ings in our hands, to which we moved from Columbia, with our 
boarding pupils. 

We had around us the daughters of many families of the Southern 
States, the loveliest flowers that could adorn a nation, as well as the 
firesides of cultivated homes. 

The scouts of General Hampton giving information that General 
Sherman undoubtedly aimed at Columbia, the question became very 
serious how to protect the dear young beings placed under our 
charge, and we resolved to send them, with a few exceptions, to 
North Carolina. Willing and trustworthy protectors we found at 

262 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

once in Columbia, for many persons of standing, as well as military 
men, felt the necessity of sudden flight, and to some of them we 
confided these precious young beings. Packing of trunks, the cer- 
tainty of approaching dangers, the fear lest they might fail in reach- 
ing their homes in safety, all these occupations and varied powerful 
emotions kept our little community during the entire day in a state 
of agitation; until the long train of cars, stopping at Barhamville 
depot (where already a mountain of trunks was ready), arrived to 
receive our pupils on board. 

We had still some ladies with us, whose parents were residing in 
the upper part of South Carolina. They were lovely children, doubly 
dear to us by long friendship with their parents. To send them 
safely to their homes was now my first duty, and I rode at an early 
hour to Columbia, to find a conveyance. For some time my en- 
deavors were fruitless, until I saw the son of Major Lipscomb, a 
cousin of the young ladies. I beckoned that I wished to see him, 
and on approaching, asked him to find, at any cost or pains, a safe 
conveyance for his cousins. He informed me that Governor Bon- 
ham's carriage must just be passing the Congaree bridge on its way 
to Newberry. Not a moment was to be lost ; so without ceremony 
I requested a friend just advancing on horseback to permit Frank 
to use his horse for a short time ; then I told the young man to ride 
with the utmost speed to reach the carriage, and with it return di- 
rectly to Barhamville, and take his cousins on the safest way to their 

The young soldier acted upon my suggestion with as much prompt- 
ness as discretion ; the carriage secured, he returned directly to Bar- 

The young ladies had only a few moments to gather the neces- 
sary clothing; the faithful housekeeper provided our youthful 
refugees with some provisions, and upon my return to my home I 
met the travelers, already on their way to Newberry. This meeting 
and immediate parting was very touching; they were so eager to 
meet their friends, yet fearful to fall into the advancing enemy's 

Columbia, which I had just left, presented a picture of commotion 
no pen could depict. Military men hastening to join their posts; 
goods of all sorts sent to the cars in such quantities that no trans- 
portation could be had for them. Car after car left with the officials 
of the treasury department, and hundreds of individuals who feared 
to be captured by the enemy. 

Burning of Columbia. 263 

The great anxiety removed to have our pupils in safety (as far as 
we could see), and as such extravagant stories were reported of the 
excesses of the Federal troops, I thought now of saving provisions 
and other valuables. Where should we hide them? We had no 
gentleman near us, and the negroes could not be trusted, so we relied 
on our own strength and carried our provisions into the attic, under 
the roof, tearing off boards, while we placed others on to hide them, 
to our own satisfaction. We considered these safe, unless fire should 
sweep everything away. A box with silver, which would have been 
safer in the building, we, after serious reflection, entrusted to the 
negro cook — for, thought we, would these great champions of lib- 
erty, these advocates of general emancipation, touch the negro's 
trunks, or chests ? Oh ! no ; that would have been too flagrant a con- 
tradiction of their boasted philanthropy ! So the box was hidden 
among the garments of our colored domestic, who really proved 
herself honest enough in that instance. 

The advance of Sherman, and the imperfect breastworks along 
the Congaree River, drove a large number of people from that lo- 
cality, seeking shelter in other parts. They came like a heavy tide 
upon us. We gave them the large drawing room and several other 
adjoining places for their night's rest. The feeling of terror and 
distress seemed to wear off as they found themselves sheltered in 
these comfortable quarters, and as the evening advanced we were 
amused by the noise and merriment of these refugees. The near 
approach of shells and the incessant cannonading drove them, how- 
ever, at the dawn of day, to more distant places, while we remained. 

I must recur now to the earlier part of Thursday, when Captain 
Strawinski, one of the exiles of the Polish revolution of 1830, 
wished to speak to me; he was our near neighbor, and for several 
years a teacher in our institutions at Barhamville and Columbia. He 
informed me that Captain A — , the son of an honored Governor of 
South Carolina, had charged him with the protection of Airs. 
A — , his lady, and his widowed sister. This surprised me consider- 
ably, as Captain Strawinski had a large family of his own to care for. 
But I presently learned that this was at the command of a superior 
Free Mason to a brother Mason. He requested that these ladies 
should find a refuge with us, and I assented, of course, most cheer- 
fully — trusting, nay, even certain, that we should not be much mo- 
lested. This was my opinion as a European lady, who relied upon 
the honor of the military profession in respecting women and private 

264 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

In asking for our friend's own family, he confessed that he felt 
great anxiety regarding his daughter ; the boys, quite a number, 
would take care of their mother. We begged he would send Miss 
Bell to us, also; and with her our number became larger, and we 
found her a true Polish woman in courage and determination. 

Sherman had now taken his position opposite Columbia, and the 
shelling and cannonading were incessant. 

Like a man who catches at any appearance of help, we followed 
the advice of Mr. Strawinski, to have a Free Mason's flag (very 
hastily manufactured) on the front door and rear passages; and 
they received soon after the curses of several troops of soldiers, 
saying but for those "rags" the house would be burnt to ashes at 
any moment. 

We who for the first time witnessed a defeated army, and the 
distress of the men fleeing from the enemy, felt great sympathy for 
them. A number of our most respected citizens gave us, in passing, 
affectionate messages for their friends, and to us a kind farewell, 
whilst we already heard the drum, the din of the entering enemy; 
and the work of the incendiary had already begun. 

How prearranged the burning of Columbia must have been was 
proved by the scattering of Sherman's soldiers in every direction. 
These soldiers were led by negroes, who not only guided them, but 
by whom they must have been already informed of the residences of 
"prominent Rebels." The eagerness and confidence by which these 
creatures, who called themselves soldiers, were animated, was as- 
tonishing. They flew about inquiring, "Is this the home of Mr. 
Rhett?" pointing in the right direction; or, "Is that the dwelling 
of Mr. Middleton?" also indicating exactly the locality, with many 
other like questions. 

It was surprising to see the readiness with which these incendiaries 
succeeded in their work of destruction. They had hardly passed 
out of sight when columns of smoke and flames rose to bring the 
sad news that another home had been sacrificed to the demon of 
malice and arrogance. It was in the middle of the day which wit- 
nessed the Federal entrance into it, when Columbia was already en- 
veloped in an overshadowing cloud of smoke, and the flames were 
already rising like columns of fire from a volcano. The terrible 
spectacle grew more harrowing as night set in, and although we 
lived over one mile from that city, yet from the roof of the Barham- 
ville building the whole town of Columbia could be plainly and dis- 
tinctly described. 

Burning of Columbia. 265 

Through the exertions of Dr. Marks, the proprietor of Barham- 
ville, who had remained in the town, guards were procured, who, 
during the day, barely succeeded in protecting us from the many at- 
tempts of the soldiery to rifle and burn the female college. Our 
protectors proved of unequal temperaments and dispositions, as sol- 
diers. Only one may be said to have been active in the discharge of 
his duty, and, if my readers will pardon a slight digression from 
the main narrative, this was owing to a concurrence of circumstances 
at once touching and amusing. 

The sight was very grand, for it was a large mansion, and quite 
near to Barhamville; but grander and more impressing was the 
heroic calmness with which the ladies of this mansion contemplated 
the destruction of the old homestead of their family, with all that 
wealth and desire for comfort had been enabled to accumulate. 
These ladies stood perfectly composed upon the rear of our piazza. 

Finding the guard to whom I refer pleasant and kindly inclined 
(the other two were dogged, mean looking men), we entered into 
conversation with him about his political views, his native State, and 
found that he was a Tennessean, and resided at Knoxville. 

This brought to our mind the recollection of the Rev. Mr. H — , 
whose acquaintance we had made some years since — a gentleman 
who combined with genuine piety high cultivation and refinement. 
We made inquiries regarding our friend, and were informed by our 
new protector that Mr. H — had died before the war, and that his 
father (the guard's) had furnished the coffin on the sad occasion. 

Owing to that simple connection of facts we found a sympathizing 
protector and friend, without whom we should have been that night 
subjected to who knows what suffering? — certainly to the loss of all 
we possessed. 

Columbia was then enveloped in one sheet of flame ; we could hear 
the cries and lamentations of the people, even at this great distance. 
It was a terrible night! Soon the building of Captain A — , whose 
wife and sister had taken refuge with us, was set on fire by the sol- 
diers ; they watched the flames as they rose ; but there was a deeper 
anxiety in their hearts ; their minds followed the retreat of their hus- 
band and brother, and the flight of their daughters, who were sub- 
sequently overtaken by the invaders and subjected to great hardship 
and mortification. 

Whilst with horror and indignation we watched all these scenes. 
Mr. Strawinski rushed towards us, in a greatly excited state of 
mind. He had remained at his post at Captain A — 's residence 

266 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

until convinced that nothing could be saved by his intervention. No 
appeals on his part could divert the fury of the soldiery. The scenes 
enacted at that dwelling in connection with the negro servants are 
not fit for female pen to dwell upon ; yet that same soldiery has been 
lauded to the skies for its moderation and virtues, and has been 
styled the finest body of troops in the world ! The finest body, indeed, 
when we understand by it a band of most expert robbers and incen- 
diaries ! 

The negroes informing the soldiers of some valuable wines stored 
away, thus was given the signal for general bacchanalia. When 
the intoxicated servants disclosed to the reveling soldiery the hiding 
place of the family silverware and other valuables, the tumult reached 
its height. Suspicion seemed to have taken hold of the minds of the 
soldiers that poison might be mixed with the tempting bottles. Be- 
fore they tasted, Mr. Strawinski was first compelled to drink of 
each kind. Being a temperate man, and totally averse to low asso- 
ciations, he resisted, but with threats and blows, he was compelled 
to yield. At last the negroes themselves became thoroughly dis- 
gusted, and although enriched by the booty the soldiers could not 
carry off — which was generously given them by the robbers — they 
vowed vengeance for the base treatment their women had been sub- 
jected to. 

Now, a wave of that corrupted mass, inflamed by liquor and every 
other excess, moved towards our home, Barhamville. There were 
about eighty men. They were led by a tall negro — one of those 
towering individuals we meet sometimes. He held in one hand a 
torch ; in the other a large cowhide ; and he demanded of me to 
examine the basement, partly open, as they knew Captain A — 's 
lady had hidden some valuables here. The ladies being too much 
frightened, only one of my daughters could come to my assistance. 
The other had to guard the front door of the building, whilst some 
of the ladies endeavored to wake up the guards, who had gone to 
sleep (it was then eleven o'clock). 

This attempt we resisted — by what power I do not now under- 
stand, for we were in a vast crowd of, shall I say men, or furious 
beasts? — until our Tennessean friend came to our assistance. The 
other guards pretended to be still asleep. 

It was some time before that rabble could be made to understand 
that there was a Federal soldier present; and only after he struck 
his bayonet violently upon the ground, threatening to report them 
for contempt of military orders, they slunk away. 

Burning of Columbia. 267 

Still, party after party came upon the grounds, looking with ma- 
licious eyes upon the large building, so tempting to their cupidity. 

Toward two o'clock in the morning, we heard the blows of axes, 
and seeing lights in the direction of our stables, a considerable dis- 
tance from the main building, I hastened to the spot. Under ordi- 
nary circumstances such an undertaking would have caused great 
hesitation of mind ; but we were aroused to such a degree of energy 
and indignation that we had become unmindful of our personal 
safety. I found at the stables more than twenty men, with torches, 
axes and their muskets. They were partly intoxicated, and seemed 
to look fagged out after their day's work of destruction. When I 
appeared, they looked with astonishment at the coming of a single 
lady, and really seemed then ashamed of themselves, as well they 
might be. I asked them, "What are you, thieves or soldiers?" and 
told them, furthermore, that every person of honor must consider 
them a disgrace to the military profession; although I felt in my 
heart that they had not the slightest conception of such a sentiment. 
I still remember with considerable amusement the attitude of that 
crowd, and the reply of the chief leader : "Yes, ma'am ; yes, ma'am," 
to all I said. When our East Tennessean came to my assistance, 
the axes of the assailants were already at rest. 

The following morning, an individual entered the house with the 
air of a conqueror. It was a Mr. McDowell, a bloated, lymphatic 
looking man. He had nothing of manly politeness about him ; he 
was either destitute of that natural deference which a gentleman 
pays to ladies or, in the style of General Butler, he considered ladies 
in sympathy with the Southern cause unworthy of his urbanity. 
Whatever, though, his views or feelings were, he behaved very 

It was that very officer who afterwards expressed his opinion at 
his headquarters that he did not know why these European ladies 
should have that place left standing, when every other building in 
the neighborhood had been destroyed ; and we believed that our re- 
newed troubles were caused by that same individual. 

During Saturday and Sunday the Charlotte railroad was broken 
up, and we were continually molested. Drunken and infuriated sol- 
diers, some with saber in hand, endeavored to open the side doors. 
Another hour brought a party of soldiers who were inclined to ha- 
rangue us on political questions. One among them, evidently not 
very fanatical on the negro question, made a regular stump speech, 
in which he endeavored to demonstrate that this country was destined 

268 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

only for the white man, and that the Indian, as well as the negro, 
had to be, or in the course of events would be, exterminated ; further- 
more, he expressed his own wish to have the entire negro race on an 
immense platform and power sufficient to blow them all to atoms. 
This latter remark was received with repeated cheers by his com- 

Like the rapid shifting of scenes in a panorama, only a short time 
passed when on the front of the building appeared a party of Ger- 
mans on a foraging expedition. They, like the rest, demanded the 
right to enter the house. Their political creeds were quite at vari- 
ance. Some were Union men, others Democrats ; these latter ex- 
pressed themselves ready to fight for the South if the aim of the war 
was to be emancipation of the negro. One young man, just im- 
ported from Saxony, expressed his opinion that we would soon have 
another revolution, to which his companions agreed. To this inter- 
esting information we made, of course, no reply ; but I took the 
liberty of saying that I considered it the height of folly for any Euro- 
pean to fight on the side of the North. 

That party were men of intelligence and considerable refinement, 
and, to our relief, their captain ordered one of the men to the rear 
of the building, to see "that these ladies should not be molested." 
So one party moved off, to give place to others of lower caste. 

We were soon contending with a half-drunken set of men at the 
main entrance of the building, using arguments and displaying firm- 
ness in preventing them from entering the house, when our faithful 
shepherd dog, Cora, was seen running through the house, and tes- 
tified by whining and anxious ways that there must be something 
wrong at the rear of the building. Some of us followed our friend 
and, to our astonishment, found that some party had thrown fire 
brands under the stairs, which had already caught fire. With the 
assistance of our servants, we were enabled to extinguish the fire ; 
but we then despaired of success in resisting these incendiaries, and 
were expecting every moment to be compelled to leave the home we 
had no power to save. These marauders threatened to kill the cook 
should she not tell them where valuables or provisions were hidden. 
Others went into the houses of the poor negro women, cut and tore 
their bundles, and even cut their clothes wantonly to pieces ; and 
thus, unfortunately, our box with silver, containing many old family 
relics, fell into the hands of these vandals. 

Toward evening there arrived directly from Columbia a number 
of officers ; and seeing one of them wearing a Mason's breastpin, I 

Burning of Columbia. 269 

told him that, being a Mason's widow, I held it to be his duty to 
protect us from the marauders of his army. He seemed to hesitate ; 
but, having for such an emergency Mr. Sosnowski's papers in hand, 
establishing his former connection with an American lodge, I placed 
them in his hands, again demanding protection. The party, how- 
ever, left without giving us a glimmer of hope, and we looked with 
terror upon the declining day, when, to our joy and relief, a young 
gentleman came on a horse, telling us that a squad of men would 
presently arrive, and that we should not be disturbed that night. 

Words could not express our relief and gratitude. The young 
man, evidently of refinement, received with great satisfaction the 
demonstrations of relief our little party expressed. We gave him 
full leave to walk through the building, and, being young, his imagi- 
nation perhaps depicted to him all the lovely Southern young ladies 
who only a short time since made these halls resound with their 
musical exercises and cheerfulness. The promised guard arriving, 
they prepared their supper, to which we loaned all the assistance we 
could. Feeling comparatively at ease, we watched with interest the 
regular lights which lit up the entire horizon (as far as our view per- 
mitted) with the campfires of Sherman's army. 

With the dawn of day, the reveille called our guards away ; and 
we were reminded by the remarks of passing soldiers that the house 
was still in danger. I determined, therefore, to walk to Columbia 
(Sunday morning) at an early hour to obtain a guard ; and soon after 
breakfast, accompanied by a few servants, I left Barhamville. The 
appearance of the citizens was despondent and weary. On reaching 
the Preston property, long the residence of the father of General 
Wade Hampton, I felt that I was in the midst of military life ; but I 
must here remark that it was not like meeting the martial bearing of 
trained soldiers, such as I have seen during grand reviews in Europe. 
They appeared to me rather a kind of shambling set of men, squatting 
on the sidewalks, or in the squares made by the burned streets. It 
was difficult to pass, as these cavaliers had no idea of giving way to 
a lady. 

The outer gate of General Preston's house was guarded by a sol- 
dier holding the United States flag. To my question if General 
Howard or General Blair was in, the man could give me no satis- 
factory answer. I presume these gentlemen enjoyed then the sweet 
repose to which their glorious achievements entitled them. I passed 
in, however, under another United States flag of immense size, float- 
ing over the front of the building. 

270 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The piazza was literally crowded with men — a vulgar, debauched 
set. The question arose in my mind, can there be one high-toned 
gentleman among them? I was met by a colored man, perhaps one 
of the family servants ; he looked frightened and sad. 

The sitting-room which I entered was enlivened by various passing 
scenes. It was crowded with women of the lowest sort, arranging 
to go North with the army. Several officers came in with books 
and statuettes in their hands, evidently considering what to pack 
up among their booty. These were their war trophies. I wonder 
whether they are not ashamed now to possess them. 

Seeing no prospect of attaining what I came for, I left the place ; 
and now advancing through the city, the work of destruction met 
my eyes. 

It would have struck the most careless observers that all around 
the localities where headquarters were established (these arrange- 
ments were made through loyal whites, before Sherman entered) 
no buildings were destroyed, nor were any attempts made to disturb 
the quiet enjoyment of Sherman and his officers during their stay in 

The headquarters of General Wood being at the old family resi- 
dence of Airs. Lucy Pride Green, we had only a few steps to reach it. 
We found the general surrounded by a motley crowd. Owing to 
some mistake of my friend, my object to obtain a guard was defeated. 
Although in manner the general was much of a gentleman, I was 
sorry to learn afterward that he stripped the old mansion of its paint- 
ings and many other valuables. 

Unsuccessful so far in obtaining a guard, I resolved to go to head- 
quarters. Reaching that locality — Mr. Myers property, corner 
of Gervais and Pickens streets — I found the street virtually ob- 
structed by soldiers of every grade ; every one brimful of im- 
portance. It would have been interesting, had time permitted, 
to study the various characters of that crowd. The guard, a 
stately Western man, held with great pride the often displayed flag 
of the Stars and Stripes ; and being, no doubt, a good Union man, 
it was natural that he should uphold with considerable satisfaction 
the emblem of his country, as it was natural that I should at the time 
with deep regret look upon the same standard of the founders of this 
republic, then waving in triumph over one of the blackest scenes of 
crime and desolation in the history of mankind. On being informed 
that General Sherman was in, I mounted the steps and found that 
gentleman giving directions to a soldier. My friend, Mr. W — , 

Burning of Columbia. 271 

having left mc, I introduced myself, and he politely led me into the 
apartment where already a number of persons had assembled. 

I stated to him my errand, which had so far been unsuccessful, 
the troubles which we had already passed through, at the same time 
expressing my surprise — even more, my indignation — at the course 
the army had pursued towards a conquered, unresisting and sur- 
rendered city. I told him further that previous to the surrender of 
Columbia I had always expressed the opinion that we had nothing to 
fear except the accidents of war (to which, though, I did not consider 
the deliberate burning of a city) ; that in a civilized country battles 
would be fought, but private property and females would be pro- 
tected, but instead of this a warfare was waged which would make 
it a disgrace to our present history. He showed great temper, and 
said, "What do you mean by that, madam?" to which I merely re- 
plied that I meant exactly what I had said. He then spoke in strong 
terms of the responsibility of Columbia, of South Carolina, of the 
sufferings caused by secession ; indeed, as he only advocated one side 
of the question, he spoke well. In conclusion, he said, "You have 
suffered much already, but if I have to come back again — " — leaving 
his threat unfinished. 

To my repeated request for a guard, General Sherman assured me 
there would be no need, as he expected to leave the following morn- 
ing, and therefore required the whole army to be at their posts. At 
this, I rose, saying that I would detain him no longer. He escorted 
me to the steps. 

On my return home, I met Dr. Fair. His looks were those of 
supreme suffering ; and he gave me an account of the destruction of 
his property, a large block of tenement houses, the corner of which 
had been his own residence. In that home everything had been 
collected which refinement and comfort might desire. A long and 
successful practice had placed Dr. Fair in the rank of influential and 
wealthy citizens. His lady being, during the fire, surrounded by a 
rude soldiery, endeavored to save but one valuable article, and that 
was a portrait of a beloved mother. With this in her arms, she tried 
to make her escape from the flames and from the robbers, but she 
was not permitted to save even this, as a soldier cut the picture in 
pieces and only then allowed her to gain the streets. 

I again entered General Preston's residence, the headquarters of 
General Howard. At length, a young officer promised to send out a 
guard ; but none came. My mission had been totally fruitless. With 
the advancing night, however, we found an unexpected protection, 

272 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

namely, a number of Irishmen, a part of those of Sherman's troops 
he would not allow to enter Columbia ; and this, as the men assured 
us, was to prevent them from protecting Roman Catholic property. 

The men had lost their way, and fearing to fall into an ambush, 
they entreated us not to expose them to danger. This unexpected 
arrival was a great relief, and we assured them of perfect safety. 
We requested our faithful friend and housekeeper, Hannah, to give 
to them as substantial a supper as the stores permitted. The ac- 
counts of these men were really interesting, and as in such uncom- 
mon scenes of life the susceptibility of men finds ample scope, there 
was a declaration of love, of love at first sight, before supper was 
over — the subject of which was, of course, Miss Hannah. 

Towards eleven we heard yells from the direction of Columbia, 
and through the woods advanced a crowd of soldiers towards our 
residence. We immediately called our new friends to our assistance. 
This startled the marauders, and they gradually slunk back in the 
shade of the forest. 

This was the end of our dangers from Sherman's troops. We 
owed our safety, at least, to these warm-hearted Irishmen, and I 
think now without them our home would have shared that night the 
fate of all the residences for miles around us. 

Madame S. Sosnowski. 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 

Columbia, S. C, February 6, 1865. — This wild talk about the Fed- 
eral Army and what it's going to do is all nonsense. Coming here ! 
Sherman ! Why not say he's going to Paramaribo ? One is about as 
likely as the other, notwithstanding that papa shakes his head so 
solemnly over it, and mamma looks so grave. He is always shaking 
his head over something, it seems to me, and she forever looking 
grave. I do hope I shall be able to get around being old, somehow. 
Old people's weather is all bad weather; their horoscope all back- 
ground ; their expectation all disappointment ; their probabilities all 
failures. No doubt I am foolish — mamma says I am — but there's 
a certain satisfaction in being young and foolish rather than old and 

February 7. — While I cannot sign the bills as rapidly as Nannie 
Giles can, today I finished up four packages of the denomination of 
fifty dollars. Mr. Tellifiere says I am a treasury girl worth having, 
and that I did a big day's work, and a good day's work. Took my 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 273 

vocal lesson and paid Signor Torriani for my last quarter. He is 
gloriously handsome in the Italian way, which is a very striking way. 
I also sent check to the milliner for the $200 due on my new bonnet, 
and paid $80 for the old lilac barege bought from Alar)- L — . 
Miss P — does not yet agree to let me have the congress gaiters 
for $75, and unless she does she may keep them herself, to the end 
of time ! Tis a pretty come to pass when $75 of Confederate cur- 
rency is not the equivalent of an ordinary pair of Massachusetts - 
made shoes ! J. C. called this evening. He is pleasant, but stops 
right there, and that isn't the place to stop. A man must know how 
to be disagreeable to be dangerously attractive, I think. 

February 8. — Saw that young Englishman again today. He isn't 
half the idle dreamer he pretends to be. In truth (but let me whisper 
it softly), / believe he's a spy! I can't see, otherwise, why he is so 
tremendously and eagerly interested in matters Confederate. Nor 
is he smart enough to make me believe it's me! 

February 9. — Finished Les Miserables, Victor Hugo's grand work. 
What munificence of power ! What eloquence ! What strength ! 
How sublime even its absurdities ! A waggish acquaintance of mine 
calls it Lee's miserables. I must write a little note to James Wood 
Davidson and thank him for this treat. He is ever kind to think of 
me when it comes to a literary tid-bit. 

Friday, February 10. — This being German day, I went as usual for 
my lesson. If I must say it, the old Frau's dressing is all top-dress- 
ing, and her conversation never more than a mild diversion. Its ab- 
sorbing theme today was the same as with every one else — Sherman's 
movements ; is he coming here ? And what will he do when he does ? 
These are the little questions which embody the vague forebodings, 
the monstrous prophecies that fill the air. I marvel at the ease with 
which some people lose their heads. You would think Sherman was 
a three-tailed bashaw, to hear some of them talk. 

February 11. — The dawning of a doubt is a troublesome thing, 
for if a doubt does not out and out destroy faith, it assuredly chastens 
it to an uncomfortable degree. Is he coming, that terrible Sherman, 
with all his legions ? Well, and if he does, Beauregard is coming too, 
and Hampton and Butler are already here, so where's the sense of 
getting worried? I shall continue to possess my soul in peace. 

February 12. — The situation becomes more alarming — that much 
I am fain to confess. My father's head is not the only one shaking 
now ; they are all shaking — all the men's heads in town. No one can 
tell what a day will bring forth. Steady now, nerves! Courage 


274 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

now, heart! My grandsires fought for liberty in the war of the 
Revolution ; my great-grandmother faced the British, nor quailed so 
much as an eyelash before them! Is it for me to be afraid? I am 
not afraid. 

Monday, February 13. — We were greatly startled yesterday by the 
firing of cannon in the upper part of the city. It proved to be a call 
for Colonel Thomas' Regiment of Reserves. I am sorry the weather 
is so cold. Our ill-clothed, ill-fed troops must suffer acutely in such 
bitter weather. Today I accompanied my mother to the Wayside 
Hospital, carrying some jelly and wafers for the sick. One of the 
inmates, a convalescent soldier, played with much taste and skill on 
the banjo. Came home to find my father much excited about me, 
having heard Mayor Goodwyn say that he has no hope at all of 
holding the city. And my father does not consider the track of a 
great army the safest place for young women ; hence he wants me to 
leave ; go ; get out of the way ! But where ? Where shall I fly from 
Sherman's army? 

Tuesday, February 14. — Such a day! It was like "a winnowing 
of chaos." Very little work was done at the Treasury Department 
in the midst of such excitement and confusion. We are to remove 
at once to Richmond, and I am told Colonel Joseph Daniel Pope, 
Mr. Jamison, and many of the employees of the printing establish- 
ment, have already departed. I do not know if this be true ; I hear 
too many contradictory reports for all of them to be true. One thing, 
however, appears to be quite true — Sherman is coming! And I never 
believed it before. This afternoon, we could distinctly hear firing 
in the distance, and at this writing (8.30 p. m.) we can see the sky 
arched with fire in the direction of the Saluda factory. Must I go 
with the department to Richmond? In such case, my parents will 
be entirely alone, Johnny having gone, also, to the front. Does this 
not clearly show the dire extremity to which we are reduced, when 
boys of sixteen shoulder the musket? There are other reasons why 
I should like to remain here to receive Sherman : it is high time I 
was having some experiences out of the ordinary, and if anything 
remarkable is going to happen, I want to know something about it; 
it might be worth relating to my grandchildren ! Anyhow, it is 
frightfully monotonous, just because you are a woman, to be always 
tucked away in the safe places. I want to stay. I want to have a 
taste of danger. Midnight. — But I am overruled ; I must go. My 
father says so ; my mother says so. Everything is in readiness — my 
trunks packed, my traveling clothes laid out upon the chair, and now 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 275 

I must try to catch a little sleep. And then on the morrow — what ? 
What will be the next stroke upon the Labcnsuhr? God only knows. 

February 15. — (Waiting at the depot). Going as usual to the 
department this morning, I found orders had been issued for our 
immediate removal to Richmond. Barely had I time to run home, 
dash a few more articles into my trunk, say good-bye, and join the 
others here. We girls are all together — Elise, Ernestine, Sadie, 
Bet, and myself. We have been seated in the train for hours and 
hours. Oh ! this long waiting ; it is weary work ! A reign of terror 
prevails in the city, and the scene about me will ever live in memory. 
Government employees are hastening to and fro, military stores 
are being packed, troops in motion, aids-de-camp flying hither and 
thither, and anxious fugitives crowding about the train, begging for 
transportation. All kinds of rumors are afloat, every newcomer 
bringing a new version. The latest is that Hardee has refused to 
evacuate Charleston, and will not combine forces with Hampton in 
order to save the capital. I am strangely laden ; I feel weighted 
down. Six gold watches are secreted about my person, and more 
miscellaneous articles of jewelry than would fill a small jewelry 
shop — pins, rings, bracelets, etc. One of my trunks is packed with 
valuables and another with provisions. Shelling has begun from the 
Lexington heights, and under such conditions this waiting at the 
depot has a degree of nervousness mixed with impatience. We 
catch, now and again, peculiar whizzing sounds — shells, they say. 
Sherman has come ; he is knocking at the gate. Oh, God ! turn him 
back ! Fight on our side, and turn Sherman back ! 

Charlotte, X. C. — We stopped in W T innsboro awhile, but at last 
came on here. That was a sad, sad parting ! Shall I ever look into 
their dear faces again — my father and mother, and poor little 
Johnnie, wrested by the exigencies of war from his mother's knee? 
People who have never been through a war don't know anything 
about war. May I never pass through another. Why will men 
fight? Especially brothers? Why cannot they adjust their differ- 
ences and redress their wrongs without the shedding of woman's 
tears and the spilling of each other's blood? 

But I dare not write, nor even think much on this strain. My old 
friend J. B. L. is along. He is very kind. Think of his lifting our 
heavy trunks into the baggage car with his own hands! Otherwise 
they would be sitting on the railroad platform in Columbia yet. Say 
what you please, it is, after all, the men whom we women have 
to depend on in this world. J. B. L's. friend, whom he asked 

276 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

permission to present to us, is a graduate of the Medical College of 
New York, a young Hippocrates of profoundly scientific attainments. 
Nor is that all — he is possessed of all that ease of manner and well- 
bred poise for which the F. F. V.'s are noted. 

Saturday, February 18. — The people of Charlotte received us with 
unbounded kindness, and are treating us with royal hospitality. 
They met us in their carriages and, although utter strangers, con- 
ducted us, as honored guests, to their beautiful homes. How is that 
for Confederate Treasury girls ? Bet has gone to General Young's, 
but the others of us have fallen to the lot of Mr. Davidson, and a 
very enviable lot it is for us, in a home so well ordered and abounding 
in plenty. I do not know how long we shall be here. Mr. Duncan, 
who has charge of our division, says until transportation can be se- 
cured. Tonight some troops were passing through the city, and I 
could hear in the far, faint distance, a band playing "Dixie" and "Old 
Folks at Home." It made me cry, the sound was so sweet, so 
mournful, so heart-breaking. How fare my old folks at home? 
Are there any old folks left at my home ? Maybe not ! Alas ! we 
can hear nothing definite ! 

February 20. — The adulation we receive in this city is enough to 
turn our heads completely. But for this dreadful suspense I believe 
it would. The most appalling rumors reach us, but nothing more. 
Dr. S — saw one of Wheeler's cavalrymen, who left Columbia on 
Friday morning, at which time Hampton had notified the Mayor 
that the Reserves could no longer hold the city. The South Carolina 
depot was already in ruins, and the Congaree bridge burned, while 
thousands of the inhabitants were flying from the enemy. On Fri- 
day night, at Winnsboro, this same soldier reports having seen a tre- 
mendous illumination in the sky, which all who saw believed to be 
Columbia in flames. My God! How terrible, if true! What has 
been the fate of my parents, and Johnnie ! Despite this horrible un- 
certainty, we have been to church, and are trying to keep calm and 
hopeful. But why was I ever persuaded to leave my home and 
dear ones in this time of danger ! 

Greensboro, N. C, February 23. — We positively hated to leave 
Charlotte, so many friends did we make there. Howbeit, a Treas- 
ury signer, like a good soldier, must obey orders. At this place, we 
are not half so pleasantly situated, being all crowded together in 
one small room. But we are in no mood to cavil ; our soldiers fare 
worse. We begin to realize, as we never before have done, their 
hardships, and the thankfulness which ought to fill the heart of each 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 277 

one whose head is roof-covered. Daily blessings are not mere mat- 
ters of course. We are too apt to think so until times like these come 
our way. General John S. Preston has just been in to see us. He is 
a grand looking man — not only that, he has the look of being some- 
body in particular, which he is. He could tell us nothing on the sub- 
ject nearest our hearts — the fate of Columbia. But he fears the worst. 

February 24. — "On to Richmond!"' is the rallying cry of the 
period ; but this end of the Confederate Treasury can't go on without 
the means of transportation. The whole South seems to be rallying 

Thursday, February 25. — Mr. Duncan, the doctor, and J. B. L. are 
indefatigable in their efforts to make us comfortable and happy. We 
see them every day and, to be more explicit, almost every hour in 
the day. We call ourselves "The Happy Family." If you ask me 
wherefore, I can only say, probably because we have so much reason 
to be unhappy, and yet are not — exactly. 

February 26. — Still in Greensboro, and I do not see how we have 
managed to live through these homeless and anxious days so agree- 
ably to ourselves. It is the gentlemen who keep us cheered up and 
allow us no chance to fret. There is no doubt, however, that Colum- 
bia is in ashes. People who have never been through a war know 
nothing about what war is. It is a crushing machine, whose main- 
spring is anxiety, whose turnscrew is apprehension. Are my 
brothers all dead? Are my father and mother still living? These 
questions put me to the rack when I allow myself to ask them. 

Ballard House, Richmond, March 1. — We have taken Richmond, 
if the Yankees haven't! Yes, we are here; but had some trouble 
to get settled. The fashionable mode of living is room-keeping, 
and we are strictly in the fashion. And now how nicely comes in 
that trunk of provisions my thoughtful papa made me bring, much 
against my own wishes. On opening it, we found meal, hominy, 
flour, a side of bacon, some coffee, tea, and a quantity of potatoes. 
They will help us along wonderfully, as all food products bring a 
tremendous price in this beleaguered city. Ernestine went to market 
this morning and paid $10 for a steak for our breakfast. At that 
rate we can only afford to take a savory smell occasionally ! Ernie 
is simply angelic in spirit — she never loses patience, never gets cross, 
never says anything she oughtn't to say, even against the Yankees ! 
The city is crowded to suffocation, the streets thronged with soldiers 
in uniform, officers gaily caparisoned, and beautiful women, beauti- 
fully dressed, though not in the latest Parisian toilettes. I should 

278 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

say there is no more brilliant capital among all the nations. Are 
there great and somber tragedies going on around us? Is there a 
war ? I thought so before I reached Richmond ! 

March 2. — Our department quarters here are not nearly so com- 
fortable as those left behind in Columbia. They do well enough, 
however. I have not had a chance to mention that handsome officer 
we saw on the train after leaving Greensboro. He was of the blonde 
type, with tawny, flowing mustache, and hair bright as ''streaks from 
Aurora's fingers." Tall and broad-shouldered, he was attired in a 
captain's uniform, and deeply absorbed in reading a book. What 
was the book? Lise and I were wild to find out. We did find out, 
and, I hope, without exciting the least suspicion on his part. The 
book was "Quits." Knowing the story so well, and his face being 
so expressive, we could almost guess the contents of the pages as he 
turned them over. But after awhile he did not appear so deeply in- 
terested in it, and when our train had to be exchanged for another 
he stepped forward, raised his hat, and asked to be allowed to remove 
our packages. He was very grave and' dignified. Were we wrong 
in accepting the attention ? Sadie says we must not accept the slight- 
est attention from unknown men while thus traveling. We have 
been thrust forth from the safe environment of our homes and can- 
not afford to take any risks. Sadie is as proper as a dowager duchess 
of eighty. But, ah ! the strange exigencies of these times ! What is 
to become of us? There is no longer the shadow of a doubt — our 
homes are in ashes. 

March 3. — I find myself regarding Lise with increasing admira- 
tion and affection. She is surely the most graceful girl in existence, 
combining a lot of downright amiability with a vast amount of tact. 
Also, she has a deal of fun and mischief. That blonde stranger must 
have noticed all of this with his eyes, so darkly blue. 

March 4. — A letter from home ! A letter from home ! It reached 
me by hand through the department — is most reassuring and at the 
same time most delightfully comprehensive. They are all safe — 
thank God, my dear ones. Johnny came through without a scratch, 
and so did my new Stein way. It was a night of untold horrors 
(the 17th), but in the general conflagration our house was saved. 
My father and mother made friends even among their enemies, and 
through their exertions and old Maum Nancy's the family were fed 
and protected during the whole time. A number of Federal officers 
were quartered with the family until the morning of the 20th. 
One of them, whom mamma describes as "a most attractive voting 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 279 

lieutenant," examined my music, tried my piano, playing with no little 
skill, and then inquired, "Where is she; the young lady who plays?" 
And when my father answered, "Gone to Richmond," he laughingly 
rejoined, "Ran away from the Yankees! Now, where was the use 
of that? We are just as sure to catch her there as here." Are you, 
Mr. Lieutenant? I fancy not; Sherman's army can't expect to over- 
run the whole earth ; we are safe enough in Richmond. And yet I 
regret again not being there. I might have conducted the argument 
on both sides, for awhile, with that attractive young lieutenant, and 
who knows ? perchance make one Yankee's heart ache a little. What 
fun ! What an opportunity ! What a chance to get even have I lost ! 

March 5. — Oh! the seduction, the novelty, the fascination of this 
life in Richmond ! If patriotism is its master-chord, pleasure is no 
less its dominant note, and while it is as indescribable as the sparkle 
of champagne, it is no less intoxicating. Last night the parlor was 
full of visitors, and the same may be said of almost every night — 
officers, privates, congressmen, senators, old friends and new ones, 
from all parts of the country. They are finding out our whereabouts 
and paying their devoirs. And what do you think, my little book? 
The blonde captain was among them. Strange things are the most 
natural, I have begun to think, for our strange acquaintance has 
come about in the most natural way. Dr. S — knows his relatives 
in Maryland, and we are acquainted with his relatives in Carolina, 
so not even Sadie could gainsay the fitness of the acquaintance — nor 
Ernestine, who is an anxious mother to the last one of us. 

March 7. — He is just as charming a gentleman as I thought he 
would be — I refer to the captain, of course. Last night I saw him 
gazing at Bet's hair in the most admiring manner. It is magnificent. 
I should be awfully vain of it, were it mine — but she is not. Bet is 
as level-headed as a girl can be, and as sweet and modest as a violet. 

March 8. — Wish I had been taught to cook instead of how to play 
on the piano. A practical knowledge of the preparation of food 
products would stand me in better stead at this juncture than any 
amount of information regarding the scientific principles of music. 
I adore music, but I can't live without eating — and I'm hungry ! I 
want some chicken salad, and some charlotte russe, and some ox- 
palate, and corn muffins! These are the things I want; but I'll eat 
anything I can get. Honestly, our cuisine has become a burning 
question. Dear, sweet Ernie bears the brunt, and has to, because 
the rest of us are simpletons! She'll be canonized some of these 
days, or deserves to be, if she isn't. 

280 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

March 9. — Little book, give me your ear. Close ! There ! Prom- 
ise me never to breathe it ! Blank loves Blank ! Yes, he does ! 
And she doesn't care for him — not a pennyworth ! It is a dreadful 
state of affairs, to be sure. Why must there be so much loving and 
making of love? How much nicer to just keep on being friends 
with everybody (except one!) and nothing more. It is a shame that 
I have so little time to devote to my journal. We meet so many 
delightful people and so many famous people. The other day, at- 
tended a review of Gary's Brigade, by Generals Fitzhugh Lee and 
Longstreet, in an open field between the Nine Mile and Darby Town 
roads. We went in an army ambulance, attended by a number of 
our gentlemen friends. Fitz. Lee passed very near us. It was the 
sight of a lifetime; it thrilled and pulsated all through me. When 
the review was over, we were speedily surrounded by a throng of 
gallants, officers and privates — the noble privates, heroes, I love 
them ! They bear the yoke and do the fighting, while some of the 
officers don't do anything but ornament the army. Mind, I don't 
say all — some. Do you think we women give no heed to these 
things ? I know what kind of a heart a man carries under his brass 
buttons. We spoke to many of our own State troops, some of them 
gaunt and battle-scarred veterans, and some of them young in ser- 
vice but with the courage of veterans in them. Whether we get 
whipped in this fight or not, one thing will be forever indisputable — 
our soldiers are true soldiers and good fighters. Sometimes I fear 
that we are going to get the worst of it — but away with all fears ! 

To doubt the end were want of trust in God. 

So says Henry Timrod, in his Ethnogcncsis, and he is a poet, and 
the poet has a far-seeing eye. It open beautifully — this poem, I 
mean — 

Hath not the morning dawned with added light? 

And shall not evening call another star 
Out of the infinite regions of the night 
To mark this day in Heaven? 

I hear Timrod's health is poor. What a pity ! I hope he will live 
to sing us many songs. I must not forget to chronicle the fact that 
I saw my gallant cousin, Robert D — , out at the review. We 
greeted each other with unfeigned pleasure. 

March 10. — The drawing room was again crowded last night, and 
we got up an important dance on the spur of the moment. General 
Kershaw, General Gary, and General Ruggles were present; also 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 281 

our friends, the congressman, the captain, the major, and the M. P. 
Oh ! yes. We know Mr. Connelly, an Irish M. P. and Southern 
sympathizer. He seems to have plenty of money, and lives here in 
great style for war times ; owns a steam yacht, and we are to have an 
outing on it before long. There are so many interesting things I 
could and ought to write about, but just can't, because I am so 
hungry ! And having nothing to eat, I am going to bed to fill up on 

March II. — Thank goodness! I'm not hungry tonight, and for a 
very good reason : we dined with the Secretary of the Treasury and 
his family, the Trenholms. It was a symposium to us poor Treasury 
girls, attractive and impressive. We discussed the varied menu, 
elegantly prepared and daintily served, with a Confederate appetite, 
sharply whetted for long-denied delicacies. Mr. Morgan, the young 
midshipman, was there, quite en fmnillc. I did not hear when the 
wedding is to be. I suppose after the war. Everything is going to 
take place after the war. As we arose from the table, President and 
Mrs. Davis were announced. This famous man honoris causa, I had 
already seen before in Columbia, but this was my first glimpse of his 
wife. She was graciousness itself. Some people whom I have 
heard talk, and who look upon Mr. Davis as a mere function of gov- 
ernment, are disposed to regard him as a conspicuous failure, but, in 
the name of reason, how can one man please everybody? His role is 
certainly one of great difficulty. Socially, he may rub some persons 
the wrong way, but not so with us. He was pleasant, polished, and 

March 12. — A delicate piece of business is this managing of so 
many men in one lump ! They will have ideas of their own, the most 
stupid among them ! And they all want to be first in importance. 
I feel in a humor to "size up" some of them tonight, not ill-naturedly, 
but only for my own amusement. Major W — is a squire of dames 
and admirable as a raconteur; Colonel P — laughs and flatters, and 
flatters and laughs, and positively that is all he ever does or knows 
how to do; B — is an amiable, domesticated creature; T — has ex- 
cellent intentions, and a great many of them, and no doubt, in due 
course of time, he'll find that place where such things are said to 
abound ; C — just falls short of everything — but can he help it, poor 
fellow? P — is a man who has risen superior to himself; Z — is a 
dead level of dulness ; as to C — 's manners, he is a debtor "both to 
the Greeks and the barbarians" ; K — is a Joseph Surface ; General 
"enjoys" bad health; L — is a negative instance; F — is a 

282 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

mosaic of sentiment ; and as for the others, it being so late, and I so 
sleepy, they will happily escape this time ! 

March 15. — The Trenholms are exceedingly kind to us. When- 
ever that majordomo of theirs makes his appearance with that big 
basket of his, plenty prevails in this section of the Ballard. Heaven 
bless them ! To demolish the contents of that basket is like getting 
into a home kitchen. Will the time ever come when we can have 
real coffee to drink again? Our trunk of provisions is gone, and 
we often feel gone without them! Ernestine says Lise and I are 
completely spoiled for any other life than this surging, intoxicating 
stream of brass buttons, epaulettes, and sword-belted manhood. It 
may be so ; I am afraid it is. There is an air of military inspiration 
around us ; it pervades our being ; we exist in a tremor of ecstasy, 
or else foreboding. Our Richmond life holds a little of everything, 
save ennui — not a grain of that in it. 

March 16. — It is a hard thing to say, but I am going to say it. I 
don't admire all the men who wear the Confederate uniform ! I 
would rather dig holes in the ground than talk to some of them ! 

March 17. — I could eat a tallow candle if I had a good one. But I 
have accepted an invitation to dine with the Trenholms — in my 
dreams ! 

March 18. — There now ! Somebody was as cross today as Sir Fret- 
ful himself, and as cold as an irate step-grandmother. How ridicu- 
lous ! Especially when we don't do anything to make other people 
like us and pay us attention. 

March 19. — Made two new acquaintances today. One is a 
soporific, and the other — well, I don't understand him, and I haven't 
got time to try to understand everybody. 

March 20. — A great joy has come to me this day, an unlooked-for, 
an inexpressible joy! A card was brought to me, and I took it with 
a sigh, because so many cards are brought in and we have so little 
time for rest. But the name upon that particular card made my 
heart thump and thump so fast I thought it would thump clean out 
of my body. It was my dear brother's name — the scout, who has 
been in prison two years, first at Camp Chase and recently at Fort 
Delaware. Without stopping as usual to give a last touch to my 
hair, I rushed into his presence and into his arms. He's the rowdiest, 
shabbiest, patchiest looking fellow you ever saw, but as handsome 
as ever, and the same old darling. We talked and talked : we 
crowded the talk of two long years of separation into two short hours 
of face to face. It is a thrilling romance, the way he escaped from 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 283 

prison. In a dead man's shoes it was ! That man's name was Jesse 
Tredway, and he died in his bunk after his name had been entered 
on the list of exchange. My brother put his dead comrade in his 
own bunk and said nothing. He answered to his name in the roll 
call and quietly took his place in the ranks of the outgoing prisoners. 
The details of that journey homeward, the recital of his adventures 
and narrow escapes from detection all along the route, is something 
to be heard from his own lips in order to be appreciated. The recital 
made the blood tingle in my veins and then suddenly run cold ; made 
my pulses throb and then suddenly cease almost. to throb at all. 
Think of it ! The recklessness of the deed, and his subsequent 
anxiety and fear of detection every moment. In the soft veil of the 
night, in the white light of the morning, under the noonday sun, 
under the midnight stars, even in the stillness of sleep, never to be 
rid of the fear of detection. His very life hung upon the issue, for 
he had made up his mind to shoot down the first man who remanded 
him back to prison. Thank God ! he was never detected, never re- 
manded back! He will now journey on without delay, on foot, for 
the most part. He has no money to pay his passage — but what of 
that ? It is a pleasure to him to walk on God's fair earth again, no 
longer a shut-up animal in a cage; the earth is full of a new glory 
for him, the glory of sweet liberty. The exile has returned to his 

March 23. — Congressman Farrow asked me today if I were feeling 
well. Come to think of it, I do not feel well. My nerve forces seem 
to be all out of tune, and my digestion is impaired — in fact, a general 
malaise appears to be the result of hardtack on my constitution. 

March 25. — My head aches; I have no appetite (and nothing fit 
to eat, either) ; my senses are dull. Heaven grant I may not be ill 
in Richmond ! At this particular epoch, it is the place for every- 
thing else, but no place to be sick in. 

March 29. — Mr. Duncan brings us the weightiest news. The 
Confederacy is going to the dogs — or, did he say the devil? That 
young lieutenant was right. We may have to fly from Richmond 
as we did from Columbia. It is a profound secret as yet ; but he 
warns us to be ready to leave on quick notice. Are we to be driven 
to the wall ? I can't believe it ! But somehow — somehow — my heart 
is as barren of hope tonight as the great Sahara of water. 

March 30. — Indeed, something very serious is astir in military 
circles. After arranging everything, the M. P. has had to give up 
the projected outing on the James ? It is not safe — a fight is brewing. 

284 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Doubtless I should worry more if I felt better; when the head is 
so confused with pain, and the nerves unstrung, all other matters 
are secondary. 

March 31. — Feel better today. Mr. Connelly gave us a collation 
in the hotel in lieu of the abandoned picnic. Very swell, despite the 
blockade. Must have cost him a pretty sum. I told Mr. Duncan I 
would not leave Richmond, so full of a certain charm is the life here ; 
but of course have had to give in, and now am ready for another 
flight as soon as he notifies us. 

Charlotte, N. C, April 3. — We barely escaped with the skin of our 
teeth ! The flight from Richmond was even more hasty and exciting 
than the exodus from Columbia, only I am not equal to writing 
about it. Congressman F — accompanied us and other friends. I 
fear it is all up with the Confederacy, and with me also. I am ill ; 
I have fever — typhoid. 

April 8. — I have neglected you, my little book, but don't you know 
how sick I am? And how they have all been busy nursing me, so 
tenderly, so patiently, so untiringly — Ernestine, Elise, and the mem- 
bers of this kind family, the Davidsons. We are back in our old 
quarters with them, and I count myself blessed that such is the case. 
Never can I repay them for their kindness ! God, you pay them for 
me ! Heaven, if ever they come to troublous days, and dark nights, 
send down thy tender light upon them ! I cannot pay them ; I am a 
miserable, weak thing, with very little moral strength and very much 
body (all aching). I wish my spirit didn't have to be pent up in 
this body. My brother told me of his prison house; we all have a 
prison house. Death is the escape — so why should any one dread 
death ? 

April 10. — The wires being up again, I have been sending tele- 
grams home to allay anxiety. Have been sitting up a little, and 
the doctor finally consents for me to be removed home. He — and 
every one here — treats me as a dear friend, not as a stranger. When 
I asked him for my bill, he said, "I have none," and when I insisted, 
he made out one for ten dollars. Ten dollars in Confederate money ! 
It wouldn't buy enough salt to season his egg for breakfast ! I could 
not keep back the tears while handing him the money, and not long 
ago, when I was well, I never used to cry for anything. But kind- 
ness touches where nothing else does. I do like doctors, and men in 
general, men of high nature, and true. Perhaps I have spoken flip- 
pantly of them sometimes, but, bless you, not a word of it was 
seriouslv intended. Whatever their foibles, men as a class are 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 285 

more generous than women ; they don't laugh so much in their sleeve 
at other people ; they are not so full of paradoxical conceits and petty 
animosities ; they are not so apt to be distanced in the first heat of 
goodness ; and are altogether more tolerant in mind and catholic in 
spirit. I say again, I like men. This world would be a very stupid 
place without them. The other girls have gone, but Lise and 
Ernestine have waited for me, and we will be off as soon as 
may be. 

Chester, April 11. — I have borne the journey thus far well, and 
as the railroad stops here, the rest having been destroyed by Sher- 
man's army, we will travel the remainder of the journey in a govern- 
ment train of wagons. Many, many friends have we encountered 
here, trying, like ourselves, to get back home. Lise's brother is to 
go in our party, and Mr. West. 

Newberry, April 15. — The wagon trip across country was glori- 
ous ! I, the invalid, was made comfortable on a cotton mattress, 
spread on the body of the wagon, and Lise and Ernestine, and the 
gentlemen in attendance, did all things possible for my comfort and 
well-being. Even the wagon drivers were good to me, and the very 
mules seemed to regard "the sick lady" compassionately out of mild 
eyes and patient. One night, we slept in the beautiful country home 
of the Means' ; another at the Subers' ; and the other — oh ! night of 
nights — we camped out ! Vividly do I recall the minutest detail 
connected with that night in the woods — the pink line that flushed 
the western sky, the slowly descending twilight, the soft curves of 
the hills, the winding courses of the roadways, the sleeping cattle, 
the sloping meadows, the flitting figures of the teamsters about the 
blazing fire, the brooding solitude, the stillness of the midnight hour. 
The others breathed softly, in deep repose, and I lay with face up- 
turned and eyes opened to the tender benediction of the stars, and 
then it was that, with every mysterious inspiration of the night, a 
picture of the scene was painted on the canvas of memory. I must 
put on record a very singular incident which occurred during this 
cross-country journey: We stopped at midday near a farmhouse, to 
rest the teams and procure a drink of cool water. Seeing us, the 
farmer came out to the well and cordially invited us to enter, which 
we gladly did, and while conversing quietly together on the piazza, 
one of us — it must have been Lise, for she is always the first to see 
everything — happening to look overhead, espied the United States 
flag, and the American eagle, drawn in colors on the ceiling. The 
sight was electrical ; it struck us with a shock. 

286 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"But why should it shock us?" asked one of the gentlemen. "It 
is merely an evidence that our host is a Unionist. Every man to his 
own notion, say I ! But it means nothing to us." 

It did to me ; it meant a great deal ; I looked upon those emblems 
with a superstitious eye. "We are invincible!" was their language 
to me ; "we are over your heads, and there we are going to stay !" 
Little did I dream how soon this imaginative interpretation would 
be literally verified. 

We had heard before leaving Charlotte that the advance guard 
of the Union forces had entered Richmond a day or two after our 
departure, but that was all we knew. Now, another singular thing 
happened. While we still sat together on that piazza, under the 
wings of the American eagle and the folds of the star spangled 
banner, there came along a soldier in gray. He was dirty, and 
ragged, and barefooted, and he looked on the ground sadly as he 
moved upon his way, walking slowly, as if he had come from afar 
and felt footsore and weary. Mr. C — ran out upon the roadside 
and accosted him. Was there any news? 

The man answered, "News? Wall, yes; I reckon there is! Ain't 
yer heared it?" 

"No, indeed. We have heard nothing. What is it?" 

There was a ghastly silence. This piece of news seemed to be an 
unutterable thing for the soldier in gray. 

"Do speak! For God's sake, what is it?" 

Then the man in gray lifted his bowed head slowly, and replied : 

"Lee has surrendered!" 

"It is not true ! It cannot be true !" 

But it was true. 

"Wasn't I there?" asked the soldier, whose voice sounded as if his 
heart were broken. "Wasn't I there when it happened on the 9th 
of April?" 

W T hat more was there to be said ? Failure is a bitter thing, but I 
think the only way to meet it is in silence and with courage. 

Newberry, April 25. — Lise and Ernestine are long since home, but 
my dear friends here will not listen to my leaving until I have 
grown stronger. I do not get on physically as fast as I ought. It 
is very restful here, after the exciting life in Richmond. What of 
the city now? What of the sunshiny pavements, where I prome- 
naded but so lately, amid scenes of such brilliancy and life? There 
came a sudden darkening in her sky, and I know not how weak 

A Confederate Girl's Diary. 287 

I am until I undertake to touch upon these themes. Surely the 
feeling of utter helplessness is the worst feeling in the world. 

May 5. — Home again ! But, ah ! how changed a home ! 
All but God is changing day by day. 

Changed are we, and changed our home, in everything but loving 
hearts. 'We are all here ; nobody killed in battle ; nobody dead 
from disease. Have we not something, after all, to be thankful for? 
Now Johnny must go to college and exchange the arts of war for 
the arts of peace. 

Judge Aldrich took charge of me from Newberry. We came as far 
as Alston on the train, but the railroad being destroyed thence, we 
hired an old ambulance, which, although in a state of chronic dilapi- 
dation, luckily held together for the trip. We entered the city from 
the Alain street road, our way being marked with desolation and 
ruin on all sides. One solitary house is all that is left upon that 
whole street above the State House. Turning out of that street, 
we lost our bearings in the surrounding mass of brick and ashes. 
There are few landmarks left in the heart of the city to enable the 
wayfarer to distinguish one locality from another. It is all so 
strange, so sad, so hard to realize. "How doth the city sit solitary 
that was full of people ! How has she became as a widow !" The 
relief to my overwrought feelings as we drove through the silent 
streets was in a woman's refuge — tears ; my companion's in a 
man's — silence. We said little to each other ; we only drew long, 
deep, sighing breaths of pain. War has no pity, yet, oh ! the pity 
of it! 

Thus we reached home. 

Old mammy was the first to see, the first to greet me. 

"Lawd ! Lawd ! young missis, dem Yankees ain't kill ye, sure 
enough !" 

"No," said I ; "they must catch before they kill." 

"Bless Gawd fer dat! But I hope yer fetched yer rashuns wid 

"No," I was obliged to admit, "I only brought an appetite, and, I 
regret to state, a very good one." 

"Den Lawd hab mercy on yer!" she remarked, "fer de black- 
berries, dey ain't got ripe yit." 

And old Nancv shook her head mournfullv. 

288 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

As to my dear mother, she is so happy in my safe return that she 
scarcely reverts to our hardships. We still have each other. We 
two, and old mammy, are the only ones at home at present, the gen- 
tlemen of the family having gone up to the Broad River section in a 
wagon, in the hope of being able to procure some provisions. It is 
next door to starvation with us, and no mistake. Each day we send 
to headquarters for a little bacon and some meal, and that is what 
we live on, if it may be called living. It is true, we have a little 
sugar, and a small quantity of real tea a dear old lady gave me in 
Newberry, but the sugar was buried while the Federal army was 
here, and in consequence is infested with those pestiferous little 
creatures who never fail to make the best of their opportunities. 
Now, some who may chance to read these lines might say that they 
couldn't go ant-tea. But I go it ! It is much better than no tea at 
all. Moreover, I manage it after a way of my own which vastly 
increases its palatability. I found out how to do it. I skim all I 
can conveniently off the top, then I shut my eyes tight and fast, then 
I open my mouth (which is a good-sized mouth) and it all runs 
down (ants too), and then I open my eyes and put the cup down 
and say to myself, "Good ! Very good ! I like tea." 

June 20. — Sadie came to see me yesterday, and today it is Lise 
and Ernestine. We often see each other, and surely we girls are 
never so happy as when seeing each other. We often wish for Bet, 
who is far away, and we read each other's letters, and talk about the 
generals, the colonels, and the majors, and the captains, and the no 
less dear, delightful privates we used to know in those days of ex- 
citement, those nights of enchantment, passed in fair Richmond, on 
the James. It is thus we live over again the stirring events of those 
stirring times, when together we fled from Sherman. 

Malvina S. Waring. 
(Mrs. Clark Waring). 

Columbia, S. C. 

The Burning of Columbia. 

[Extract from a circular letter addressed to the "Congregation de 
Paris" by the "Monastere de Sainte-Ursule de Valle Cruris," near 
Columbia, S. C] 

In the year 1861, when the war broke out between the North and 
South, a great number of girls — not only children, but girls of twenty 
and over — came to take refuge in the Convent, their parents wishing 



The Burning of Columbia. 289 

to avoid for them the mixed state of society brought about by the 
war. * * * 

The boarding school has never been more flourishing than at the 
opening of the year 1865. Nevertheless, we were then in great 
anxiety, as well from the absence of our bishop, who had gone to 
Rome, as from the approach of the Northern Army, which brought 
desolation along its route. 

A telegram had announced the fall of Chattanooga. Charleston 
and Savannah were threatened, and Columbia was in great alarm. 

Soon the army marched across Georgia into South Carolina, carry- 
ing destruction everywhere, burning all houses and mills along its 
road. The 15th of February, the enemy occupied the heights of 
Lexington and commenced the bombardment of Columbia. After 
twenty-four hours of this bombardment, which caused much damage, 
the commanding general of the Northern Army, William Tecumseh 
Sherman, received a deputation from the mayor, giving him peace- 
able possession of the city. About ten o'clock in the morning eight 
hundred cavalrymen entered Columbia, and found it occupied only 
by women, children, and old men. 

Columbia had also been considered so absolutely safe that it had 
been made a depot for many of the treasures of the Confederacy. 
Bankers had deposited there their funds ; merchants had brought 
their merchandise, and families their valuables. All these circum- 
stances were known, and therefore the destruction of Columbia had 
been resolved upon. We here give an account of the burning of the 
Convent and Boarding School, from the testimony of a friend and 
one who witnessed these occurrences. 

The Convent was, unfortunately, in the middle of the town, and 
could only have been saved with great difficulty from the surround- 
ing conflagration, even had efforts been made to that end. 

When the town was taken possession of by General Sherman, 
Father O'Connell had obtained a guard for our protection, and thus 
while stores and private houses were being pillaged by soldiers, the 
nuns were not even disturbed. 

Towards midday, a cavalry officer arrived, who, after questioning 
the sentinel, rang the door bell. The door was opened by the 
portress and her companion, whereupon he introduced himself as 
Major FitzGibbons, and wished to see the superior of the establish- 
ment. Having presented himself to the reverend mother as a 
Catholic, he offered any necessary help. The nuns not understand- 
ing him, and having no suspicion of the dangers threatening them, 


290 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

declined his offers with thanks; but he insisted earnestly, telling 
them that the ruin of Columbia had been determined ; or that at least 
the army thought so, and that he himself doubted if one house would 
be spared. 

While this announcement terrified the nuns, they still believed that 
their Convent could not be threatened with such disaster, as Gen- 
eral Sherman had assured a lady in Savannah, whose daughter was 
in the Convent, that she was perfectly safe there. "Certainly," said 
Major FitzGibbons, "I cannot say that your Convent is going to be 
burned; but," he added with a meaning look, "we can't answer for 
what may happen." 

The lady in Savannah had consulted General Sherman as to the 
safety of her daughter, and he had answered that she was in the 
safest place. But, with the natural anxiety of a mother, she per- 
sisted, "General, to speak candidly, my daughter is in the Convent. 
Now, we know the terrible threats of your army against Columbia, 
and I am afraid for my daughter." Again he answered. "Leave 
your daughter where she is, madam ; all religious institutions will 
be respected." 

Mrs. Daniel Huger, whose daughter was also a scholar with the 
Ursulines, and whose brother-in-law had just left Savannah after its 
capture by Sherman, had received a similar assurance, and had com- 
municated it to the nuns. 

Major FitzGibbons listened with apparent interest to all this, and 
said, "I wish, ladies, that you would write this to the general ; I know 
he will do what he can for you." But, in spite of this assurance, 
the major made every effort to excite the fears of the nuns, who, 
knowing nothing of the outside world, could not believe in the threat- 
ened danger. He also made many inquiries, apparently well-inten- 
tioned, as to the members of the community of nuns, and he learned 
that most of us were strangers, having no other home on this side 
of the Atlantic ; that we had been here only seven years, and had 
spent all of our resources on the building we occupied ; that some of 
the nuns had formerly lived in the Convent of Ohio, where relatives 
of General Sherman had been brought up ; and that the daughter and 
sister of General Sherman were still there during the last months 
spent by these nuns in Ohio. On learning this, the major again 
urged that it should be written to the general, and offered to carry 
the letter himself. The nuns consented, and while the letter was 
being prepared he said, frowning and sternly, "You did wrong, sis- 
ters, very wrong, to make your house a place of deposit for valu- 

The Burning of Columbia. 291 

ables." This showed he had had information about the town. "You 
make a great mistake," replied a nun ; "we have refused to receive 
anything like silver or jewels, because we are in charge of what is 
much more precious — the daughters of our friends — and we would 
not risk their safety by receiving what might invite to pillage. We 
have taken fine pictures, books, etc., but nothing that could be called 
valuables." The major left us, expressing his surprise at the calm- 
ness of the sisters, which he contrasted to the alarm of the people of 
Savannah. He did not know that this calm was caused by their 
ignorance of the outside world, and the fact that they had not a 
suspicion of what they were to witness. Faithful to his promise, 
he returned about three in the afternoon, looking much pleased, and 
accompanied by seven men. "Here," said he, "is a treasure, written 
by the general's own hand." Saying this, he gave the nuns the 
envelope of their letter, on which was written, in pencil : "Com : 
l'ofncier voisin de proteger the Convent avec zele. Sherman, Maj.- 
Gene. Col. Palmer, 25me Ioua, fournira une compagnie (96 
hommes) pour ce service. J. W. Jenkins, P. M. Sergt., S. C. Mott, 
Co. 25 la."* "Now," said Major FitzGibbons, with satisfaction, "I 
can answer for your safety and for the safety of all in the Convent. I 
have brought with me seven picked men, on whom you can rely. I 
have chosen purposely American Protestants as better fitted to de- 
fend you against those with whom they will come in conflict, and if 
you have need of my help you will find me at the Rev. Dr. O'Con- 
nell's." At this moment Dr. O'Connell was announced. He looked 
tired and preoccupied, but the happy major did not seem to notice 
it, for he saluted him cheerfully, adding, with a laugh, as he went 
out, 'T have taken your house for my lodging." 

For the first time, the sisters began to suspect that some mys- 
terious trouble was impending. They became very uneasy for the 
welfare of about forty of their pupils, who, being far from their 
families, were, on that account, a great responsibility. These pupils, 
with several nuns, had been sent the day before to Valle Crucis. 
about three miles from the town, to avoid the shells which were 
falling round and about the Convent. 

When the town was occupied in the morning, a vain effort had 
been made to get a pass and a guard to bring this party back to the 
Convent. To the surprise of the sisters, nuns and scholars, all 

*This order is given here in French, as it appears in the circular letter. The nuns 
having translated it from English into French, a retranslation might not be exactly in 
General Sherman's words. 

292 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

returned, having as protectors a cavalry officer in front, and another 
in the rear of their ranks. This is what had happened : While they 
were waiting at Valle Crucis for some one to escort them back to 
town, two soldiers on horseback appeared in the avenue, flourishing 
their weapons in the air, and shouting, "Burn it ! burn it ! Hampton's 
palace! burn it!" One of them, jumping off his horse, ran towards 
the front step; the other ran into one of the front halls, to set fire 
to it. At this moment, the sister on guard came out to meet the 
man at the front door, who, amazed at the sight of a nun, bowed 
very politely and excused himself, saying, "Pardon me, madam, is 
not this the house of General Hampton ?" "No," she replied, point- 
ing to the cross and the words "Convent of Valle Crucis" ; "don't 
you see it is a Convent?" "No, sister, I am very sorry, I assure 
you ; if I had known it I would never have approached it, much less 
come in. I beg your pardon. Can I be of any use to you ?" "Cer- 
tainly," replied the nun; "I accept your offer and will be very glad 
of an escort to accompany us to town, if you can get us one. I have 
just received a letter from my superior, who is anxious to see us all 
reunited, and is much troubled that she cannot get us an escort." 
"Here we are, sister!" And the two soldiers put themselves at 
their disposal and took them safely to the Convent. On the way, 
they were much frightened by hearing cries of terror from the people 
whose burning houses they saw in every direction, with soldiers 
going about everywhere, as their two escorts had done at Valle 
Crucis. At one place, a young girl, almost crazed with fright, ran 
to take refuge and protection among the nuns. You may judge of 
the thankfulness that filled all hearts when the Convent door opened 
to this party. Their escort returned to them politely their little 
baggage, which they had insisted upon carrying. 

In the town, scenes were enacted distressing beyond the imagina- 
tion of these cloistered nuns. All were invited to the pillage of the 
town — negroes, criminals of the jails, etc. The sisters feared that 
the neighborhood of some government buildings might put their 
home in danger, and on this account they put some clothes into bags 
that could be easily carried ; but certainly they were not prepared for 
what they were to witness that night. Men, running along like 
lamplighters, carried pots of combustibles and lighted torches, which 
they applied everywhere. 

After giving supper to the sentinels, the sisters all met in the hall 
of recreation, where they were congratulating themselves on their 
reunion, and even laughing over the walk from Valle Crucis, when 

The Burning of Columbia. 293 

one of their number came in, saying that she thought there was a 
fire in town. "Don't be frightened," said another; "we are so happy 
at being all together again." "And," said another sister, "you must 
be mistaken, for we haven't heard the alarm bell." However, they 
went to look, and what was their astonishment to see the sky filled 
with the light of flames which, though far off, were frightful. The 
silence of death reigned around them ; not a bell was heard ; not the 
sound of a human voice in the condemned town. They only saw 
soldiers and officers going about with an expression of triumph. 

However, down near the depot, where flames had been set, things 
were not so calm. There confusion reigned, for the soldiers were 
preventing the townspeople from using the fire engines. 

In the awful silence of this terrible night, the sisters could hear 
nothing but the roar of flames and the fall of buildings ; and these 
flames, carried by a violent wind, seemed to hasten on their way 
to the Convent. The nuns begged one of the guards to send for 
Major FitzGibbons, but he refused, saying, in a sullen tone, that he 
did not know where to find him. They begged two others to go on 
the roof, which was flat, to see what might be done in case the fire 
came near ; they showed them buckets of water, which had been pre- 
pared in case of need ; but the cold indifference of some of these men, 
and the undisguised pleasure of others, made the sisters understand 
that they had nothing to hope from them. The Rev. Dr. O'Connell 
had come early, accompanied by the Rev. Wm. McNeal, to carry 
away the Holy Sacrament. The nuns, hoping against hope, begged 
him not to deprive them of so great a consolation, as the danger was 
not yet imminent. They were much impressed by the expression of 
the priests' faces, but being ignorant of much that was passing out- 
side, they still comforted themselves. 

Soon the two priests came back, and then they could no longer 
doubt. They went with lighted tapers to the chapel, where the 
almoner gave them for the last time the benediction of the Holy 
Sacrament. The silence was broken only by sobs from the youngest 
sisters — a feeble testimony to the emotion felt by all. The two 
priests then went out, and the resting place of the Holy Sacrament 
during this eventful night was the breast of the young and devout 
priest, who was obliged, in order to avoid the insults of the soldiers, 
to go by the most out-of-the-way streets. This priest was the Rev. 
Father McNeal. 

As danger approached, the parents of the scholars came to find 
their children, and the nuns, at last understanding their situation, 

294 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

prepared to save some clothes and other articles, dragging the trunks 
which contained them out into the middle of the court. The guards, 
seeing them exhausted by this work, said, "You deserve it; you 
brought it on yourselves," and, with the greatest hardness, refused 
any help. Three of them, however, touched by the sweet patience 
with which the nuns bore this rudeness, came at last to their assist- 

The danger now was imminent, and so great a number of soldiers 
were crowding about the house that it was thought best to send the 
scholars and the younger nuns to a place of safety. Each scholar 
was given a package, and they were told to form into ranks, so that, 
in spite of fright and confusion, any one who happened not to be 
there would be missed. The signal was given, and they went out' 
in the same order always observed in their walks. Their good con- 
duct excited the admiration of the soldiers, who said, "Those girls 
are as well disciplined as our troops ; they do credit to their school." 
The Rev. Dr. O'Connell accompanied them to the Catholic Church, 
which stood in the midst of the conflagration, but far from other 

By this time, sparks and pieces of burning wood were falling all 
around the Convent, and the nuns still remaining were advised to 
leave while it was yet possible. Fortunately, none of them were 
aged ; but one was helpless from rheumatism. What could be done 
with her ? She could not walk, and no carriage was to be had. Our 
anxiety was becoming terrible, when a young officer found a car- 
riage, and we were able to take her to rejoin the others at the church. 

Dr. Gallagher, a surgeon, expressed his regret that his regiment 
was not in town, as, being composed of Catholics, it would have 
helped us. 

Several of the lay sisters had been shocked at the conduct of the 
sentinels. One of them, from Connecticut, had lost two nephews 
in the Northern Army. Another, from Cincinnati, thinking that 
her brother was in the ranks, said aloud, "I didn't believe there were 
such bad people in Cincinnati ; at least I have never seen them." 
"Are you from Cincinnati ?" asked a soldier ; "then I will help you." 
* * * But he could do nothing, as we were then obliged to leave 
the Convent on account of the extreme danger. A third sister, 
with almost girlish pleasure, was looking forward to the entrance of 
the army, in hopes that she might see her five brothers, from whom 
she had heard nothing since the beginning of the war. Her joy 
was short, for the shock she received that night caused her death ! 

The Burning of Columbia. 295 

The pillage of the Convent had commenced at about midnight, 
by the light of the flames. The guards, thinking all had gone, went 
upstairs, opened the pianos, and played and danced. One of them 
ran downstairs to the dormitory of the scholars, carrying with him 
a pretty little holy water font, which he, laughing, insultingly shook 
in the face of a nun. Then he, with others, rushed to the dor- 
mitory of the sisters; but they were stopped by a venerable old man, 
whose daughter was in the Convent, and who did his best to protect 
those nuns who were still in the building. "Those rooms," said he, 
"are sacred; you can't go in." The majestic manner and gray hair 
of Mr. S. C. stopped them for one moment; but they rushed off in 
another direction. Hatchets and crowbars came into play, and doors 
soon gave way. The handsome dresses of the pupils were thrown 
all over the courts ; books, music, etc., were tossed in every direction, 
and the trunks broken and emptied. Of all the provisions, gathered 
with so much foresight, nothing was left but a little box of coffee, 
brought to the nuns by Dr. Gallagher, of Ohio. We owe thanks to 
this gentleman for his services to us through this night. 

The guard promised us by General Sherman and Major Fitz- 
Gibbons were most likely engaged in a more lucrative manner during 
those hours. 

When the first nuns left the Convent, they thought it would be 
only for a few hours. The first salutation they heard in the street 
was, "Well, ladies, what you think of the Yankees — cruel, eh?" But 
this was only from the common people. Father O'Connell wanted 
to conduct the second group through the principal streets, thinking, 
in the goodness of his heart, that such a scene must touch all be- 
holders; but the increase of the fire made it too dangerous. They 
were met by men on horseback, who called out, with great politeness, 
"Go on, sisters ; we will take you to a safe place." Fire was falling 
so thick that it burned the veils and dresses of the nuns on their way 
to join their sisters in the graveyard. 

Deceived by false promises of protection, by ignorance of what 
was passing in the town, and by the cold tranquility of their guards, 
the nuns thought they were safe in leaving all they possessed in the 
house, saving only their scholars and themselves from fire, and from 
contact with the soldiery. In this way they lost everything. At 
three o'clock in the morning, they saw the fall of the cross which 
had stood on the cupola of the Convent. Up to this time, some of 
them still thought their home would escape; but it was destroyed 
with the rest. 

296 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

While the nuns from their place of safety stood watching the 
progress of the flames and the incendiaries as they ran from house 
to house, setting them on fire, a friend came to them to say that he 
had just seen the Convent set on fire. He had watched all that time, 
in the hope that it might providentially be saved ; but a man — one of 
the guards, he thought — called out, probably in derision, "Where can 
I find water?" Our friend ran forward to help; but he saw the 
soldier himself set a torch to the building, and realized that an offer 
of help was useless. 

The nuns, seeing and feeling the flames, thought there would soon 
be no safety even among the graves. Outside the graveyard, sen- 
tinels were walking, and others were grouped in front of Mrs. 
Ringgold's house, adjoining the church. She was the wife of a 
United States officer, and her house was occupied by soldiers. 
Others of the men, half drunk, staggered down the streets, blowing 
the smoke of their cigars into the nuns' faces, saying, ''Holy ! oh ! yes ; 
holy ! We are just as holy as you are !" Two came into the church, 
carrying fire and inflammables, but seeing themselves watched, they 
went off after a moment's hesitation, and hid their incendiary ma- 
terials in a ditch in the graveyard, leaving Colonel Curley, who 
seemed determined to save the church, walking backward and for- 
ward, looking very unhappy. 

Two of the nuns, having gone apart to consult whether it was 
not better to take their scholars to the neighboring woods, were 
startled by hearing a voice behind them say, "Your position is most 
distressing to me." It was an officer, who had heard their conver- 
sation, and seemed deeply distressed. The sisters, distinguishing 
his figure by the light of the fire, said, "You seem to pity us." 
"Truly I do," he answered. "Are you a Catholic?" they asked. 
"No, madam." "From what State do you come?" "From Indi- 
ana." When the nuns expressed their surprise and gratitude at his 
sympathy, he went on to say, "There was a time when I was proud 
of being a United States officer, but when I see such things as this 
I am ashamed * * •*." 

When day broke, we were still at the door of the church, suffer- 
ing from cold and hunger — without a home, without shelter, food, 
a bed to lie on after so much fatigue, and not even clothes enough 
to keep us warm ! 

The crowd looked at us through the railings of the church — some 
with sympathy, some with surprise and curiosity. One good man 
brought us, with tears in his eyes, a crucifix and a cloak, the only 

The Burning of Columbia. 297 

things saved from the fire. Another, unable to speak, went off 
wiping away his tears, to find General Sherman and plead our cause 
with him. 

Three neighboring families, whose houses had escaped, sent the 
nuns hot coffee, which they received with gratitude. They also in- 
vited them to their homes ; but, sooner than separate, they preferred 
to wait in the churchyard until refuge could be found for all. 

Some Irish soldiers coming to see if mass were to be held in the 
church, cried out, on seeing the nuns, "This will never do! The 
general would not allow this if he knew it ! Send for the general !" 
One of them, from Rochester, brought to a lay sister a letter from 
her father, and waited for her to write an answer on the blank page 
of a book. She wrote, sitting on the cold stone of the church step, 
while the man stood looking at her sadly. What could he tell her 
people of their daughter? Perhaps he was one who had caused the 
night's disaster ! 

At this moment General Sherman came up on horseback, with 
several officers, and stopped at Mr. Ringgold's door. "There is the 
general," cried out the Irishman; "go and speak to him." Remem- 
bering that the general had promised the day before to come to see 
them, and remembering his promises of protection, the nuns depu- 
tized two of their number to go and tell him that he would find them 
all in the churchyard. 

A crowd of officers and soldiers were talking to Mrs. Ringgold 
and her family at her house door. The general, on horseback, 
smoked his cigar, and seemed in very good spirits. He received 
the news very civilly, but kept his seat on his horse. He said he 
intended going to see them. After some minutes, he dismounted 
and went into the graveyard to the mother superior. She came 
forward to meet him as he approached. He pressed her hand and 
said, in a very cheerful tone, "Ah! there are times when one must 
practice patience and Christian endurance." "You have prepared 
for us one of those moments, general," said the superior. "I am 
really very sorry," he said, "that your Convent is burned." They 
then had some moments of conversation. 

Meantime, a number of ladies came into the graveyard. The of- 
ficers dismounted and stood respectfully, holding the bridles of their 
horses. The nuns and scholars drew close to look at one of the 
greatest living generals — the Attila of his day. All around were 
broken and empty trunks and boxes, which strewed the ground. 
On the porch of the church stood a harp, with broken strings. 

298 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The comments of some of the ladies did not seem very agreeable 
to General Sherman, who called out, raising his voice, "Ladies, it 
is all the fault of your negroes, who gave my soldiers liquor; it is 
the fault of your mayor, who ought to have sent off all the liquor 
before the army entered the town." Then, turning to the nuns, he 
offered them their choice of houses in the town, promising them a 
strong guard to protect them. A day earlier the nuns might have 
asked protection for their home and property. It was now too late. 
However, the offer was kindly made, and received with gratitude. 

From here the account goes on to say that the nuns took refuge 
in the Methodist Female College, and from there moved to the house 
of General John S. Preston, thus, no doubt, saving those buildings 
from destruction. 

The paper closes with various letters, one being from General 
Preston, expressing his thanks for the preservation of his house. 

The Burning of the Urs\iline Convent 

by Sherman. 

Only a schoolgirl, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-five, 
February seventeenth, Columbia, South Carolina, Ursuline Convent. 
What do these dates recall to the woman of today ? A terrible "army 
with banners," clad in blue, burnished blades and well polished guns, 
an endless stream of soldiers — infantry, cavalry, and artillery — from 
various countries of this globe, entering a beautiful city, situated on 
the banks of a tawny river, which had been formally surrendered 
by the Mayor and Aldermen, and thus, by the laws of civilized war- 
fare, was entitled to protection from the conqueror's soldiery. 

From behind the shuttered windows of a sacred edifice, a group 
of schoolgirls viewed Sherman's army as it filed below on the Main 
street of the fair capital of South Carolina. Well disciplined, and 
well accoutered, on and on they marched through the city of sup- 
pressed woe, giving no omen of the awful night awaiting us, no 
prophecy of the dark events to be enacted in a few hours, never to 
be forgotten by those of us who suffered from the swift, cruel 
demolition of Columbia. Some of these events I am going to dis- 
passionately portray. 

So soon as the army entered Columbia, on the morning of the 
17th of February, 1865, Rev. Father O'Connell, the revered and be- 
loved chaplain of the Convent for many years, interested himself to 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 299 

obtain a guard for us. The Convent was kept free from intrusion 
whilst other portions of the city suffered from pillage and insults. 
Later in the day, a cavalry officer sought admittance to the Convent, 
and introduced himself to our mother superior. This elegant, ac- 
complished woman was Miss Ellen Lynch, sister of Bishop Lynch, 
one of South Carolina's most distinguished prelates and students, 
whose works have been translated into several languages. Dr. John 
Lynch, another brother, who bears a conspicuous part in this narra- 
tive, was also representatively connected with his State. He was 
born at sea; thus it will be seen his eventful life began out of the 
usual auspices. "Dr. Lynch graduated at the South Carolina Medical 
College, and practiced the last twenty-one years of his life in Colum- 
bia. A member of the Richland Medical Society, of the Pee Dee 
Medical Association, of the South Carolina Medical State Society. 
In 1852, a delegate to the National Medical Association. In 1865, 
was appointed by Governor Magrath surgeon-general of the State 
of South Carolina. In 1877, reappointed by Governor Wade Hamp- 
ton. He was physician to the State Hospital of the State Peniten- 
tiary, and professor of physiology and materia medica in the Medi- 
cal School of the University of South Carolina, filling this chair 
until the close of the University, in 1877." — Extract from "Physicians 
and Surgeons of the United States." 

In 1858, the second attempt to establish the Ursulines in South 
Carolina was made by Rt. Rev. P. N. Lynch, Bishop England 
having failed. The Convent in Columbia was established by a 
colony from St. Martins, Brown County, Ohio — Sister Baptista 
Lynch the superioress. The trip was a trying and tedious one for 
these saintly women of God, resting with the Carmelite nuns at Bal- 
timore, in whose community another sister of Bishop Lynch was 
found. The Ursulines reached Columbia the first of September, 
and settled in a house recently vacated by the Sisters of Mercy, who 
had gone to Charleston. 

After many trials and discomforts in the passing years, we find 
this saintly order of nuns prosperous and happily successful on the 
17th day of February, when the cavalry officer proffered assistance 
to the mother superior, as an "individual," which puzzled her very 
much. General Sherman's promise, through Father O'Connell and 
Dr. Lynch, of protection to the Convent having completely satisfied 
our superioress, and lured her into the belief that our Convent home 
would be safe, this officer was thanked for his kindly interest, and 
his offer declined. He continued to press his services, telling the 

300 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

mother superior that Columbia was a doomed city, and the whole 
army knew it, and he doubted if a house would be left standing-. 
Quite a lengthy conversation ensued, the officer showing much 
prophetic knowledge, and concern for our safety. After he left, 
the mother superior asked her brother, Dr. John Lynch, to go to 
General Sherman and find out if the Convent would be safe, and 
to give him the number of pupils and nuns she was responsible for. 

Dr. Lynch was assured by General Sherman the Convent was to 
be protected, and advised him "to keep his sister where she was — 
outside the city limits he could not control stragglers." The poor 
confiding religieuses, unused to falsity, calmly settled into renewed 
security and resisted all advice of friends in the city to move from 
the Convent. Later on in this eventful day the mother superior was 
again warned of the impending fate of the city. She then wrote 
General Sherman a letter, reminding him of "her personal as well 
as religious claim upon his protection, because of her friendship with 
his sister, her former classmate, and his daughter having been her 

To this note, General Sherman replied, advising her to remain 
where she was ; that her Convent should be protected. Although 
the necessity of war compelled the destruction of certain public build- 
ings, she need fear no harm to her Convent. 

About 3 p. m., Major FitzGibbons returned to the Convent (the 
same officer referred to), and brought with him several guards. He 
gave the mother superior an envelope, on which was written, in Gen- 
eral Sherman's handwriting: "Commanding officer near: Protect 
the Convent. Colonel Palmer, 25th Iowa, furnish ninety-six men for 
this duty. J. W. Jenkins, P. M. Sergt., J. C. Motte, Co. 25, 26." 
"Now," said the major, with a joyful air; "I can assure you of the 
safety of all in this Convent ; I bring with me seven picked men ; I 
have chosen them for a purpose — American Protestants." 

We learned from several soldiers that the Catholic regiment had 
been left over the river. The note from General Sherman was 
signed by his name, as commander-in-chief U. S. A. 

Father O'Connell returned at this time, looking very sad and 
anxious. His kindly old face aroused forebodings in the nuns ; they 
began interviewing us in sections, and preparing small bundles of 
clothing for each pupil, with instruction how to act should we have 
to leave the Convent. We were ignorant of the wild pillaging and 
sacking going on all over the city. Our Convent was situated at 
the corner of Main and Blanding streets, remote from most of the 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 301 

dwelling houses. It is needless to dwell upon the details of that 
dreadful day. Magdeburg never endured greater clanger and suf- 
fering. As darkness crept on, the roar as of a mighty wind over 
seething waters penetrated the thick walls of the Convent. Flames 
began to shoot up simultaneously in opposite parts of the doomed 
city, yet no warning note of the fire bell proclaimed the destroying 
tongues of flame now fast and furiously ascending. 

A pathetic silence prevailed in the Convent, unbroken by the sweet 
Angelus bell, which we had heard for the last time, and answered 
by devout prayers of both nuns and pupils. Later in the even- 
ing the venerable Father O'Connell, accompanied by his assistant, 
young Father McNeal, came to remove the blessed sacrament, this 
being the second attempt to do so, the nuns wishing to keep the host 
near them as long as possible on their altar. Realizing now our 
great danger, they sadly consented to let the sacred host be taken to 
a place of greater safety, should one be found. Father McNeal is 
an aged and beloved priest, now residing in Sumter, S. C. 

I can never forget the solemn, piteous sight of the black-robed 
nuns following their aged chaplain into the pretty little chapel to 
receive their last benediction of the blessed sacrament before that 
sacredly guarded altar. Stifled sobs, disjointed responses to the 
"Dominus vobiscum," evidenced the emotion of their breaking hearts. 
Some of us, although not Catholics at that time, instinctively fol- 
lowed the nuns into their chapel and witnessed a scene "nor time, nor 
tide, nor circumstance" will ever erase. 

When we returned from the chapel, after these harrowing min- 
utes, Protestant as well as Catholic children knelt with the nun, 
Madame Ursula, in a classroom very near the little "altar of God," 
and recited the rosary. These pious nuns, believing "more things 
are wrought by prayer than the world dreams of," had constant 
recourse to the rosary. While we were on our knees, we were 
brought standing by the most unearthly battering in of the chapel 
door behind us, and reached by a stairway from the Main street side. 
It was like the crash of doom. Drunken soldiers piled over each 
other, rushing for the sacred gold vessels of the altar, not know- 
ing they were safe in the keeping of one blessed of God. 

The summons just then came for Madame Ursula to march her 
girls into the long main hall ; we gladly obeyed, not knowing 
when the door between us and the soldiers would give way to their 
demoniacal batterings. Curses and threats filled the Convent when 
they found the gold chalice had escaped their polluted hands. 

302 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Warren Adams, Mrs. B. W. Taylor, Mrs. Seignious (nee 
Heyward), Belle Cohen, myself, and two little sisters, took counsel 
together and decided to make one last attempt to rescue our jewels 
from trunks in the "trunk room" nearby. While hastily gathering 
a few valuables, we were rudely accosted by a soldier anxious to 
begin his pillaging, and ordered to "get out" — and we did. I threw 
around me a large circular, part of my married sister's trousseau, 
and many times afterwards found it a great comfort, as we used 
it to cover us during the cold nights that followed. I took it 
from the trunk, however, more to conceal my case of jewels than 
for use. 

The signal was given by the mother superior to get into ranks. 
W r e marched through the blazing streets with the precision of a 
military band. It was our safety. Father O'Connell led the pro- 
cession, a crucifix held high above his head. The main body of nuns 
followed (a few remained, hoping still to save something), then the 
pupils, the smaller between the larger for protection. Not a cry; 
not a moan. Even the drunken soldiers seemed silenced for a 
little while by this grand sight of Church triumphing over War! 
The roaring of the fire, the scorching flames on either side as we 
marched down Blanding street, did not create the least disorder. 
That majestic figure of the mother superior, in the graceful black 
habit of the Ursuline order, following where the sacred crucifix 
led; the long line of anxious, white young faces of the schoolgirls, 
in wake of the community of religieuses, will stand out vividly before 
me unto my last day on earth. It was a scene worthy a Rubens or 
a Durer. 

Reaching the intersection of Blanding and Assembly streets, Father 
O'Connell halted. The rioting soldiers filled him with dismay. He 
hesitated between the church on our left and the park on our right. 
He decided on the church. I do not remember how long it was 
before the nuns who remained in the Convent got to us. They did, 
though, in safety, although several of them had large holes burned 
in their veils. Some officers, seeing their timidity in the streets, yet 
unknown to them, reined in their horses and, with our faithful 
Father O'Connell, acted as an escort to them. Our first band left 
the Convent about up. m., with beating hearts. It was not until 
about 3 a. m. that the cross above the Convent fell, and not until 
after other buildings near had succumbed. Some of the piously 
faithful believed to the last that the Convent would be miraculously 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 303 

Soldiers were seen with torches to fire it from the roof. Some of 
the ruder soldiers asked the good nuns, as they watched their home 
being destroyed, "What do you think of God now? Is not Sherman 
greater ? Do you think now you are sanctified ? We are as sanctified 
as you." It seemed at one time as if our resting place among the 
tombs was to be taken from us. The old churchyard was destined 
to be the arena of strange enactments — the dignified religieuse, the 
noble sister of our great bishop, calmly and bravely and righteously 
facing the Attila of the day; a meeting between a soldier and his 
nun sister, to whom he had brought a letter from their father in 
Rochester, N. Y. On the porch of the church leaned a harp, with 
its chords snapped. 

We were utterly worn out by the long strain of the bombardment, 
the taking and sacking of the city, the onslaught on the Convent, 
the march to the church, so, like the daughters of Judah "by the 
rivers of Babylon, we sat down and wept." The ever-watchful nuns 
soothed and cheered us as best they could. Some of the pupils only 
numbered seven and six years of age ; one little girl, five. We did 
not need much persuasion to lie down in the cushioned pews and 
sleep, while, like the Master of old, "they would watch." God bless 
them ! They did watch with a tenderness born of Him they served 
and loved so well. 

We had not enjoyed the sweet oblivion of slumber very long when 
we were aroused by the fearful cry of a thieving party of "bluecoats" 
that the church was "going to be blown up! Get out all who don't 
want to be killed !" This diabolical cry was raised to cause the 
panic that ensued in order to get our little parcels of valuables. The 
nuns themselves knew not what to do. Over the graves, against 
tombstones, and into hedges, the frantic children flew. Officers 
passing the church stopped and inquired the cause of this wild rush. 
On being told, they quickly came to our aid, cursed the soldiers, 
and threatened them with punishment. A guard was then stationed 
around the church. But none of the promises made by these better 
disposed officers could induce us to return within. 

It was nearly daybreak, so we clung around the nuns in the yard, 
under the trees, and in the vestibule of the church. That morning 
the interview referred to took place between General Sherman and 
the mother superior, midway of the walk leading to the steps of the 
church. She was leaning against the door of the church, tired and 
faint, when informed that General Sherman was coming, in answer 
to her request that he should do so. She stood erect, like an injured 

304 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

empress dethroned. With graceful, dignified bearing, she pro- 
ceeded to the spot designated, and stood there in the majesty of 
her sacred order, and her own grand womanhood, awaiting the 
approach of the commander of the United States Army, who had 
betrayed her confidence in his truth and honor. How plainly I see 
that splendid, intellectual face, the intelligent gray eyes full of fire 
and self-reliance. Surrounded by her nuns and some of her pupils, 
she received General Sherman. He was not so calm. A guilty 
conscience evidently rendered him nervous, and he greeted her con- 

As he approached the mother superior, he removed the cigar he 
was smoking; in his embarrassment, he restored it to his lips, 
nervously chewing it. Our great respect and deference for our 
superioress caused me to remark to the nun beside me, "Smoking in 
the mother superior's presence." General Sherman removed the 
cigar for the second time, with an apology, holding it, throughout 
the interview, slightly behind him. The mother superior's hands 
were folded in the loose, flowing sleeves of her habit until General 
Sherman began explaining how the fire got beyond his control from 
buildings he had to burn, and blamed our men for leaving liquor in 
the city, etc. 

This irritated rather than pacified the mother superior. With a 
sweep of the strong, aristocratic hand, in the direction of her 
Convent, and the still burning city, she said, "General, this is 
how you kept your promise to me, a cloistered nun." The sweet, 
low voice, filled with injured pathos, touched even his heart, for he 
left off excusing himself and began immediately to speak, offering 
her any of the houses "left standing" as a gift. Slightly bowing her 
head, and with a sad, sarcastic curve of her lips, she answered, "Gen- 
eral Sherman, I do not think the houses left are yours to give, but 
when I do make arrangements for my community and pupils, I will 
thank you to move us and provide food for the large number it will 
be hard to feed." 

Our sufferings would never have been what they were had Gen- 
eral Sherman left us to the advice of the priests, and other friends, 
who wished the mother superior to move out to Bishop Lynch's 
villa. This distinguished prelate was in Rome. Dr. John Lynch 
discussed our removal with General Sherman, but he steadfastly ad- 
vised keeping the nuns in the city. We were subjected to vandalism 
worse than that of the Middle Ages, for then vestal shrines were 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 305 

General Sherman had with him at this interview, standing in the 
rear, Col. Charles Ewing and Captain Andenreid, and others. I 
remember their names, for the former was deputed to take charge 
of us, and the latter was a great friend and classmate of Gen. P. M. 
B. Young, on whose staff my brother Robert was, and he talked 
much of Captain Andenreid to me after the war. Colonel Ewing 
proved kind and sympathetic. He brought ambulances to move us 
to the Methodist College later in the day. 

Mrs. Ringgold, the widow of a United States officer, lived in a 
little cottage next to the church, and was protected early in the 
night from all intrusion because of her husband's rank in the United 
States Army. She and Mrs. John Lynch, in whose house an officer 
had made himself and staff comfortable, sent us hot coffee and bread, 
which, after our fatigue, proved most acceptable. 

Dr. Solomons, a refugee from Charleston, and a great admirer of 
my father, Judge Alfred Proctor Aldrich, found us in the church- 
yard. After getting the mother superior's consent to take the Hey- 
wards, my sisters and myself (for we would not separate) over to 
Mrs. Ringgold's, he insisted that we must sleep. We consented to 
do so after his promise to sit outside the door until we called 
him. This he did, and we had several hours of blessed sleep. The 
doctor then restored us to the mother superior, in the church. 

Towards noon, the ambulances arrived — Colonel Ewing in charge 
— and we moved to the Methodist Female College. Colonel Ewing 
turned one floor over to us, placing a strong guard of soldiers around 
it, thereby saving it for us, as well as the unwilling neighbors on the 
other floors. We were given army bedding; thin pads of cotton, and 
a few blankets were also issued to us ; rations of hardtack, by Colonel 
Ewing's order, and a small supply of groceries. We were very 
wretched and uncomfortable. This college having been a Con- 
federate hospital, we were in constant dread of its being fired, and 
another routing out. 

We had one pot to cook the meager rations in, and a broken tongs, 
washed and scoured, to stir the mess we called a meal — rice, or 
hominy, and a piece of meat, when so fortunate as to get a scrap 
given us, to flavor the cereal. This conglomeration was doled out 
to us in little tin cups, a legacy from the stores of the wealthy United 
States government. Wooden paddles, on the order of ''chopsticks," 
took the place of spoons and forks. 

Two of the nuns, too delicate for such hardships, finally entered 
"into that peace which passeth all understanding." The morning 

306 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of the army's departure, two things transpired of moment : Captain 
Comyn, of the commissary department, brought us "ten days rations," 
as he termed a kind offering of meat, sugar, coffee, tea, flour, and 
hardtack. But for these things we would have suffered greatly, the 
rice and meal Colonel Ewing gave us having been exhausted. 

The second event was that which led to the saving of the Preston 
home. Sister Agnes — one of the lay sisters — and I went down to 
the hydrant to fill our bucket. Being fearless, I was often sent by 
the nuns on errands. While we were waiting, we heard the in- 
coming guard cursing his luck that he would not be on hand to help 
burn the house of the d — old rebel, Wade Hampton, and get his 
share of plunder, swearing the "old traitor" would not find a wall 
standing if he ever got home. Sister Agnes and I hastened to repeat 
this to the mother superior, a true friend of the Hamptons and Pres- 
tons, these two families having sympathized and protected the nuns 
in their early settlement in Columbia. 

The mother superior was lost in thought for a few minutes, after 
which she said, in her self-reliant way, "This cannot be permitted," 
and retired, with several of her nuns, into her room. She soon 
returned, with a little scrap of paper in her hand — an old book 
leaf, it looked to be. She asked if I was afraid to go with 
Sister Agnes and get the guard, or any soldier, to take the 
note quickly to General Sherman. We all felt that anything 
asked by the mother superior it was an honor and privilege to 
comply with. We were seeking a messenger; the guard refused 
to leave his post. In our search, we were stopped by an officer 
riding up, followed by an orderly. I ran to him and repeated 
the mother superior's wish. He said, rather indifferently, "I guess 
my orderly may take the note." I handed it to him, he having dis- 
mounted by this time. He read the little piece of writing, and 
hastily remounted his fine horse, saying, "Tell the superioress I will 
take the note myself, and deliver it." He galloped off, and that was 
the last I ever saw of that gentlemanly soldier. 

Recalling Sherman's handsome offer "of any house standing," 
the mother superior in that note asked for the Preston home. Very- 
soon Colonel Ewing and Captain Comyn called. The former looked 
excited, and talked rapidly. He was dressed like a cavalryman, and 
had a crop in his hand, and struck his boot top while he talked. He 
asked the mother superior if she knew the Preston house was Gen- 
eral Logan's headquarters. She said, "Yes ; but General Sherman 
offered me any house I wished, and this one suits me better than any 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 307 

other." Colonel Ewing replied, "Well, I have come to move you ; 
but that house, I know, has been ordered to be burned tomorrow 
morning, when the army leaves ; but if you will take it for a convent, 
I will ask the general to countermand the order." This was done, 
and the following morning Dr. John Lynch, Madame Charles, 
Madame Josephine, and other nuns, some of the pupils, my two little 
sisters, and several of the girls stopping with the nuns, were asked 
to accompany the party to take possession of the Preston house, the 
officer in charge having sent us word that his order was to "fire it 
unless the nuns were in possession." 

When we reached the beautiful old place, we found fire had been 
built, and the servants were rapidly moving out things ; indeed, with 
the exception of the two front parlors, all the rooms had been cleared. 
The lovely statue of Eve, a gift from Powers to Colonel Preston, in 
gratitude for his help when the gifted sculptor was struggling for 
his education in art, stood arrayed, in the corner of one of the par- 
lors, in an old army coat and cap, and a black mustache desecrating 
her "faultily faultless lips." 

Mother Etienne, assistant to the mother superior, was placed in 
charge of this portion of the Ursuline community. After many 
years, the nuns paid their debt of gratitude to the Prestons right 
royally by saving their elegant home from the torch of Sherman's 
soldiers. Every Sunday, we assembled in the chapel of the Metho- 
dist Female College for the holy sacrifice of the mass, Rev. Father 
McNeal, celebrant. Later in the day, the Methodists held their ser- 
vices in the same room. In May, 1865, General John S. Preston 
returned to Columbia and took possession of his house, expressing 
sincere gratitude to the nuns for saving it. This community then 
returned to the Methodist College and rejoined their sisters. 

August 16th of this year, Sister de Sales (Miss Clarx) and Sister 
Camilla received the "white veil" at the hands of Rev. Father H. F. 
Gasche, S. J., he having traveled from Savannah, Ga., at his own ex- 
pense, in a government ambulance, to conduct the annual retreat of 
the nuns. The railroads had been destroyed by Sherman's army on 
their devastating "march to the sea." 

This was truly a remarkable epoch in the history of our dear nuns. 
Their vicissitudes, so quietly, courageously endured, could only have 
been thus suffered through the goodness of God and their sublime 
faith in Him. Their vows of self-abnegation were sorely tried in 
1865-66-67. Yet, like pure gold, they passed through the fiery 
furnace, and today the Ursuline Convent and Academy, a handsome 

308 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

brick building, in the same Columbia, gives proof of the Master's 
care of those who "keep His laws." 

Thirty or forty Protestant families were still in the Methodist 
College when the nuns rejoined the mother superior there. Episco- 
palians, Methodists, Presbyterians, and others, all united in showing 
respect — some of them reverence — to the religieuses and the kind 
Jesuit father. A room on the second floor was assigned him as a 
parlor, and it was often the pleasure of the Protestant ladies to leave 
on his little pine table any delicacy they had the good fortune to 
secure. Some days the lives of the nuns were brightened by gifts 
of flowers for their altar. 

War is a great leveler, and in one way a great humanizer. I could 
give pages connected with the Convent, but space is limited. Some 
day, perhaps, the Ursulines may give up "Annals of the Ursuline 
Convent" for publication. Much of it contains a diary kept by 
Madame Charles, begun soon after the burning of the Convent, and 
from which, together with my schoolgirl notes, I have been able to 
give this authentic account. 

Many were the privations and distresses of the nuns crowded to- 
gether on the third floor. It was a blessing in disguise when Dr. 
Parker, president of the college, notified them they must vacate the 
house by September ist, as it had been rented for a hotel. The 
nuns had been refused the lease of the college, and no other house 
in the city large enough for their number being found, they were 
obliged to abandon their day school, a small source of revenue, and 
move out to Valle Crucis, the country villa of Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Lynch, whose absence in Rome left his beloved sister entirely on the 
care of Dr. John Lynch, and other true hearts devoted to her in- 

Dr. Lynch secured from the commandant of the post, Colonel 
Haughton, wagons to move the nuns, and their little furniture, 
kindly given or lent them by their more fortunate friends. Among 
the seacoast refugees who aided them were Mrs. Nathaniel Hey- 
ward, mother of the three daughters in the Convent, and Mrs. Daniel 
Huger. These ladies came nobly to their assistance, as well as other 
Columbia ladies and gentlemen. Daily, dinners of properly cooked 
food were sent in to the nuns and shared with the sick, the delicate 
nuns, and schoolgirls. 

Dr. Lynch had a very hard time finding sufficient food for the 
Convent, so little was left in the country. Through the interest of 
the Visitation nuns, of Washington, D. C, and Miss Meade, sister 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 309 

of General Meade, U. S. A., and other influential parties, the nuns 
obtained from the military in charge of Columbia an order for 
"rations." The Carmelites, of Baltimore, were the first religious 
community to send succor to their sisters, the Ursulines, and con- 
tinued their ministrations for a very long time. Oh ! the blessedness 
of the spiritual bond that knows no secular lines. It will be re- 
membered that the mother prioress of the Carmelites at this time 
was our mother superior's sister. The Visitation nuns, of George- 
town, D. C, were equally loyal and generous. For several years 
our nuns lived largely on the assistance rendered by the "Household 
of Faith." This charity was shared by their homeless pupils, some 
of them Northern girls, and many families around Valle Crucis, for 
all were needy alike. 

The great luxuries of tea, coffee, sugar, crackers, and some 
dainties were divided with the sick and destitute in the city. I regret 
I have not space to enter more into details, and portray the Christian 
battle these grand women fought, against fearful odds, to keep 
their community up and carry on their boarding school. 

The walk from Columbia to Barnwell was the most emphasized 
event in our history, next to the burning of Columbia. I had been 
a pupil for a year at the Ursuline Convent, but was recalled by my 
mother to our home, The Oaks, near Barnwell Courthouse, in her 
anxiety to keep us all together. But God willed it otherwise. The 
warp and woof of our young lives were threaded too strangely for 
her maternal hands to guide us. My father, then Colonel Aldrich, 
was on Judge Gordon Magrath's staff, having been disabled while 
serving with Gen. M. L. Bonham in Virginia. Being one of Gover- 
nor Magrath's advisory board, my father was constantly away from 
home, in Columbia, although his maimed arm was in a sling for 
many months. My mother was advised by him to restore me to the 
keeping of the nuns, and also to send my two younger sisters with 
me, and to send us by private conveyance. 

Faithful old Daddy Jupiter (a thunderbolt himself, when angered) 
was given the custody of us. He had followed "marster" in the 
war, and felt himself peculiarly fitted to do battle for us, if neces- 
sary. While the carriage was being made ready and packed with 
our valuables, I remembered my brother's fine horse, "Stanton." He 
had been wounded in the Battle of Trevilian. I quickly changed 
my dress for a riding habit of gray homespun and Confederate brass 
buttons. When I returned to the yard, "Stanton" was ready for me 
— an iron gray horse. Kilpatrick's wing was entering our lawn, so I 

310 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

had no time to lose. The carriage had preceded me, which I soon 
overtook, for the faithful animal knew me and responded to the 
nervous, quick shake of my rein with a rapid, eager stride. When 
we reached Hair's mill, five miles from The Oaks, Daddy Jupe, 
with the cunning instinct of his race, made several turns where the 
roads crossed, then diverged into the woods in a winding way before 
he again got back into the road. He had pledged himself to 
"missus" that her children should reach "marster" safely. But for 
this clever piece of woodcraft on the part of our old "daddy" we 
should have been captured by Kilpatrick's marauders, who followed 
the fresh tracks of the horses until they got confused at Hair's mill 
and gave up the chase in order "to get into the booty from the old 
secess' big house," they informed the miller at Hair's mill. 

We joined my father at our plantation. He had reached there 
by the last car that came over the S. C. R. R. The next morning 
we started on our way, having been soaked by the rain of the pre- 
vious afternoon. I reluctantly left the "gallant gray" for the 
Yankees at last, and got into the carriage with my father and the 
little girls. This is how we got to Columbia, and now for our 
return, one month later. 

After the destruction of Columbia, my mother was well nigh 
crazed by the dreadful accounts which reached her of the destitution 
and peril of the hapless denizens of the capital. Knowing my father 
was with Governor Magrath, engaged in efforts to save the State 
archives, she hoped nothing from him for us. She tortured herself 
over methods to convey us to her until she became exhausted, men- 
tally and physically — strong woman as she was when she faced 
Kilpatrick's two wings, as they camped in separate sections on our 
beautiful lawn. 

In this sore stress of anguish, Dr. Frank Pope, a refugee from 
Edisto Island, to whom my mother had been kind, came to her 
rescue, stating his intention to go to Columbia for his three sisters 
and their two servants, and that he would escort us home. My poor 
mother gladly accepted the offer, and gave him all the coin money 
she could gather — very little. Alas ! the "well-laid plan" Dr. Pope 
narrated for getting the party back went sadly "agley" ! A letter 
to the mother superior from my mother gave her the intelligence that 
"three mouths less to feed" would be taken from her. The hour of 
parting came sadly and tearfully. Notwithstanding the scanty meals 
and hard floors for beds, we hated to leave our devoted nuns and 
young fellow sufferers. 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 311 

The mother superior and each nun in turn folded us to their 
hearts, gave us their blessings and assurances of constant 
prayers for a safe journey. We went to tell Mrs. Wm. Lebby good- 
bye, and thank her for much kindness we had received from her 
and her aged mother, Mrs. Smith, refugees from Charleston. This 
dear old lady made us underwear from yellow sea island homespun, 
with her own hands, stitching away by torch light far into the 
night, to give us a change of raiment. 

These kind women packed a generous supply of cooked food in 
a large market basket for us, and pressed raw things on our party; 
but Dr. Pope, thinking we would find the "relief wagons" our 
true-hearted sister city — Augusta — sent weekly supplies in, over the 
river, declined Mrs. Lebby's offer. With our bundles and the 
hamper of provisions, Dr. Pope, his three sisters — Anne, Julia, and 
Martha — man and maidservants, myself, and two little sisters, we 
said good-bye to the family who helped us to the very last, and set 
out on foot for the river. 

When we got there, the demoralizing news greeted us that the 
ferryboat had been condemned. Some negroes, with little skiffs 
and shallops, were trying to make what they could by rowing people 
across the overflowing, angry Congaree, with the courage of igno- 
rance that emboldens them to try what the white man would not. 
There we stood, the raging, yellow river before us, in the early, 
murky morning, raw and cold, and the blackened ruins of a starving 
city behind — a dilemma hard to meet and judge by the old and the 
young. Two of the Misses Pope wished to return ; the younger and 
more self-reliant Julia (Mrs. Anthon Wright, of Thomasville, Ga.), 
myself, and the doctor urged the onward march. We began to 
select the ones for the trial trip in the uncanny looking boats. 
Taking the larger one, Julia, the younger of my two sisters, and 
myself, with a gentleman we found waiting to cross the river too, 
we started. I persuaded Mamie to remain, feeling that, in event of 
the boat being capsized, one should be left to my mother. 

It seemed an age, while our boat rocked and darted between the 
huge boulders in the river, and seemed at times hopelessly beyond 
the darkey's control. The cool head and strong arm of our fellow 
traveler was a great assistance. The rushing, swirling current made 
by the rocks carried us down the stream, so that when we finally 
reached the shore we were away out of line with the starting point. 
I was so distressed at Mamie's forlorn little face — for, though a very 
young girl myself, I had the feeling I must give them safely back to 

312 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

our mother — I asked the kind, strong man if he would not return 
and bring my little sister over. He promptly said yes, and did give 
his valuable protection to the next party. 

Our safe transit emboldened the others, and another boat was 
pressed into service, so that all the party landed. 

About the same time, oh ! horror of horrors ! we found the Au- 
gusta wagons had left at dawn. Not one was willing to cross the 
rapid, rolling waters again, so we decided, with the strength of 
despair, to try the long, dreary stretch of seventy miles. Dr. Pope 
had driven from Barnwell in an old buggy, drawn by a pair of lean 
horses (for food was as scant for beast as man). "Diamond" and 
"Starlight" were the encouraging names of the pair responding to 
them. The sick sister, and our bundles and basket of food were put 
in the buggy, and the promise of "turn about" in riding was given. 

A Lexington farmer gave us instructions how to go, crossing Con- 
garee Creek about ten miles below Columbia, the most direct way 
to Barnwell. The road was full of water in many places, from 
constant rains ; but youth is brave, and ignorance hopeful. So 
we tramped along very cheerfully until we reached the creek and 
beheld a sea of water. Dr. Pope arranged for three at a time to go 
over in the buggy, one bringing it back. Some one suggested sound- 
ing the way first. The tall young servant, Johnnie, a seacoast lad, 
willingly agreed to go, rolling up his trousers, and sounding with 
a long stick he had provided himself with in starting, and for those 
of us who cared for one likewise. Johnnie set forth ; the water grew 
deeper and deeper, until it reached the boy's hips. Finally, to our 
grief, he disappeared, just as Dr. Pope yelled to him to "come back." 
Cries went up from us all, until we saw the young fellow's head bob 
up. Thank God ! his good swimming and seacoast fearlessness of 
water saved him, and he returned good naturedly, laughing, saying, 
"Dr. Pope, you alls better be t'ankful de Lord sen' me fuss" — and 
we were. 

The strong current had washed away the bridge over the main 
stream. The horses were unhitched on the narrow causeway, and 
the old buggy turned by hand. Imagine our poor downcast hearts 
when we began to retrace our steps, reaching a house near the river 
we had buoyantly left that morning, long after dark had set in. 
The people took us in, gave us plenty of wood for fires, but no 
food could they offer; indeed, we gave them some of our supper, 
which we touched frugally. Early next morning, at the first glint 
of light, we again started forth over another and longer route. We 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 313 

tried in vain to catch one more glimpse of the black chimneys that 
kept sentinel watch over the old city. We waved another good-bye 
to the loved ones within her ruins. 

We could not go very far that day, we were so stiff and footsore. 
We rested oftener than on the succeeding days. At dusk we reached 
a little log cabin and sought rest. The man told us we could stay, 
but he had scarcely any food for himself and little daughter. The 
man, waxing kind, soon renewed the fire in his wide clay chimney, 
and gave us full freedom in his house, which was divided into two 
rooms. One he offered the ladies, and said he and Dr. Pope and 
the servants would "nod over the fire," around which we all sat for 
a long time, answering his deeply interested queries about Columbia's 
destruction. Just before we separated for the night, his little girl 
said something to her father in an undertone, whereupon he got up 
and went out, returning with an old battered pan full of sweet po- 
tatoes, saying, "My little gal said she kaint sleep ef them little gals 
don't git some pertaters." Oh ! the sweet blessedness of young, un- 
selfish hearts, beating in unison with others! Very soon the hot 
ashes had our potatoes as sumptuously prepared as General Marion's 
dinner, and we supped as contentedly as he dined with the British 
officer. We divided our ham with the "little gal" and her father, 
and all retired, happier for the "touch of nature that makes the whole 
world kin." 

We had a fine night's rest, Dr. Pope and our host keeping up the 
fire ; and by daybreak we were ready to start. More potatoes roasted 
for us, and a potation of something that tasted like straw tea, the 
good man's substitute for coffee. The heat enabled us to drink a 
little of it. He and his "ewe lamb" accompanied us several miles, 
glad to break their desolation, the one animal he owned to make a 
crop having been taken. When the couple parted from us, the poor, 
uncouth fellow expressed deep interest in us, giving us minute di- 
rections as to our keeping the straight road, "and mind them turns, 
or you will git lost agin." 

Roasted potatoes were added to our fast vanishing provisions by 
the child, in sympathy with our children. So we lunched fairly well. 

Long after dark this third day, we caught sight of a light — a 
"glow worm" it seemed in the dim distance. But for Johnnie's 
racial sight, seeing through darkness, we would not have threaded 
our way to the well built, comfortable house from which the glimmer 
of light came. A fence surrounded the yard, behind which two 
dogs, one dragging a block, barked furiously. My love, and 

314 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Johnnie's, for dogs soon quieted them into a friendliness we failed 
to awaken in the breasts of their owners. Dr. Pope, Julia, and I, 
ventured to the small house behind the dwelling house, from which 
the light shone through the chinks. We saw a big fire, and several 
children. Dr. Pope asked admittance, which was refused, the boy 
yelling, "Mar and par's gone to mill, and told we childun not to let 
anybody in and not to unbar dis do' fur ennybody, you hear, and I 
ainter gwine to do it, nuther." We persisted in our arguments for 
entertainment. The stalwart boy again had recourse to his lungs, 
ordering us away, or he would "set Plunger" on us. One of us sug- 
gested that Dr. Pope should threaten to blow open the door with his 
pistol. It had the desired effect, and the door was quickly unbarred. 
A long bar, sunk in iron sockets, closed it. 

Soon the children left, and we heard muffled sounds in the larger 
house. Next morning, we discovered the man and his wife had 
never left the place, and adopted that hostile ruse to keep off way- 
farers. In the house we occupied, evidently their kitchen, we found 
a lot of dried meat, and tried to buy some, but they refused us, and 
gave us a very small piece. We added it to our slim larder, which 
we did not draw on for breakfast, having found some potatoes in the 
ashes which the children had forgotten in their hasty exit. 

About noon this day we came to a well settled place, off the 
main road, out of which we had gotten, not paying attention "to 
them turns." It was a kind fate that directed us to this home, where 
we were so well treated, and given plenty of milk, cornbread, and 
other food, that refreshed us. We struck out at a right good pace 
and reached another house that night, and found a hospitable host 
this time, whose wife filled our pockets with dried apples which, she 
assured us, were "mighty filling up" ; also some corndodgers. Thus 
reinforced, we felt prepared for the rest of the difficulties ahead of us. 
At the next home we found kindly greeting and lodgment, but no 

Our fourth day's march dawned cold and drizzly. The newly 
made friends seemed in deep sympathy with us, and offered to hitch 
a "critter to the oxcart and spell us a piece." The "critter" proved 
to be a big red and white ox. We were glad to crouch in the cart, 
covered with pine straw, and snuggle up against the March winds, 
that reminded us of the fateful ides that brought our ruin. 

It was very slow traveling, yet we were loath to surrender the 
cart and ox to the owners. We had some amusing incidents to 
brighten our long journey before we reached our next stopping 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 315 

place. Darkness befell us. We encountered an awfully boggy 
slush in the road ; rotten logs on one side formed a crossing : we de- 
cided to walk over them and spare poor "Diamond" and "Starlight," 
whose vitality was fast giving out on the dried vines, their only food. 
Midway of this crossing, Mamie gave a despairing wail and informed 
us her shoe had gone. We made no effort to recover it. Indeed, the 
mate was such a pitiful sight, no tears were shed for her loss. 

Stockings were comforts of the past. The day was so cold 
and raw we got out the big black velvet circular, with "angel 
sleeves," guipure lace, and white silk linings. We tried walking 
three abreast under its ample folds, but found our progress impeded, 
so decided to change around until our blood began to heat up. 

Our fourth night's rest was in a house we found just as our late 
friends described. We were kindly cared for, given cornbread, 
fried pork, and sorghum syrup for supper and breakfast. At each 
house, the burning of Columbia was eagerly asked about. Words of 
horror and sympathy interrupted the oft-told tale. When we left 
this house, the entire family walked "a piece" with us, and we en- 
joyed their company. 

The fifth day was marked by a sad occurrence : We had not gone 
over two miles after leaving our friends and entertainers when the 
doleful cry came from Johnnie that "po' ole 'Diamond' dun give out 
sure nuff." The buggy followed our cavalcade always. We ran 
back and, sure enough, the faithful beast tottered from side to side 
and panted like a stricken creature. My love for horses made me 
quick to do something for his relief. Hurriedly I got out the tin 
cups from our basket, and bade the children fill them from a ditch, 
in which the rains had left a brook of water. We poured water over 
his head while Johnnie unhitched him. As soon as he was freed 
from the harness he stretched himself, we feared, to die; but it 
proved weakness from hunger. No green food in the woods ; only 
the dried vines spared us for our poor horses. 

We all sat around "Diamond" and waited. Not one suggested 
leaving him while life lasted. After a few hours' rest, the good 
creature got up and renewed his duty. Whenever we came to the 
slightest elevation of ground, we got behind the buggy and pushed 
it forward, leaving the tired animals no load to take from their rap- 
idly waning strength. The long stop put us far into the night. Our 
next "halloo" was given timidly, fearing another warm reception 
from dogs, and we were greatly relieved when an old man put his 
head out of the window and asked, " Whar you cum from ?" When 

316 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

told Columbia, he urged us to "come right een, for Lord knows you 
must be putty well dun up." He routed his entire family. When 
we remonstrated over giving too much trouble, he replied, "Don't 
say a word ; me and the ole 'oman, and the childun, will be proud 
to hear bout the burnen of Columby; is it a fact Sherman burnt it'r" 
We asked, first thing, for some food for our horses, offering Confed- 
erate money. The true-hearted gentleman he proved himself re- 
fused compensation. Turner was his name — one of the few I re- 
member until we reached our home county, where they were fa- 
miliar to us. Our joy was great when Mr. Turner produced some 
corn for the horses, and himself saw to feeding and bedding them. 

The next morning, our sixth day, we shared with the family a pot 
of well cooked hominy, cornbread, sorghum syrup, and some cured 
beef, made into a stew with sweet potatoes. We regarded this a 
grand meal, and were grateful for the generous spread, but more so 
for the sincere good will with which the hospitality was offered. 
Our traveling was much better, for both man and beast had been 
greatly refreshed, and the roads improved. 

No steel rails crossed mother earth, over which snorting engines 
pulled elegant parlor cars, with millionaire tourists. The stillness 
of the woods was unbroken save by the song of birds, and occasion- 
ally a woodman's ax. So we were much surprised at noon of this 
day when we saw a large, well-built house in the middle of a fine 
oak grove, and horses and vehicles under the wide-spreading limbs. 
It was Sunday, and the people had repaired after church to their 
neighbor's home, as is customary in the country. One of our party 
suggested a "lame girl" would excite the sympathy of the people 
and add to the certainty of a vehicle being offered to us. It was de- 
cided my attempt was the best, and I should perform the lame role. 
On reaching the broad piazza, where a large company were sitting, 
a gentleman met us at the steps, his face full of kindness and cordial 
welcome. Hearing our names, he took us by the hand and called to 
his wife and daughters to "come and get Colonel Aldrich's children 
and give them the best in the house," showing great feeling and in- 
dignation over our rough walk from Columbia. 

These hospitable, true-hearted ladies carried us into rooms, 
brought warm foot baths and fresh hosiery, and would have shod 
us anew had they been supplied themselves, but did produce one pair 
for my sister, whose loss I mentioned. We rested on the first soft 
beds since the Convent was burned. Mr. Salley, our kind host, was 
out of the line of Sherman's army. 

The Burning of the Ursuline Convent. 317 

When summoned to dinner, we were surprised to find the goodly 
company much reduced. They refused to stay and take any of the 
attention of the family from the weary travelers. A golden-crusted 
chicken pie always takes me back to that bountiful dinner Mrs. 
Salley and her daughters vied with each other in making us enjoy. 
Mr. Salley, failing to induce us to spend the night with them, pro- 
ceeded to map out the next stage of our journey, and placed convey- 
ances at our service. "Go to Dr. Odom's, a little over five miles 
from here ; sleep there tonight. He is your father's plantation doc- 
tor, and will take care of you and send you on to the colonel's place 
in the morning." We bade our kind friends good-bye with sincere 
thanks. In my eagerness to climb into one of the buggies, I forgot 
my lameness, until Dr. Pope, in smothered tones, reminded me of 
my affliction. 

It was a starlit night, and a little moon shone, and we were so 
happy over our progress we sang old songs until we reached Dr. 
Odom's gate. More dogs rushed out, but their deep notes were soon 
hushed by the doctor's command, and he and his daughters made us 
comfortable on hearing who we were. Big fires were built, and the 
ladies with their own hands made good beds for us. As soon as we 
rested, the "burning of Columbia" was called for by this family. 

The sun rose resplendently the next morning, on our last day of 
this long, footsore journey. Dr. Odom had a large wagon, hitched 
to a pair of big, strong mules, to send us to my father's Edisto plan- 
tation. He bade us God speed and we left him watching us as far as 
we could perceive him. As we crossed the river, I felt for the first 
time that we were in touch with home. This river is the dividing 
line between Orangeburg and Barnwell Counties. It did not take 
long to cover the few miles between the Odom place and our planta- 
tion. As we drove into our avenue, the ruins of the house and prem- 
ises greeted our eyes, although occupied by a family routed from 
their own home early in the war. 

The negroes began gathering. Very soon the cries of these emo- 
tional creatures resounded over the plantation, proclaiming the ar- 
rival of "missus and massa chillun, clar from Columbia," each one 
jostling the other to bear us off to the houses for "suthen tur eat." 
My old "maumer," who had nursed several of us, all her life a family 
servant, uttered not a word, but the tears streamed clown the sad, 
dusky face. After the tumultuous greeting subsided, she took us 
in her arms, one after the other, in silent greeting, and with a dig- 
nity acquired by her intimate association with my mother, she gave 

318 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

directions for the entertainment of the travelers. The Popes were 
to go to the overseer's house, which had escaped, and be provided 
for comfortably. She greeted them with the politeness of a well- 
bred hostess. "My three children will come with me." Upon reach- 
ing her neatly kept cabin, Venus and Katherine were promptly or- 
dered to prepare dinner for us. These well-trained daughters of 
"Maum Hannah" needed no other directions. We were taken into 
her bedroom, seated on her tidy bed, and our long-suffering ex- 
periences since we left her a month before were drawn from us. 
The white turbaned head ("maumer" always wore a white head 
handkerchief, and another crossed over her faithful bosom, and 
long white apron ; white was a sign of distinction, over the ban- 
dana headgear) nodded constantly, expressive of her feelings, the 
clasped hands unfolding and making gestures in agreement. 
The two little girls fell asleep on the bed, so tempting to slumber 
wrought of long fatigue, and "maumer" and I held speech together. 
She constantly leaned over the sleeping ones and said, "Poor little 
children ! poor little souls !" The good nuns were blessed by her 
throughout the recital of our woes. 

Our dinner proved a splendid feast in comparison with our month's 
"rations." Each negro on the place contributed eggs, chickens, or 
whatever they had saved from "dem Yankee soldiers." They stood 
outside Maum Hannah's door and watched with delight our enjoy- 
ment of the well-cooked meal. 

Only seventeen miles now between us and home — that blessed 
word ! What it conveyed to our longing, hungry hearts no one will 
ever know. 

All my father's stock had been taken or scattered into the Edisto 
swamp; therefore, we began the fag end of our journey on foot 
again, many of the servants going with us as far as Blackville, a 
distance of seven miles. At this little town, Charlie Stewart, a 
great friend and admirer of my honored father, hearing of our con- 
dition, came gallantly to our help. He managed, after much hunt- 
ing, to procure an old mule and little pony, which he hitched to a 
small wagon, into which we thankfully tucked ourselves and pro- 
ceeded to Barnwell, ten miles, over a very heavy, sandy road. No 
Atlantic Coast Line nor Southern Railway dreamed of. 

We reached "the village" (still called village by the old people) 
about eleven o'clock that night, and put the Popes out at their house, 
where we parted, after this most eventful month of our lives, and 
promised lifelong friendship with each other. Crossing Turkey 

When Columbia Burned. 319 

Creek, which divided the village and suburban homes, we first 
reached "Hard Times," a little cottage at the entrance to my father's 
lawn, my married sister fitted up when she left her handsome home 
in the country to be near The Oaks. This name, given the im- 
promptu home, proved more prophetic than she dreamed of, for she 
and her children saw hard times indeed. The home, Sandy Run, 
hastily deserted, was burned to the ground, with all in it. We 
aroused my sister's household and soon fell into each other's em- 
braces. At the cottage my strength and will power left me. The 
strange reaction of tired nerves, when safely anchored and cared for, 
came over me, and my two sisters drove on to The Oaks without me. 

My wounded brother, Alfred, who returned from the hospital in 
Augusta, under the kind treatment of that gifted surgeon, Dr. Paul 
L. Eve, and our trusted friend, Mrs. Martha Emlyn, with the two 
youngest children, were sleeping in the house, when all were 
awakened by the girls rushing into my poor unprepared mother's 
room, before which I draw the curtain ! 

My mother could not be persuaded to wait until morning, nor 
that something serious had not happened to me. Leaving her house- 
hold, she and true-hearted Mrs. Emlyn set forth down the long, oak- 
lined avenue, and reached "Hard Times" to find me in my sister's 
bed, she sitting on one side drawing from me the details of our 
checkered lives since our parting, and from which we "suffered and 
grew strong," to battle with the many trials of our War for States' 
Rights. Sara Aldrich Richardson. 

(Mrs. Henry Warren Richardson.) 

When Columbia Burned. 

Mrs. President and Ladies, Daughters of the Confederacy : 
It is with great hesitation that I address you this afternoon, for what 
I have been asked to do is to give you my personal narrative of the 
burning of Columbia, in 1865 — what I there saw, heard and knew. 
Now, it is essential that a personal narrative should be in the first 
person, and therefore the charge of egotism is not to be escaped. 
Moreover, the story of this burning has been written by abler pens 
than mine, and you may well weary of an oft-told tale. Yet, as our 
president assures me that she is aiming to preserve the truth of his- 
tory, I am reminded of what an artist friend of mine tells me of 
photography. He says that, in order to photograph a large picture 
perfectly, it is necessary to put the camera in three or four positions 

320 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

in front of it, and take as many photographs, each from its own 
focus or, as we should say, point of view. These four negatives are 
then placed together and another made which unites them all and 
gives a real and correct picture, in true and perfect proportions. So 
I hope, by combining these various accounts, each given from its 
own standpoint, our Confederate history may come to be written 
with the force of sincerity and truth. 

I must begin my narrative at that very distressing period of our 
history in the month of January, 1865, when we learned that General 
Sherman, having left Savannah, was marching northward, along the 
west bank of the Ashley, leaving a broad swath of desolation behind 
him. The prospect of checking his progress was extremely small 
at any time, and when we heard that the troops in and about Charles- 
ton, instead of falling back on Columbia and uniting with the small 
force under General Beauregard, were to fall back to North Caro- 
lina, by way of Cheraw, even that hope vanished, and every man 
looked at his neighbor and asked : What next ? 

I should premise that at this time we were living in the north- 
eastern part of Columbia. I can't tell the name of the street, for 
there were never any names on the streets, and you had to guess at 
them ; but we were a little southwest of the asylum, and of the then 
Charlotte Depot, and just across the street from the Columbia Male 
Academy, a large brick building in the center of a large, open square. 
I mention these points because they were of importance at the time. 
The family consisted of my mother (Mrs. Edward C. Rutledge), 
my husband, and myself, our six children, my white nurse, Mrs. 
Collins, and a number of servants. 

Dr. Ravenel was then chemist in charge of the very large labora- 
tory in the Fair Grounds buildings, where were prepared almost all 
the drugs, medicines, styptics, etc., used by the army, and also a 
quantity of alcohol and whiskey — for medical purposes only. The 
first thing that showed us how near the danger was was an order 
from Richmond, "Prepare to remove all chemical and medical stores 
to some convenient point in North Carolina. Chemist in charge to 
go with them and establish his laboratory as soon as possible, wher- 
ever he may find suitable." We at once considered as to what was 
to be done. Probably every other woman in Columbia was consider- 
ing the same question. Shall we go, or shall we stay ? 

To go meant horrible discomfort. To stay meant — we did not 
quite know what ! For ourselves I promptly decided to stay. It 
would have been almost impossible to move such a family as ours 

When Columbia Burned. 321 

single-handed — and clearly Dr. Ravenel could not go with us. We 
had no shelter elsewhere provided, and we, like most other families, 
had already laid in stores of provisions and fuel which it would 
have been impossible to move, and very bad to leave behind. Alto- 
gether, to us to stay seemed best, though many of our friends de- 
cided otherwise. In this we were very much influenced by what 
we had heard of the condition of Savannah. That city had been in 
the possession of the Federals for some months. Families had (we 
heard) been protected; no very great injury had been done to person 
or property. This was hearsay, and we were glad when we heard 
that Mrs. John Church, who had been in Savannah all during the 
occupation, had come up to Columbia, traveling on a safe conduct 
from General Sherman. She was staying with Mrs. McCord, the 
mother of our president, and I at once went to see her. She con- 
firmed what we had heard of the comparative immunity of Savannah, 
but looked alarmingly grave when I told her of our intention of re- 
maining. She "could not advise us to do so," she said. On the 
contrary, if possible, go. 

A Federal officer whom she had known well in former years, and 
who had befriended her in Savannah, had advised her, while giving 
her her passports, not to be caught by the Union Army in any city 
or town of South Carolina, and most especially not in Columbia — "it 
was the cradle of secession and must be punished." She herself 
meant to leave at once. I went home with a very heavy heart ; but 
for us the die was cast. The laboratory train was to go in the morn- 
ing, and we had to remain. For the next three days, it was nothing 
but going — vehicles of every kind and trains loaded with every con- 
ceivable thing. We busied ourselves with bringing into the house, 
and storing in the upper rooms, whatever we could. It was sug- 
gested by my little daughter that "Yankees did not eat rice, and 
would not be apt to trouble it" ; so we put our small supply of tea, 
sugar, and coffee, and also bacon and flour, in the bottom of the 
tierces, heaped the rice on top, and it proved a useful device. 

We sent away, by the laboratory train, a big box of valuables, 
which we never saw again. And we tried to convert our Confed- 
erate money into anything of any value whatever. I have never 
understood why one man should have made me a present of two 
pairs of children's shoes in return for three hundred dollars of Con- 
federate money, unless he knew that the shoes would be stolen when 
the enemy came, and preferred that a compatriot should have them. 
Some things that we wished to keep with us, we sewed around 

322 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

our waists, and these we saved, but it was very uncomfortable — a 
belt of double eagles is as disagreeable a girdle as a penitential iron 
one could be. We had also to dispose of some silver half-dollars, 
for which I had exchanged an ever-to-be-regretted silver waiter. 
The half-dollars were sent from Richmond to the laboratory, to be 
made into lunar caustic, with which to cauterize the soldiers' wounds. 
Dr. Ravenel suggested that he could, if I wished, have my big waiter 
weighed and exchanged for an equal weight in coin — it would be 
better for the caustic, being made of purer silver. I most certainly 
did not wish it. I hated to part with my waiter ; but things were 
very black then, and the thought of six starving children was dread- 
ful, so with groans I consented. 

When the canvas bags came home — five hundred dollars in silver — 
we were in consternation. I had quite forgotten the size and weight. 
And where could it be hidden ? At last we decided that each person 
old enough should put ten dollars in her pocket, and I solemnly called 
in old Martha, the housekeeper, and confided the teaspoons and 
twenty-five dollars to her care, and she was absolutely faithful. The 
rest I sewed up in black cloth and buried, going into the garden at 
two in the morning, in a rainstorm, when no one would be about, 
and digging a trench with a fire shovel (the only tool to be had with- 
out waking the gardener). It made me feel like Guy Fawkes ! I 
may observe here that we nearly lost this buried treasure, for when, 
a month later, we went to look for it, we found that the ground- 
moles had cut the cloth and carried off many of the dollars. We 
had to dig for them, and found them at intervals all along their runs, 
some as much as thirty feet away. We found all but five or six. 

But I am making too long a story of it. At last (when you are 
expecting anything, however horrible, the time seems long until it 
comes) at last we heard the sound of guns across the river, and 
knew that Sherman was approaching, shelling as he came. We 
lived, as I have already said, in the northeastern part of the city, 
and he, of course, came from the south. The shells did not at first 
reach us, but they fell thickly enough around the State House and 
college buildings, then used as a hospital. I was on the front porch 
early in the morning, listening to the guns, when I saw a buggy, 
driven by a servant, stop at the front door. A young lady, who 
looked very ill, was lying back in it, with a baby in her arms ; and 
the servant called out to ask if I would take them in, as their house 
was under fire, and they had been obliged to leave it. Of course I 
brought them in, and found the baby was only one week old and 

When Columbia Burned. 323 

the mother much exhausted. We did what we could — put them in 
my own bed, fed, and kept them quiet, and the young mother soon 
revived. But there was something awfully biblical in the whole 
thing, and the warnings to Jerusalem rang in my ears. The next 
day their friends came and carried them off. The incident should 
be of interest to this society, which will recognize that the infant 
did not suffer in beauty or vigor, as she is now our young State 
president — Mrs. William McGowan, in whose recent bereavement 
we all sympathize. 

Soon after these refugees left us the shells began to fall about us 
also, the enemy having come farther up the river ; but they were few 
and small, and beyond terrifying the servants, did no harm. That 
same afternoon we heard that General Beauregard had told the 
mayor that resistance would only bring destruction on the city ; that 
he and his handful of men would withdraw at once, and that he — the 
mayor — must go early in the morning, surrender the city, and take 
what terms he could get. I believe that all did go that evening 
except a few regiments of cavalry, and we heard that they also would 
go the next morning, and would pass up the street between our house 
and the academy. We set to work at once to cook cornbread and 
bacon, all that we could, for we knew that it was the last time that 
we should be able to help the dear gray jackets. Early in the morn- 
ing we heard the clang of steel scabbards, and the whole brigade 
passed by. They held out their empty haversacks eagerly, poor, 
dear fellows, and we wished that we had ten times the amount to 
give. At last, with blessings and sorrow at parting, and prom- 
ises to "come back to you, ma'am," they went ; and we felt that free- 
dom and happiness went with them. 

While they were still in sight, a servant came running to say that 
the Yankees were going down Main street. We went to the street 
in front and looked westward, and saw crossing it an endless blue 
column, with glittering arms, and flags flying in all the pomp of war. 
Our spirits sank, for we saw our conquerors. We should now 
have applied for a guard. Had we had one we should have been 
spared much. But I was too unwell to go myself to General Sher- 
man's quarters, at the other end of town, and just as my mother was 
preparing to do so a clergyman, a neighbor of ours, came and offered 
to apply for us ; he was going on his own account, and would get 
one for us also. We accepted the offer, and waited, expecting him, 
until it was too late to go ourselves. But I suppose he was unsuc- 
cessful, for we never saw him again. 

324 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Our first trouble came about an hour after the entrance, when two 
horsemen rode into the yard, and came into the house, saying they 
had come to look for arms. Of course they found none. I had a 
pistol, but it was safely hidden. But they ransacked the house and 
helped themselves to all the small things they fancied — whatever 
they could put into their pockets or holsters ; they did not make bun- 
dles. We had no plate then, but they took trinkets or things like 
silver card cases, silver-topped dressing cases, ornaments of any 
kind, and one or two pieces of clothing which pleased them, such as 
lace jabots and a silk shawl, which one carefully concealed under 
his coat. At last they rode off, assuring us that they would call 
again. After their departure, things continued perfectly quiet for 
some hours. 

We saw in the far southwest a great blaze, which we heard was 
the S. C. R. R. depot burning, but this was over long before dark. 
The servants told us that all the shops on Main street had been 
broken open and plundered, and that the soldiers took some, burnt 
some, gave some, as one girl said, displaying a piece of colored cloth 
which had been given her. 

Dark came on, and no guard had been brought us. Most of the 
ladies in similar plight had fled to the asylum ; but we felt sure that 
if we left the house we should lose everything in it, and resolved to 
remain. Old Martha came in great distress and told us the kitchen 
was filled with soldiers, and "they did talk awful." She begged me 
to take my daughters to my cousin's, a square away, for they had a 
guard, and would be safe. "Oh ! Miss ; why you no get a guard ?" 
Accordingly she and I went with the little girls through a perfectly 
dark and silent street to my cousin's, and left them there, under the 
protection of a decent looking young man, who seemed to look upon 
his bayonet as a talisman of protection. When we returned, instead 
of going into the kitchen, Martha came and sat down at my feet, as 
I lay upon the bed. "My place is here," she said. I was so tired, 
I consented to lie down a while, and my mother and Mary Collins 
went to the attic windows, which commanded the whole town. I be- 
lieve I went to sleep, but not for very long, for at nine precisely my 
mother called to me. I jumped up. She called from the staircase, 
"Four rockets have gone up, one at each corner of the town, all at 
the same moment." Martha groaned. She had evidently been told 
more than she cared to tell. "That's it, Miss ; Lord hab missy on us ! 
it's beginning." I don't think that it was ten minutes before there 
came, at the same instant, knocking and pounding on the front and 

When Columbia Burned. 325 

back doors. The panels would have given way, so we opened them. 
Such an awful sight! The hitherto deserted street filled with a 
throng of men, drunken, dancing, shouting, cursing wretches, every 
one bearing a tin torch or a blazing lightwood knot. The sky, so 
dark a half hour before, was already glowing with light, and flames 
were rising in every direction. We had no time to look at it, how- 
ever ; our own affairs took all our attention. 

A crowd had burst in and, disregarding our remonstrances, spread 
themselves over everything, and from that time until morning a roar- 
ing stream of drunkards poured through the house, plundering and 
raging, and yet in a way curiously civil and abstaining from personal 
insult. Unhappily, they found plenty to plunder, for, although, as 
I have said, we had sent away our most valuable things (which we 
lost on the road), I had in charge a number of trunks belonging to 
friends of mine, which were in the house. These they fell upon, and 
tore to pieces. We had no plate except the teaspoons in Martha's 
pocket ; but there were many things that attracted them — pretty 
things, pictures, china, and trinkets. They tore up the carpets, and 
took blankets and sheets. Men's clothes were in great demand, 
and dresses that they admired. One small man walked off in a blue 
silk dress, and holding a lace parasol over his head. 

They took, too, what groceries they could find ; but the rice did not 
give up its secrets, and many things lay hidden therein. Their effort 
was to spoil what they could not carry away ; but we soon found our 
presence was a check upon them, and that encouraged us. When I 
say that they had a certain sort of civility, I mean in this way : My 
mother, who was a very courageous person, did not show any agita- 
tion in her manner, and suddenly a man turned upon her and said, 
"Old lady, why don't you look scared?" "Because I do not feel so," 
she answered. He nodded at her approvingly, and made her a 
present of her own scissors, which she was very glad to get. 

They generally spoke to us as "lady" and, although they swore 
horribly, they seldom swore at us. Then, too, if a number of men 
were fighting over a trunk or a closet, spoiling more than they stole, 
and I would go and stand by, not saying a word, but looking on, 
they would become quiet, would cease plundering, and would some- 
times stop to tell me they were sorry for the women and children, 
but South Carolina must be destroyed. South Carolina and her sins 
was the burden of their song. They were all more or less excited 
by drink; but in the early part of the night it was not as bad as 
later on. 

326 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The glare of the burning town was awful, and I expected at every 
moment to be consumed. The servants behaved admirably, and re- 
peatedly extinguished fires which had been set in the kitchen and out- 
building. We had to watch the sheds, for a man would snatch up 
a book, kindle its leaves at his torch, and throw it out of a window, 
and we should have been in flames many times if we had not got out 
at once on the piazza roof and extinguished the blaze. The worst 
danger was under the house, which was open, and stored with wood. 
To our horror, we saw two men kindling the pine. Why it did not 
blaze up I do not know ; but it burnt slowly, and as soon as they went 
away I called the coachman, and he was able to put it out, and re- 
mained there on guard the rest of the night. 

Our preservation came, I think, from their desire for plunder. 
To plunder first, and then burn, was their plan. So they did not set 
fire until they were leaving (they came in gangs), then they would 
throw a torch or handful of blazing paper into a closet, or behind 
a curtain, and go, and we generally had two or three minutes to fight 
the flames before the next set came in, and that saved us ; but it was 
dreadfully fatiguing work. 

About two o'clock in the morning, the house behind ours, and the 
one across the street, burnt down, and ours seemed in such danger 
that we took the four little children, whom we had kept in bed, and 
my mother took them across the street into the academy square, 
where many burnt-out people had taken refuge. Before this, the 
children had had a great fright, for some of the men had rushed up 
to their bed and, after pulling them about, had plunged their long 
knives repeatedly between them into their mattresses, to find if any- 
thing was secreted in it, thinking that the children were put there 
as a blind. So the poor little things went willingly enough. 

By this time, it was very bad. The men who came were ruder 
and fiercer. We knew them for horsemen from their boots — I sup- 
pose Kilpatrick's men. 

One of the servants came in and told us that he heard that Gen- 
eral Blair had his headquarters at Mr. Wallace's, opposite the asylum, 
and that by sending there we might get a guard. It seemed the only 
chance, so my nurse volunteered to go, and Cassio (the servant) 
went with her. She was gone about an hour, and for that hour old 
Martha and I held the fort alone. It is no exaggeration to say that 
this was a terrible time. They assured us they meant to burn the 
house; "they had express orders from headquarters to burn it; we 
must go out at once." They tried to persuade Martha to leave me, 

When Columbia Burned. 327 

jeering and hooting at her for fighting for her slave owner, her 
nigger driver. But they only made the old woman furious, and she 
never stirred an inch from my side. Then they tried to terrify me ; 
but by this time I was satisfied that they had orders not to hurt the 
woman, and, moreover, drunk or sober, every man in that army was 
acting under orders, and obeying them, so I told them that I had en- 
dured the whole night to save the house for my children, and that 
if they burnt it they would burn a woman in it. They stamped about 
and swore a great deal, but at last told me I was "damned plucky," 
and went. That was the worst. 

Mary came back at last. General Blair was very sorry, but was 
too sleepy to do anything. However, a young Irish soldier whom she 
had met in the street volunteered as a compatriot to come back and 
help her for the sake of the "swate Irish tongue," and help he did, 
getting the next comers out as quickly as possible, and pretending to 
be a guard, although he had no bayonet to show. Some of the of- 
ficers who were quartered in a house nearby looked in about this 
time, but said that, though they were sorry, they could do nothing — 
the night was the soldiers' ; they could do what they liked, under 
orders. When the little Irishman appealed to them to allow him to 
help us, "for the ladies have had it hard enough anyhow," they told 
him to do the best he could, and walked off, absolutely indifferent. 

However, morning was coming, and at reveille our little friend 
told us all must stop. He himself took nothing, but he had seen 
something upstairs that he would like very much to have ; would I 
give it to him? He had just kept out about twenty ruffians, and I 
would have given him anything I owned, as I told him. He vanished 
for a little while, and reappeared in a purple velvet cloak and doublet, 
and white satin hose, an old fancy dress of Sir Walter Raleigh. He 
thought he looked lovely, and it was a small reward for all he had 
done for us. 

As he said, at the first tap of reveille, the men still remaining 
made for the gate. When the drum had ceased, hardly one was to be 
seen. They passed away like ghosts at the cockcrowing. We stood 
on the steps and looked at a wild and woeful sight. The whole center 
of the town was a blackened heap. Ruined houses were on every 
side. For ourselves, we had escaped better than we could have 
hoped — we were all alive and well ; after all our losses, much re- 
mained, and we knew how much could be borne. 

For the three days that the army remained, we, in our devastated 
corner, saw nothing of interest. All was profoundly quiet. When the 

328 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

immense column of men, cannon and baggage wagons filed past us, 
on its way to North Carolina, it seemed like a world in arms. Last of 
all came the mounted guard, looking into every house and yard to 
see if any straggler might be concealed there. But stragglers there 
were none, or few, for the admirable discipline of General Sherman's 
army cannot be too highly estimated. They greatly mistake who 
attribute the horrors of that night to accident or insubordination. 
The skilful commander held his men in the hollow of his hand, and 
said to them, "So far shalt thou go, and no farther." 

Harriott H. Ravenel. 
(Mrs. St. Julien Ravenel.) 
March 12, 1898. 

The SacR of Columbia. 

The Federal Army, under Sherman, lay just on the other side of 
the Congaree, and the bombarding went on steadily, without, how- 
ever, doing much damage. Hampton, with a feeble force, was left 
in command of the defense of the capital, when General Joseph E. 
Johnston withdrew towards North Carolina. To the women and 
children of that doomed city things began to look gloomy in the 
extreme. Many refugees who had come from Charleston, and other 
parts of the low country, resumed their flight, seeking safety in the 
upper districts, nearer the mountains. Many residents of Columbia 
followed them ; in fact, nearly all who could get away fled, leaving 
their household goods to the mercy of the invaders. Shells and 
cannon balls have voices of singular persuasiveness to induce non- 
combatants to "move on," and not many willingly keep reserved seats 
to listen to their music. 

Never shall I forget a little incident that occurred on Thursday 
afternoon before the occupation on Friday morning. I was prome- 
nading the front piazza, listening to the dull boom of cannonry as it 
came, borne on the western breeze, from across the river, feeling 
all the horrors of the situation, when my attention was attracted to 
a ragged little darkey — one of the institutions of all Southern cities — 
as he went whistling quite unconcernedly on the opposite side of the 
street. Suddenly a bombshell came hurtling through the air, struck 
a limb just over his head, shivering it into a thousand pieces. Like 
lightning the little Arab rolled himself into an inconceivably small, 
black ball, crouching against the fence, with scarcely anything visible 

The Sack of Columbia. 329 

but the whites of his eyes, which he turned in amazement towards 
the shattered limb. For one brief moment he lay there, then, spring- 
ing up, he exclaimed, in accents of the most abject terror, "Fore God ! 
I thought he had me !" and fled like the wind. 

On Thursday night there was little sleep in the beleaguered city. 
I had dressed a day or two before for any emergency, and did not 
remove my dress for a week. I had taken an apron of strong Scotch 
ginghams, doubled it up and run casings in it, and into these casings 
stowed away important papers belonging to my husband, some 
money, and a few articles of jewelry. This I wore as a bustle, and 
was undisturbed in its possession. Others were not so fortunate. 
Many had their clothing torn off and their persons searched by the 
lawless soldiery and the mob who reaped such a harvest on that 
fearful night of February 17, 1865. 

On Friday morning, while we were at breakfast, a sound of mus- 
ketry broke the ominous stillness, and we learned that the Yankees 
had crossed the river on pontoon bridges, and that the city was vir- 
tually in their hands. The mayor and some of the chief municipal 
officers had gone to General Sherman's headquarters and surren- 
dered our beautiful capital, and received from him the comforting 
assurance that Columbia should be as safe as it had been under 
Mayor Goodwyn's own administration. "Some of the public build- 
ings, such as the arsenal and armory, will have to be destroyed," said 
Sherman ; "but I will select a calm day for the purpose, and nothing 
else shall be injured. Go home and sleep in peace, Mr. Mayor ; your 
city shall be safe." How well he kept this promise, let Columbia's 
burning homes, her desolate streets, and her houseless, starving 
children, tell. 

I hope but few of my readers know from experience what the 
sacking of a city is. I hope fewer still may ever know. Columbia 
had foes without and within, for though the slave population had 
behaved well during the war, it was but human nature, when free- 
dom came to them so suddenly, that they should receive it extrava- 
gantly, and go with outstretched arms to welcome their deliverers. 
I heard of some of these deluded people who actually knelt in the 
street before the incoming troops, like the heathen throwing himself 
before the car of Juggernaut, for the wheels to roll over him. Well, 
the wheels did roll over many of them. Of the thousands who left 
Georgia and the Carolinas to follow the fateful fortunes of the 
Yankee Army, few reached Virginia, and fewer still returned to 
their old homes, which they sighed for when too late. 

330 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

A friend told me of one old "maumer" who was more fortunate 
than many of her compeers. On Tuesday, when the army was leav- 
ing with its motley train of camp followers, this old woman was seen 
seated in a stolen carriage, drawn by stolen horses, dressed in the 
enormous headgear of aristocratic antebellum days, fanning her- 
self — February though it was — with a huge palmetto fan. My 
friend accosted her, "Hallo! Aunt Sallie, where are you going?" 
"La, honey! I'se gwine back inter de Union!" with a complacent and 
patronizing nod of her sable head. 

No pen can adequately depict the horrors of the burning of Co- 
lumbia. Every hearthstone was an altar on which the Yankees sac- 
rificed to their gods — Vengeance and Hatred — and every blazing 
roof-tree will be a burning record against their wanton cruelty in the 
day of final account. All day the storm had been gathering. Here 
and there some outrageous act gave a foretaste of what was in store 
for the "Rebs." between the setting and rising of the sun. 

Mr. B — , among other merchants, had struggled hard to pro- 
tect his property through the day ; but his store had repeatedly been 
broken open, and Yankees, negroes, and, oh, shame! some Southern 
whites, had plundered it at will. Seeing how useless it was to con- 
tend for order among the disorderly, and for law among the lawless, 
he abandoned everything and came home, where we waited, in a 
treacherous calm, the unfolding of events. 

About 10 o'clock p. m. the signal rockets began to go up, and 
soon the incendiary fires blazed out. I was told that squads of 
drunken soldiers, followed by a rabble of drunken and excited 
negroes, paraded the principal thoroughfares, entering about every 
fourth house with torch and oil, and soon had blocks and whole 
streets one mass of living flame. 

We stood in the observatory and saw these fires — these tokens of 
a nation's shame and sin — kindle, one by one, along the horizon's 
verge. Soon they flashed out of the darkness, nearer and nearer, 
rose higher and higher, spread wider and wider, until nearly the 
whole city became one seething sea of billowy fire. 

My husband being Northern born, though strongly Southern in 
feeling, many persons thought his home would be spared ; therefore, 
the house was packed from basement to attic with the furniture of 
our neighbors, sent hither for protection ; but, alas ! the Demon of 
Destruction was no respecter of persons or property, and at two 
o'clock in the morning I took a little bird in its cage, which I could 
not bear to leave to the flames, in one hand, and mv little child's 

The Sack of Columbia. 331 

hand in the other, and walked out from under our burning roof into 
the cold and pitiless street. Hundreds, nay thousands, were there 
before me ; some not so well off as I, for they were invalids. None 
of us had any pillow but the frozen ground, nor any covering but 
the burning heavens. 

The terrified lowing of cattle, the frenzied flight of pigeons cir- 
cling high above their blazing cotes, the ribald jests and brutal as- 
saults of our drunken conquerors, the dun clouds of despair rolling 
between us and the pitying eyes of God, made up a picture whose 
counterpart can be found only in the regions of the eternally lost. 

A Federal officer said to me next day, "I knew when General Sher- 
man sent for the Seventeenth (Logan's) Army Corps that he had 
black work for it to do." 

On Saturday morning we took refuge with some kind friends in 
the suburbs whose house had been overlooked rather than spared, 
and not until Sunday did we venture back to look at the ruins of our 
once beautiful home. 

Oh ! the utter, utter desolution of a city in ashes, and its people 
wanderers ! Even the very landmarks were lost, and you stood a 
stranger on your own threshold. Nothing was left but the smoke- 
less chimneys, keeping ward over the widespread ruin. Hundreds 
of Yankees, with ramrods and bayonets, were prodding the still 
smoking soil, in quest of buried treasure. 

On Tuesday morning, the blue lines formed and the invaders left 
Columbia — a city once a synonym of all that was beautiful and ele- 
gant — a heap of ruins ; her living homeless and scattered ; her dead 
insulted and desecrated. To me the curse of the broken-hearted 
sounded above their steady tramp and martial music. Confusion and 
terror went before them, and want and despair hovered in their rear. 
Vae victis may not have been inscribed on their banners, but it was 
written in characters of blood and living fire on the hearts and homes 
of a conquered people. 

I remember going, a few Sabbaths after the destruction of the 
city, to hear one of our ministers. He was one who had been person- 
ally abused by the vandal horde in their mad riot on that fatal night, 
and a just and holy indignation still burned in his clerical bosom. 
"My friends," said he, warming in his discourse, "let us be faithful 
in following our Divine Master until we come to the New Jerusalem, 
the golden city, not a desolate place like this, but ever bright and fair, 
and I assure you, my friends, there will be no villainous Yankees 
there." Then, remembering that he was pledged to preach a doctrine 

33 2 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

of forgiveness, he added, reluctantly and doubtfully, "Unless they 
have entirely new hearts." I could not refrain from adding a mental 
amen to this sentiment. 

Necessity is said to be the mother of invention. If this be true, 
Columbians should have been the most inventive people on the face 
of the earth during that spring of 1865, for their needs were cer- 
tainly great. Left without shelter, clothing or food, and with no 
means to obtain either, their condition was indeed deplorable. I 
heard of many persons sustaining life for several days upon the corn 
picked up around the feeding troughs of the Yankees' horses. 

A lady, whom I had known in her days of prosperity, came to me 
with the tears streaming down her cheeks, and said, "If you have 
anything, divide with me ; my little children are at home, crying for 
bread!" Alas! I was but little better off. 

To the eternal honor of the negroes be it spoken that many of 
them aided and sustained their former owners in these trying times 
with a devotion as surprising as it was noble. One old fellow brought 
a store of provisions and laid it before his former master, saying, 
"Massa, it nearly breaks my heart to see you in dis old shanty, but 
it would break entirely to know you were hungry and couldn't get 
nothing to eat." "But, Peter, my good fellow," returned his master, 
"I cannot take these things from you and leave you and your children 
to starve." "No danger of dat ; Peter's used to helping hisself, and 
dat, massa, you never could do; you nor old miss neither." "Peter," 
said the master, with a suspicious moisture about his eyes, "we have 
fallen upon evil days; but perhaps I might live to repay you." 
"You's done dat already, massa; you's took care of Peter a good 
many years, and I's sure its his time to take care of you and ole 
miss." All honor to Peter ; and to all who, like him, did not forget 

The tender grace of a day that is dead. 

My friend, Mrs. H — , with whom we had taken refuge, had 
some negroes left in her charge by a relative who had fled from the 
city. It became a serious question how they should be fed, as she 
did not care to drive them away, and they showed no disposition to 
leave. "I'll tell you what I will do," said she ; "I will go to Sherman 
and demand food for them. Will you go with me?" Although a 
disagreeable mission, I did not like to refuse, so, with a few other 
ladies who, like myself, were refugees, we set out to find General 
Sherman's headquarters. They were in the old Myers house, and 
a sentinel paced up and down in front of the gate. 

The Sack of Columbia. 333 

"Where is General Sherman?" asked Mrs. H — . 

"He is not here," replied the sentinel. 

"Where is he, then?" impatiently. 

"I don't know," indifferently. 

"When will he be here?" 

"I don't know." 

Turning at the end of his beat, he saw Sherman coming around 
the corner. "That is General Sherman," indicating the approaching 

Mrs. H — , with characteristic impetuosity, rushed towards the 
general, exclaiming, "General Sherman, what is to become of these 
people?" As she spoke she pointed to the negroes, who had accom- 
panied her. 

"I really do not know," he replied, with an amused twinkle in the 
eyes that traveled from her face to the stolid darkeys. 

"Are they to starve ?" she exclaimed. 

"I hope not," he replied composedly. 

"But they will," she cried excitedly, "if you don't give them some- 
thing to eat ; and it is your duty to do it," she continued, disposed to 
read the general a homily. "You don't make war on them; you say 
you are their friend ; they have nothing to eat, and will starve unless 
you feed them. General Sherman, will you let them starve?" 

"My friend," said he, going to her and patting her on the shoulder, 
"my friend, don't get excited. Be calm." 

I forget whether he promised to provide for her dependents or 
not, but all the provisions they, or any one else, did get from the gov- 
ernment was a very small portion of beef from some poor condemned 
cattle which were left in the college park when the Yankees took their 
final flitting. 

Here let me give you an incident that occurred in our sister State 
of North Carolina : A surgeon-dentist, a man of position, ability, 
and unquestioned integrity, lived within that broad swath of deso- 
lation cut by the Federal Army in its victorious march. He after- 
wards came to Columbia, and from him I heard an account of the 
shameful outrage. Years had passed, and Columbia, rising from her 
sackcloth and ashes, had clothed herself anew in the beautiful and 
strong garments of energy and enterprise. We had accepted our 
trials as a part of the fortunes of war, and were disposed to forgive, 
if not to forget. Conversing one day with Dr. Gregg, our dentist, he 
expressed an undying hatred for the men who had caused him so 
much grief. 

334 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

"If anybody," said he, "hates the wretches who followed Sher- 
man's army more than I do, it is because his capacity for hating is 
greater than mine. This is strong language, but I am justified in 
using it. When Sherman's army passed through my place in North 
Carolina, some of his camp followers, in their greedy search for 
treasure, entered the graveyard, dug up my dead children, opened 
their coffins, and left their bodies exposed to birds and beasts, less 
vile than they. Tell me to forgive them? Never! My outraged 
dead, with their mute lips, cry out against it ! The desecration of all 
the nameless bones of my countrymen, left to bleach on our hillsides 
and valleys, forbid it. Every instinct of my manhood is hatred 
towards those human jackals." Mrs. S. A. Crittenden. 

Greenville, S. C. 

Recollections of the Burning of 


Several thousand women and children, a handful of men, eighty- 
four squares of beautiful dwellings. Such was Columbia on Feb- 
ruary 14, 1865. On February 15, General Sherman and an army of 
sixty thousand men occupied the banks of the Congaree, on the Lex- 
ington side, and in two days the city presented the appearance of 
having passed through a rain of fire. 

The shelling of the city commenced early Thursday morning. 
The shells fell thick and fast, in every direction, the arsenal and 
State House furnishing conspicuous marks. One fell directly at my 
mother's feet, but, fortunately, the fuse had been extinguished, and 
the missile did not explode. The sudden attack and the fear of what 
was to follow rendered us numb with fear, and we scarcely had 
power to take ourselves to a place of safety. 

Fortunately, my father, just home from the army, although nearly 
dead with consumption, was with us, and we felt more secure than 
thousands of others less fortunate. 

After an almost sleepless night, we were all startled about day- 
break by a loud explosion. Hastily dressing and getting out, we 
learned that the South Carolina warehouse had been blown up, and 
the wildest rumors were afloat as to its cause. 

The "swish-swish" of the pontoons being laid for the army to 
cross told us that Sherman intended entering the city at once. In 
less than an hour afterward the work of pillage and destruction com- 
menced. Drunken soldiers, the worst corps in the army, had been 

Recollections of the Burning of Columbia. 335 

sent over, accompanied by drunken negroes, staggering around, in- 
sulting women and children, and taunting them with their helpless- 
ness. Darkness, that which we worst feared, fell, and with it began 
the crowning deed of all. A blaze was seen a little way off ; the fire 
bell began to ring. Soon another blaze was seen, then another, until 
the whole town was a mass of flames. Soldiers, now crazy with 
drink, began to look for something more valuable than food or 
clothing. Houses were entered, and jewelry, gold and silver, plate — 
anything of value — was taken. This did not happen in every case. 
At some house an officer would stop, and that house was generally 
safe, as the officer would throw a guard around it. Such cases, how- 
ever, were rare. 

As the fire drew nearer our house on Assembly street, we began to 
move the household effects out. A Yankee soldier, half drunk, came 
by and, seeing a trunk, wanted to open it. My brother, about fifteen 
years of age, attempted to stop him, but was silenced with an oath, 
and the trunk was smashed in and rummaged through. 

With our house burned, we would have fared badly, but our neigh- 
bor, Mrs. T. B. Clarkson, who came over for protection, with her 
baby, had the servants to erect a kind of shelter with a few boards, 
and under this we stopped for the rest of the night. Sleep was im- 
possible and, half dead with fright, we huddled under these boards, 
waiting for daybreak. 

The scene that greeted our eyes the next day was heart-breaking. 
On every side, where once there had been handsome dwellings, were 
nothing but blackened chimneys, and in the streets were women and 
children, weeping over their homes and not knowing where the food 
for that day was to come from. 

The Taylor house, afterwards known as the Haskell place, for 
some reason was not destroyed, and, along with several others, we 
took refuge there. The few men in the city took charge of all the 
food and established a sort of commissary, where supplies were 
issued several times a day for several days, until outside supplies 
were received. 

Looking back after all these years, the burning city, with the hun- 
dreds of drunken soldiers, the scream of shells, and the discharge of 
guns, seems like a dream, and my impressions through that awful 
time are hazy. I have endeavored to give only those facts which 
were stamped indelibly on my mind at the time. 

Fannie E. Allex. 

336 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

A Southern Woman's Recollections. 

When General Sherman's army entered the town of Winnsboro, 
S. C, the writer was a little girl, but distinctly remembers many 
events that happened. Her father was postmaster, and to this day 
has his commission, signed by President Davis. He hid a few miles 
out of town, so mother and children were left alone. 

It was about the hour for breakfast when two "bluecoats" walked 
into our home. They took what they pleased, and frightened 
the children by repeated threats to shoot down our pet, a large New- 
foundland dog, named Jack. 

One of our near neighbors, Mrs. Wainwright Bacot, knew Gen- 
eral Sherman ; but he denied his identity. His generals used private 
residences for their headquarters, but he did not. 

The army was preceded by "bummers," and the little town was 
robbed at an early morning hour. The main army came in, and then 
fires broke out, and riot reigned. Kilpatrick or Kirkpatrick, a 
cavalry commander, galloped in and fought fire, else the entire town 
would have been ashes ere the sun went down. 

No guards were given until nightfall. A drunken soldier at an 
early hour of the day staggered into grandma's home. She put him 
on a cot; his drunken sleep kept him there; his gun and hat were 
placed at the front door ; his mates, in passing, would exclaim, "This 
house has a guard." At any rate, that house was not plundered. 

Grandma gave breakfast to several soldiers. One, on leaving the 
table, picked up knife, fork and spoon and put them in his pocket. 
She walked up to him, and took them from his pocket, saying, "I 
thought you were a gentleman." Grandpa gave his watch to a sol- 
dier, saying, "Here, you take it, then some of your fellows can't steal 
it." Our guards were drunken men, and our home was soon 
emptied ; no food of any description was left in the pantry, the cows 
were driven off, and the chickens shot. 

Our home was near the Baptist Church, an unfinished building, on 
a large lot ; ours was the nearest well ; the church and its grounds 
were used as a camp ; our yard was full of soldiers, coming for water ; 
chickens were fought in the pulpit. The Episcopal Church was 
burned at an early hour of the night ; no other building near, so it 
was set on tire; the bell stolen. I heard that a young minister of 
this State wears a cross made from a piece of the melted bell, but, 
if my memory serves me right, no traces of either bell or communion 
service were ever found. 

A Southern Woman's Recollections. 337 

The Mount Zion College building was used as a hospital. One of 
our soldiers, a Mr. Manigault, died there only a few days before 
the army entered town, and was buried in the Episcopal graveyard. 
His new-made grave was dug open, his coffin placed across the grave 
and split open with an axe, and left so. This was done by those who 
termed themselves soldiers. "Hunting for buried treasures" was the 
reason for such desecration. 

Among my mother's "keepsakes" was a dead baby boy's hair, kept 
in a little silver wire case. This was rudely snatched from its sacred 
place and thrown into the fire. 

An aunt lived a few miles from town, and had housed and nursed 
a sick soldier — "one of our men," she thought. He gave her minute 
directions as to where and how to hide provisions and valuables. 
When the army of the blue marched near her home, this ungrateful 
wretch (for he was a spy) walked up to her and said, "Here I am 
again." She was so frightened that her heart ceased to beat, and 
forever was still. 

The two days that Winnsboro was occupied by Sherman's men 
was a period of horrors such as this generation has never witnessed. 
The streets and vacant lots were filled with homeless families, many 
persons having nothing but the clothes they wore, for, when bringing 
bedding, raiment or provisions out of their burning homes, these 
were destroyed by the brutal soldiers, who jeered and exulted in 
their fiendish work. They stole much that was useless to them, for 
even Bibles were taken, one, I remember, belonging to a little girl 
friend, and to this day she would gladly recall it from beyond the 
Mason and Dixon line. This name was on the cover : "Mary R. 
Morrison, March 15th, 1855." 

Governor Aiken had had buried on the red hills around town 
barrels, boxes and crates of fine china and silver. All were found, 
carried off or broken. 

Sherman's men were inhuman in their treatment of women and 
children. I recall one soldier who had the instincts of a gentleman, 
for my mother asked why he was not stealing with his mates. His 
reply was, "I promised my mother to behave as a soldier." 

A few Sundays after the raid, a group of children, with their 
grandfather, were walking in the "Presbyterian woods," and found 
a huge silver waiter, cut partly in two with an ax ; some leaves were 
thrown over it and in a few days it was returned to its owner. 

A few years after the war, some children were playing in the base- 
ment of a rented home and unearthed a little package containing 

338 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

old seals. These were sent to those who had hidden them and for- 
gotten — the Muir family, of Charleston. 

The yards and gardens were perforated with bayonets, men search- 
ing for buried treasures. 

A mother had for years kept an iced cake, from the wedding table 
of a brother (once editor of The News and Courier). Soldiers' 
hands tore open the box, cut and ate the aged cake, with this threat, 
"If this makes us sick, we will burn your home." 

The army left no food in town, and for days the women and chil- 
dren gathered the corn from the deserted camps, left by the horses. 
This was boiled and eaten without salt. 

Did not our women fight as hard as our men, for while the men 
were on battlefields, women and children at home starved and waited 
without a doubt ? 

Dear old Winnsboro was garrisoned by a negro regiment. One 
Sunday morning, at the Methodist Church, just as the pastor was 
giving his text, a company of negro soldiers marched in and seated 
themselves. A look of consternation swept over that congregation, 
when the pastor quietly raised his hands and said, "Receive the bene- 

Daughters of the Confederacy, see to it that a true history is writ- 
ten, then place it in the hands of Southern boys. Thomas Nelson 
Page truly says, "The history of the South is yet to be written." 

I thank God that the sword of the South will never more be drawn 
except in defense of the Union, but I thank God equally that it is 
without a stain. A Southern Woman. 

January, 1901. 

Mrs. Lottie L. Green's Experience. 

For many years, the broad, rich acres and old homestead known 
as "Sylvan Hill" had successively passed from father to son, until 
at last, by right of inheritance, it had fallen to John Thompson 
Green. It was situated between the villages of Bishopville and 
Wisacky, and at the time of which we are speaking there were no 
walls for miles around more ancient, and, to us, no spot so lovely, as 
this our dear old homestead. 

Not far away, near the village of Wisacky, stands an old church. 
Here, too, was the resting place of our loved ones, who had once 
gathered around the hearthstone of "Sylvan Hill." This was one 
more tie to bind our hearts to that of our old-fashioned home. Manv 

Mrs. Lottie L. Green's Experience. 339 

and hallowed are the associations connected with it. Here I was 
brought as a bride ; it was here some of my happiest days were 
spent ; much too dear had the friends and surroundings of this place 
grown to me, for a darker day was to come, when my husband died, 
leaving me a widow, with two little children — my little boy, Willie, 
aged four years, and Minnie, my baby girl. My mother then came 
down to be with me, and help me bear this my first great grief. Not 
wishing to leave me alone and unprotected (for this was the third 
year that the Civil War had raged), she insisted on me going with 
her to her home in Lancaster County, near the Catawba Falls. This, 
my home in Sumter County, I left, with my mother, to endure — aye, 
the story will tell. 

We reached her home safely, and had been here for about two 
weeks when we began noticing campfires, miles away ; at nights we 
would watch the reflection of them on the sky, and reports came in 
daily that Sherman's raid would soon be upon us. That it was fast 
approaching, we knew must evidently be true ; still, we hoped they 
would not cross the river, and felt that we would be safe if they re- 
mained on the other side. But we thought it best to begin hiding all 
the provisions and valuables, such as the silverware, etc., in order 
to be on the "safe side." No sooner had we done this than three 
corps of Sherman's army were upon us, besieging the house and 
grounds, and destroying everything they came in contact with. Our 
pleadings for mercy were treated with contempt. 

They bribed the negroes to tell where the things were hidden, 
when the heretofore faithful servants, overcome with fear, hastened 
to obey their least command. After finding the provisions, they 
took from them such as they wanted, giving the remains to the 
negroes. Then satisfied that they had left us destitute of food, they 
went from room to room, gathering up our clothing; and breaking 
into my trunk, they took my baby's dresses, and distributed them 
among the negroes. 

My younger brother, Columbus Tillman, our only protector and 
dependence, they captured on the day of their arrival. Already my 
mother had given up her oldest son Isaac; this was indeed a trial, 
but she stood it bravely ; remembering the cause, she thought it best. 
But now to stand by and see her youngest son and only help thus 
captured was like "nailing her to the cross." My brother was then 
taken down by the river, a distance of about three miles, where a 
company was encamped. He left, speaking words of encouragement 
to my mother. 

340 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Solely for the amusement of these men, my little son, only four 
years old, was taken each day out on the porch, where, with one of 
their guns, he was made to shoot at a target, while I, horrified, 
would stand and look on, not daring to remove him. 

Among the many cruel deeds that these men committed, this is. 
one of the most marked : With bayonets in hand, they walked 
around, and would thrust the gleaming blade into a hog or dog, 
leaving it to suffer and die. At one time there were seven dogs 
and two horses lying dead in the yard ; besides, there were wounded 
hogs, dying by degrees, by wounds received in this way. It was 
hard indeed to stand by and see our stock slaughtered in this 

Our enemies stripped our beds of quilts and, throwing them care- 
lessly upon the ground, led horse after horse upon them, to be 
brushed and curried. In those days women prided themselves upon 
making beautiful quilts. My mother was specially fond of this 
work, and had quite a number of them. But these things, that we 
would hold sacred these days as precious heirlooms, were then 
trodden under foot by horses. 

One day, as I walked into an adjoining room, I found several men 
tearing my mother's Brussels carpet from the floor. I entreated 
them to leave us the carpet. Seeing that they did not heed my en- 
treaties, I went to Captain Day (captain of General Kilpatrick's 
staff) and asked him to stop the men before they tore the carpet into 
shreds. He replied, "I can't do it, madam ; the fellows want it for 
saddle cloths." Already disgusted with the fact that they had 
robbed us of food and clothing, and that, by their hand, starvation 
seemed staring us in the face, fairly goaded to desperation, I said, 
"Sir ! you are no better than the rest of them !" With a bitter, sar- 
castic laugh, he replied, "Hardly as good, I guess, madam." 

My brother Isaac had, a short time prior to the arrival of Kil- 
patrick's men, been at home recruiting. Before he was able to 
leave, hearing daily that Sherman's raid was approaching, he thought 
best to leave, which he only did in time to keep from being captured. 
We stood on the piazza and watched them burn the ginhouse in 
which our cotton, some of which we had kept there for four years, 
had been stored. Remembering a gun that my brother Isaac had 
captured, and which was hidden in the house, I hastily slipped it 
from its hiding place and, wrapping it in the folds of my dress, I 
made my way to the well, where I dropped it in, feeling greatly 
relieved. I knew, once they found the gun, which they would have 

Mrs. Lottie L. Green's Experience. 341 

known to have been captured by a "Rebel," they would, regardless 
of Kilpatrick's orders, burn the house. 

This was Kilpatrick's headquarters, and for that reason our home 
was spared us. Officers guarded the house at night, for which we 
were very thankful. But one of them sarcastically informed me 
one day that my mother's home would be left, but on my return to 
Sumter I would find my husband's home in ashes. But it was left, 
and though somewhat impaired, still stands. 

For three weeks we suffered untold suspense, knowing not what 
the next day would bring forth. When the day dawned on which 
they were to leave, with hearts too full for words, sighs of relief, 
and a silent prayer to God for the shelter left over our heads, we 
watched them ride away, leaving us to the tender mercies of Provi- 
dence. Immediately after they left we began to realize more keenly 
the seriousness of our position — no food ! no clothing ! Going out 
about the premises, we picked up the corn left on the ground by the 
horses. Washing this carefully, and grinding it in the coffee mill, 
we made coffee and bread. This, used sparingly, was our only 
nourishment for several days. My husband's brother, Major Wil- 
liam Green, with other friends and relatives in Sumter County, 
hearing of our destitute condition, hastened to our aid, and sent in 
bountiful supplies. These lasted until the return of my brothers, 
who lost no time in getting the land in readiness for planting. 

Oh ! daughters of the South, think not your long suffering and 
patient endurance was in vain ! Your reward is not earthly — it is in 
the world beyond ; there the Heavenly Father awaits you. Hail ! 
Confederate veterans, be not chagrined ; theirs was the victory here — 
let us aspire to something loftier, and as God in his tender mercy 
forgives us our daily trespasses, let us set the little flame of "for- 
giveness" to the great barrier that has risen up between the North 
and South. Let us forget the envy that they bore us, and by so 
doing set a far nobler example to the coming generation of the 
South, and may it pass from lips to lips, from generation to genera- 
tion, "Long live the name of the Confederacy!" Bravely she fought 
for her rights, until her men became a mere remnant compared to 
those from the thickly settled North — then was she proclaimed 

Again, as bravely as they fought on the battlefield, they fight — and 
win — "the battle of forgiveness." 

"All praise to the Sunny South!" 

Mrs. Lottie L. Green. 

34 2 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

The Response to the Negroes* Call. 

In March, 1865, after repeated messages had reached us from 
the negroes on our Lexington place, mother and I accomplished the 
trip from the extreme eastern side of the town of Columbia, through 
the desolation and ruins left by Sherman, and reached our people, 
to see after their needs as well as we could. 

The Yankees had robbed the mill place of everything — horses, 
corn, and all the meat which had not been hidden by the overseer — 
LeCones — a man disqualified for the army, and therefore in our ser- 
vice. All the provisions left were pea-vines, cured with the peas on 
them. The negroes knew that LeCones had hidden enough meat 
and lard to supply their present necessities ; but he refused to give 
them anything. 

Columbia was eleven miles distant, and the river between. The 
negroes sent messengers from time to time to report the overseer to 
mother; but as there was no way then to cross the Congaree, Sher- 
man having burnt the bridge, all she could do was to tell them every- 
thing would be done as soon as the mill could be reached by her. 
" 'Taint no use to tell him nothin', miss ; he ain't gwine do nothin' 
'cept you come yo'self," said the last messenger. 

The Yankees entered Columbia the 17th of February. I think it 
was about the middle of March, or perhaps sooner, that, the ferry 
being established, my mother and I borrowed Mr. Bostick's carriage 
(the one carriage then owned in Columbia), crossed the river, and 
drove thirteen miles without meeting a creature. After getting out 
of the city, and arriving at the Berry Creek mill, we found LeCones 
gone for the day. This compelled us to stay all night, for we found 
the tale of the negroes to be true — they had nothing to eat, and the 
astonishment was that they had not risen in a body and robbed Le- 
Cones' house, in which they knew the meat to be secreted. Mother 
and I went into every barn, house and storage place, except his, and 
found concealed some jars of lard, and a gun. These we sent to 
Columbia by the carriage, which had to return without us, leaving 
us eight miles from the only white men we knew of on that side of 
the river — the two old Messrs. Kinsler, sixty-eight and seventy years 
of age. I was myself twenty-five, and not easily daunted ; but I 
would not wish to repeat the experience of that trip. 

At sundown, LeCones returned. Mother and I had established 
ourselves in a cabin, having nothing in it but the loom, where the 
cloth had been woven for the negroes. Upon this was placed a tick, 
supplied by Lyddy (good old Nick's wife), who took it from her 

The Response to the Negroes' Call. 343 

own bed, washed it clean, and filled it with straw, as soon as we 
knew we were to stay all night. Mother and I sat in the doorway, 
for the fireplace smoked ; and there LeCones met us. The interview 
was stormy, he claiming everything, and justifying this by accusing 
us of not paying his last dues. We answered that these had been 
offered to him, in Confederate money, which he had refused to take. 
The surrender had not taken place ; therefore, the negroes were our 
care, and we had gone to their assistance when they came to us in 
their trouble, and believed in our promise to do all we could for them. 
The quarrel was between a desperate man, with a wife and five 
children, and two ladies, who had their slaves. We were willing to 
share as a gift, but to accord nothing as a debt, and we demanded the 
meat, which he denied having concealed. The first of the talk was 
between mother and himself, but when he accused her of unfair 
dealing, I took it up. I told him many things, and that he needn't 
expect to frighten us ; that only a coward could act as he was acting ; 
that I had met Sherman's bummers, but never one more unmanly 
than he was, nor more impertinent, etc. ; that on the morrow he was 
to leave, and that the hidden meat should be left behind. Well, after 
a time, I ordered him to go, for "we would stand no more." He 
rose and went off to his own house, which was quite near our cabin. 

I had left my pistol at his house. I sent Lyddy for it. She re- 
turned, telling me LeCones said he wouldn't give it. I sent again, 
and instead of sending it, he came himself, bounding from his house 
(he was six feet tall) towards mother and me (still sitting in the 
doorway). His right hand was in the breast of his vest, and it 
looked as though he held a pistol. My mother sprang up, crying, 
"Mr. LeCones, don't shoot." I, too, rose. Putting my hand on my 
mother's shoulder, I cried, "Stand where you are, sir" — and he stood, 
whether at my order or not I do not know ; and I continued pointing 
my finger at the man. "Mother, have no fear; he is a coward of 
cowards ; he would not dare to shoot." Meantime, LeCones said, 
from where he stood, "You shall not have your pistol till you give 
me my gun." He had accused us of having the gun in the loom 
house, although I had told him we sent it by the carriage. I re- 
plied, "That pistol I will have this night." Drawing my mother into 
the house, I shut the door in LeCones' face. 

The negroes' quarters were quite a distance away. Leaving mother 
with Lyddy, I walked to these quarters in the darkness, found old 
Abram and Giarles Prioleau, told them to be very quiet, not to 
excite any alarm, but find me a pencil and paper — both of these were 

344 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

scarce in those days. After much rummaging in cracks and crevices, 
by the flame of a lightwood splinter, an old envelope was found 
which had enough white left to allow of two short notes being 
written — one to Mr. Bostick, at Columbia, telling him if he heard 
nothing of us in the next twelve hours, to come and look for us ; 
this, Abram was to take to the river, and use the first chance to take 
to Columbia; the other was sent by Charles to the Messrs. Kinsler, 
telling them to "come at once to us." Nothing could be written, and 
the messengers did not know anything. We had to be very careful, 
lest a spark might light up negro passions and blaze in unprotected 
homes. (We had no light but from a lightwood knot.) 

Mother lay down on Lyddy's tick in the loom, and I waited in a 
chair by her till about one o'clock a. m. ; then we heard voices, and 
then a knock, and the two old gentlemen came in. Had they been 
angels they could not have been more welcome; we were again in 
touch with the outside world — they were so gentle, so calm, so re- 
assuring. They went to LeCones' house. We could hear the 
knock and opening of the front door, and their coming out to a log 
between the two houses ; then Lyddy would creep out and come back 
and report ; she couldn't hear much, but enough to tell us LeCones 
was getting toned down. At last the gentlemen came to us, pistol 
in hand, and bearing the abject apologies of LeCones, and the con- 
fession that he did take as much meat as he could store in the loft of 
his house, and we could get it all on the morrow. 

The next day there was a clearing out which was pathetic and 
funny too. Mother lent LeCones our one wagon, packed tight with 
pea-vines, some of the restored bacon, a big jar of lard, such pans 
and cooking utensils as could be spared, and any amount of kind 
words and good wishes for his wife and children. The last we saw 
of the LeCones was on this wagon, topped by his wife and five 
children, and driven by one of our hands. That night we slept in 
the overseer's house, after the negroes had scoured and cleared it. 
Next day, we returned to Columbia. Grace Elmore. 

Columbia, S. C. 

When Sherman Passed Tnrcmg'n 

We awaited the coming of Sherman's Army, in the spring of 1865, 
with the greatest apprehension, for the reports which preceded its 
approach of the destruction and burning of everything in its wake 
were calculated to arouse the alarm of anv civilized community. 

When Sherman Passed Through Lancaster. 345 

I was but a child then, just at an age to receive the most lasting 
impressions. I was standing in a high back porch, looking towards 
the old Methodist Church, when I saw one, two, then several, 
Yankees riding rapidly to Main street crossing; then I heard a gun 
fired, and a negro girl ran through the hall and, in great excitement, 
said : "Lor', they done killed old Mr. Jack Crockett." He was an 
old citizen who was too old to go to the war, to which he gave his 
two sons. He was crossing the street just as the Yankees rode into 
town, and they fired, without hitting him. 

This, the beginning of the rabble, was rapidly increasing in num- 
bers. They were entering residences on every hand, and as I turned 
to enter the hall, numbers were rapidly entering our front door and, 
very unceremoniously walking into any bed- or other rooms ; they 
asked for food, proceeded to closets, the store-room, dairy, smoke- 
house. If the keys were not furnished, the butt end of a musket 
served to shiver the timbers, that they might gain access. 

There were but few men in town. The white women and chil- 
dren, and their negroes, were there to meet the emergency as best 
they could. As children, we looked with wonder at all those rude 
soldiers, going through closets, cupboards, drawers ; desecrating, 
even by the touch of their hands, the very Lares and Penates of our 
household. We could see that our mother was very much exercised, 
for she thought best to unlock every door, drawer, or any place they 
might suspect her of hiding gold or silver, of which they seemed to 
think we had plenty. 

The fall preceding, my father — D. W. Brown — had killed and 
cured 125 hogs, ground enough wheat to do him for one year, stored 
his potatoes — filled the larder, in fact, with everything essential to 
the comfort of the inner man. My mother had blockade coffee and 
sugar, and molasses from the Southern cane, with an abundance of 
milk, butter, and eggs ; the yard was stocked with chickens, which 
old Mammy Silvy had raised. These Yankees filled their knapsacks 
with whatever best pleased their fancy. The hams were tied to 
their saddles, or slung two across, and they ransacked every nook 
and cranny of the house. Every one wanted Hour, and when they 
seemed somewhat satisfied, and the crowd began to look elsewhere 
for a time, my eldest sister — Mrs. Cureton — seeing that only a few 
hundred pounds of flour had been left in the dairy, had the 
house-girls bring two sacks full, and put them under an iron bed- 
stead, then took her seat on the bed ; and it was well she did, for 
another crowd, who seemed worse than the first, came. Manv of 

346 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

them seemed drunk, to me. They asked for whiskey, but my mother 
said she had none. They did not believe her, but went searching 
through everything for it. The first crowd did not seem to have 
plundered the smokehouse. It was still full of meat, salt, and soap. 
The second looked for flour, and came to the bedroom where Mrs. 
Cureton sat, and asked her for it. She pointed to the door, and said : 
"No ; go on ; you have it all." And they turned away, not once sus- 
pecting her of having hidden it under the bed. 

These men seemed to be in a hurry. Several of them took the 
house servants and searched them for the jewelry we might have 
hidden on them. Even old mammy was forced to the smokehouse 
by threats and the pistol, to give up anything she had concealed. 
Our negroes were too indignant over this treatment ever to have any 
use for Yankees. They believed them to be the lowest types of 
"poor buckra," One by the name of Steve seemed to exemplify this 
character in their sight. He looked to be a regular cracker — so sal- 
low, and rawboned ; his voice had a whining drawl, peculiar to very 
common, lowborn people ; and his whole mind seemed set upon 
finding treasure. When he was forced to go, he lingered until the 
officers were almost upon him before he got out. 

As the main army came in, several staff officers entered the hall 
and informed my mother that they had selected our home for Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick's headquarters. They gave the first floor to our 
family, with the exception of the room opposite my mother's room, 
which was occupied by Major Estes, the adjutant-general. (This 
was the largest, handsomest residence in the place, and located on 
Main street.) The back yard seemed filled by magic, the small cov- 
ered wagons, horses, mules, Irish servants, and common soldiers 
came so rapidly. They made hitching posts of the palings, trampled 
the beautiful flower-yard into a pig-sty, as it seemed. The palings 
and shrubbery soon lay broken and pulled to pieces. The basement 
was turned over to Irish cooks and servants. 

The officers said that we should have "every protection," and 
placed a guard in the hall. Here he paced hour after hour, until re- 
lieved by another, and so continued as long as the Yankees remained 
in the place. 

General Kilpatrick occupied a front room in the second story ; a 
woman, handsome and tall, zvho wore fine clothes, occupied the room 
opposite his ; and his officers the other two. 

General Kilpatrick and his staff came to our sitting-room at night 
and sat until bedtime. 

When Sherman Passed Through Lancaster. 347 

I know the first night General Kilpatrick made particular inquiries 
of my mother about Gen. M. C. Butler's troops, who had passed 
through Lancaster the night before. They wished to know how 
many there were; and then asked how long they were in passing. 
But they got no information from my mother. 

My father hesitated about leaving home. He was so concerned 
about the welfare of his family. (He had been in the Fourth Bat- 
talion of cavalry, and in their practice of leaping a pole of consider- 
able height, was thrown over his horse's head, breaking his collar- 
bone. This not knitting promptly, disabled him for some time.) 
He had left us the day before, and we were satisfied to know that 
he was safe, and fleetly borne by his faithful thoroughbred, as my 
mother had insisted that he should leave us to our fate, and God's 
providential care. The Yankees, however, knew of him ; they had 
wantonly destroyed by torch and destruction his property on three 
large plantations en route from the village of Liberty Hill to Lan- 
caster, carried off his horses and mules, killed his cattle, and burnt 
several hundred bales of cotton, his gin-houses, and two nice, but 
vacant, dwelling houses. They asked where he was, but of course it 
was not meant that we, nor they, should know. They knew of his 
having so recently left home, and inquired about it. 

Just when there seemed to be a relief from the first part of the 
rabble preceding the main army, our old cook — Mammy Silvy — 
begged my mother to let her hide some of the nice hams in the smoke- 
house. My mother said "she might try it, but thought it would avail 
her nothing." So mammy emptied a great tierce (which was once 
brought, full of rice, from Georgetown ) , which was then used for an 
ash-barrel, and packed it more than half full of nice hams, which she 
covered and filled up with ashes again. The house servants took 
out the nice china, and many articles which were easily broken, and 
buried them. After Kilpatrick's headquarters were established, the 
common soldiers went over every part of the grounds, plunging 
long iron rods into the ground, seeking for buried treasure. So the 
servants went with my mother and took up everything they had 
buried, as the Yankees looked on, and brought them into the house. 
Major Estes was particularly kind and thoughtful in not allowing 
any one to disturb them. 

The ash-barrel was seemingly doomed from the moment the army 
assumed possession of the premises. Old mammy saw that it was 
a favorite hitching-post for everv passing soldier. She would stick 
her head out of the kitchen window, or run to the door, "Oh, please 

348 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

don't hitch your horses to my ash-barrel ; you'll waste all my ashes, 
and I won't have a thing to make soap out of." Many of them 
regarded her distress, and fastened to the garden palings, or to the 
limbs of the cedar tree which grew nearby. Finally, there came a 
man who did not notice her cries, and kept watchful care over the 
animal, which continually shook and pulled the old staves. Finally, 
down the whole thing came, with the hams on display to the gaping 
crowds. The man ran out of the kitchen and looked. "Oh, yes ; I 
thought the old aunty was mighty careful about her ashes, and now 
I see." The Irish cooks took possession of the kitchen, and would 
have cooked for us as well. The staff officers insisted that we should 
take our meals with them ; they had an abundance of provisions. 
My mother and married sister would never go ; but they would 
come and take the children, insisting that we must come. I remem- 
ber, my sister — Mrs. Cureton — who was very domestic, went to old 
mammy at the kitchen one day. She wanted something to eat. In 
looking around, she found the cook had nice pies in the oven, so, with 
mammy's aid, she wrapped one in her apron, and carried it to my 
mother's room. I heard my mother say, ''Now, Fannie, you had 
better be careful ; you do not know what they might do to you." 

For miles around, these Yankees came to supply their camps with 
meat. They knocked out the back wall of the smokehouse, and 
would carry it away by the pole full (the meat was strung on poles, 
eight or ten feet long), each one resting an end of the pole on his 
shoulder. At last, my mother asked Major Estes if she would be 
allowed to put some of the hams in her room. He was perfectly 
willing, and saw that the servants were not molested when carrying 
in about twenty hams, which were piled behind the door, and our 
school cloaks, and the shawls, thrown over them. 

When Kilpatrick and his staff came to the sitting-room after tea, 
they would talk until eleven o'clock. Some of the officers smoked 
good cigars. They often quizzed my mother about our condition in 
the South. There were some good musicians who came in to play 
for their entertainment, and on Sunday they played piano music all 
day long. These Yankees found out that Mrs. Lucius Northrop 
(nee Miss Rosine Legris), from Charleston, S. C, who was a refugee 
in Lancaster at that time, sang beautifully. Her sweet, full soprano 
had been thoroughly cultivated, and they were anxious for the 
general to hear her grand voice. He sent one of his trusted officers 
in the carriage to bring her to my father's house. She came back 
with him, as I suppose she was afraid not to grant the request. And 

When Sherman Passed Through Lancaster. 349 

I do not think I ever saw her look so beautiful. The Yankees were 
carried away with enthusiasm over her voice. They seemed to ap- 
preciate her willingness to oblige them, and the same officer returned 
with her in the carriage. Every afternoon, the general was sere- 
naded by a splendid band. 

After a day or two, I saw several of our citizens brought in as 
prisoners — Mr. Felix McLarnon, Joseph B. Boyd, Allison Chance, 
whom I knew, and there were some I have forgotten, and some 
whom I had never seen. In their eager search for gold, these sol- 
diers had strung up Mr. Boyd and Mr. Chance to force them to 
confess where their treasure was hidden; but they had nothing and, 
failing in this object, they brought them to headquarters. Mr. Mc- 
Larnon had no hat, was barefooted, and without a coat. Mr. Boyd 
had no hat. The very sight of these men touched the chord of sym- 
pathy, and aroused our fears for others. The prisoners could only 
speak to us, and were carried away. 

We knew nothing of our neighbors. We were afraid to leave the 
house, though it was very confining to be kept there for a whole 
week. We were allowed the liberty of the first floor, and the piazzas. 
Whenever we sat anywhere outside of my mother's bedroom, these 
Yankees seemed to think we must be entertained. Our baby was 
loved and nursed by several officers, who said they had children of 
their own ; and Captain Brinks had a play with her every day. 

General Kilpatrick was a very insignificant looking man. He was 
small, with ugly, reddish-looking hair; his nose like the hawk's bill; 
pale, light-colored eyes, and a most irritable disposition. He seemed 
to have the will to carry out his designs. He always paid court to 
the woman who came with him ; she roomed opposite his room, took 
her meals with him. Only on one occasion did she ever come to the 
sitting-room — that was the night Mrs. Northrop sang. And the 
morning they left Lancaster, General Kilpatrick escorted her to the 
carriage. This woman was placed in our carriage, and my mother's 
beautiful white blankets were piled on the front seat, almost to the 
shoulders of the driver ; and behind them, my grandmother's car- 
riage, which also belonged to my father, was driven. Kilpatrick's 
troops were run out of Lancaster by General Wheeler's cavalry, who 
fired on them about. a mile from the courthouse. They set the court- 
house and the jail on fire, and intended to burn the town, but were 
in such a hurry to get away they did not have time to do so. 

We only saw a few of Wheeler's men — several rode up to have 
a few words with the ladies. We were rejoicing so over our 

350 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

deliverance from the enemy. My father's family had fared well in 
comparison with many others. Some thought his being a Mason 
might have had its influence. 

The families who lived in the country suffered dreadfully. Many 
of them had nothing left except corn, which they picked up where 
the Yankees had fed their horses ; they lived on it for a week after 
the raid. Many were deprived of their clothing, and bed-clothing, 
and in many instances their houses were burnt. 

At Colonel Barnes' old home, they talked very roughly to his 
daughter and, on account of his prominence as a senator, and having 
been a colonel in the Confederate army, they cut his oil portrait from 
the frame and trampled it in the mud, and would have burnt his 
house had it not been for the rain. 

Miss Agnes Wade was reduced to great want, and lived on parched 
corn for a long while. 

I heard Mrs. Riley Clanton say they had taken everything she had 
to eat except one small chicken, which she caught and prepared to 
cook for herself and her little children. She was just getting ready 
to take it from the oven when a rough soldier reached over and lifted 
it out; then walked off with it. She and her children then lived on 
the scattered corn they picked up for a week. 

Nothing could equal the devotion of the slaves to their owners 
during that trying period. They never considered these misfortunes 
apart from their own lot, for our grievances were, in a great measure, 
their own ; otherwise, they, like children, were as happy as the days 
were long. 

My father had a great many slaves, and I can recall but one in- 
stance of treachery among them all. He went to his farms just ahead 
of this horde of vandals, and instructed his negroes where to conceal 
the stock and cattle ; on one place he had a new barn for storing 
corn, and it contain 4,000 bushels of corn ; it was far down in the 
recesses of the farm, and would never have been found by persons 
unaccustomed to the place ; here he instructed those whom he trusted 
to take his horses and mules ; and they took with them a young boy, 
about fifteen years of age, called Emanuel, to help them take care of 
and feed the stock. Emanuel told the Yankees where they were 
hidden, and piloted them to the place. They carried off the stock 
and burnt the 4,000 bushels of corn. I do not think I ever saw my 
father so angry as when the older negroes told him about Emanuel's 
treachery. He sent some of them to the plantation for him ; it took 
several grown ones to bring him. My father was very good to his 

Reminiscences of Sherman's Raid. 351 

negroes, but if they deserved punishment he could punish them 
severely. He made Emanuel confess that he had taken the Yankees 
to this place where the mules and horses were hidden. Then he told 
him that he intended to hang him. With the aid of several old ser- 
vants, he strung him to the beams of the wide shed in front of the 
kitchen, then cut him down before life was extinct. As soon as he 
recovered, my father told him to leave ; that he never wished to see 
him again — and we never did. Mrs. J. H. Foster. 

Lancaster, S. C. 

Reminiscences of Sherman's Raid. 

I have been requested by my friend, Miss Bessie White, a 
Daughter of the Confederacy of the Fort Mill Chapter, to write my 
reminiscences of Sherman's raid in my home and community, not- 
withstanding it is indeed sad and heart-rending, for I assure you, 
my readers, I had hoped the remembrance of such was buried in 
oblivion, never to be resurrected until the general resurrection, when 
we are "called upon for acts clone in the body" and for taking things 
that do not belong to us. 

It was only a few mornings after the burning of our beautiful city 
of Columbia, the great reflection of which we witnessed, that I was 
standing in my bedroom, with my only two little boys, completing 
my toilet, preparatory for breakfast, when my nurse and dining-room 
servant rushed into my room, exclaiming, "Miss Virginia, the 
Yankees are crowding in the back part of the house !" At the same 
time I saw numbers charging through the gates to the stables, for 
horses, bridles, saddles, etc. I had had the four bedrooms upstairs 
nicely made comfortable, and my first impulse was to meet them po- 
litely and inquire if I could accommodate them with anything, and. 
oh ! how perfectly absurd was that impulse ! "Yes," was the reply, "by 
God ! I expect to get what I want !" I turned to go back into my 
room from the front piazza, when, lo and behold ! I could not see my 
room door — they poured in back and side doors. I wended my 
way into my private bedroom, took my seat in the mahogany mohair 
rocking-chair, and there I remained the two weeks that my house 
was inhabited by these thieves, with Johnnie, my delicate, timid, be- 
wildered son of four years, crouched as closely under my knees as 
possible, while Tom, my older son, was talking to them and answer- 
ing all inquiries — "Where is your papa?" "How long since he left 
home?" etc. 

35 2 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

I must add that I was about in the center of the brigade. 
Sherman spent the time here. It is said eight thousand encamped 
here and within a mile. My husband, Mr. F. D. Green, owned a 
large number of slaves, and had killed over a hundred head of hogs, 
and in less than an hour the smokehouse and flourhouse doors were 
taken off and carried to make shelters for the privates' convenience. 
Not a piece of meat, except a hog jowl, which fell in the lye soap 
trough, or a dust of meal or flour, left in their respective barrels. 
My breakfast soon disappeared in like manner. Now and again they 
would demand "your sody (soda) box or bottle." 

My children (the two little boys) and I had nothing to eat the 
whole two weeks, only what my noble, trusty carriage driver and his 
wife — Alex, and Mary — would bring to us. As she would pass the 
soldiers they would violently curse her. "If you carry another 
morsel to that white woman and her children we'll kill you." 

Perhaps my readers would like to know how these colored friends 
came to have anything to bring. They would go into the camps 
and pick up hams, shoulders, etc., where only the lean had been 
taken out. Yes ; they gathered up enough to last them three months 
after the army left our country. 

My cook was a timid old woman, and left her house to their mercy. 
She, my nurse, dining-room servant, and dear old "Mammy" Pickett 
were my constant companions day and night. The latter was a very 
bright servant, and was all the time taken for my mother, and or- 
dered time and again, "Give up your gold and silver ; hand up your 
gold watch." She'd reply, "I am a servant." They'd say, "What f 
you a servant ! whoever has you for a servant ought to be killed !" 
and with a most terrible oath, turning to me, "Don't you think so, 
lady?" My reply was, "There she is; she can answer for herself." 
"No, sir; I am treated as one of the family, and just as my mistress 
lives I live." 

A Yankee told me to "go to such a man and ask for a guard." It 
was now near sundown. I went. Two soldiers were stationed in 
the hall or passage, just in front of my bedroom door, who ren- 
dered good service until about eleven o'clock that night, when, 
through the doors leading into the sitting-room, and the one into the 
hall, six or eight soldiers would open the doors, come in voluntarily, 
look and stare at me, often stand up by the fire, not uttering a word. 
I clasped my hands, and turned to "Mammy" Pickett, "My God ! 
Have mercy on us ! Mammy, how can I stand this ?" I asked 
my visitors if any one knew in which room upstairs were the 

Reminiscences of Sherman's Raid. 353 

commanding- officers. "The one over the parlor." I took "Mammy" 
Pickett, nurse, and another, went up, left cook and another to take 
care of the little hoys, as they enjoyed nature's sweet repose; knocked 
at the door. "Come in," unbolted it and stepped back into the hall. 
One officer was ransacking my brother's trunk ; the other raised up 
on his elbow in bed. I said, "Gentlemen (which was much against 
my will, to address them as such), will you not, for God's sake, 
protect me and my little children? Your men persist in opening 
my private room doors. I come begging your protection ; I know 
my children and I are in your power." He said, "Certainly, 
madam." And he ordered the one engaged in brother's trunk, 
"Place a responsible guard directly in front of her doors." And we 
were not molested any more during the night. But, alas ! alas ! how 
could I sleep, or even rest, when I knew my whole house — nine other 
rooms — was filled by hundreds with such a rough set of thieves? 

The next morning the officers inquired at my door, "Were you 
and your little boys disturbed any more during the night? You and 
the boys come and eat breakfast with us." I thanked him. "We 
do not feel like eating, and feel much obliged for your protection." 
Kind reader, that was pretty hard to swallow, to refuse an invitation 
to eat at my own table. Let me say that not much of my silver 
adorned Sherman's breakfast table that morning ; it was lying in the 
woods, "beneath the sod." 

As soon as practicable, faithful Alex, and his wife, Mary, came to 
see after my welfare, brought us something to eat, and filled my 
box with wood for the day. In a few moments Alex, was back in 
my room. "Missus, these Yankees will force me to go to Lancaster 
this morning; but don't you be uneasy; I'll be back tonight, and as 
I pass through the back yard I will be whistling." One can't 
imagine how anxiously I listened for that "whistling." It was in- 
deed a long day. 

So often was I asked by these thieves, "Why don't you lie down 
and rest, lady? You look very feeble and weak." I told them I 
was. I had just recovered from a severe spell of convulsions and 
fever, and showed them where my hair had been shaved, head scari- 
fied and cupped, and thought if they had sympathy that would test 
it. As I had been frequently told by them they would burn my 
house, I told them my health was too bad to be thrown out in such 
miserable weather. "All we want is to get you out," said they. "If 
you burn my house, you'll burn me up in it," I replied, for I felt it 
was death either way. 


354 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

About nine o'clock I heard faithful Alex.'s "whistling." Oh, how 
my heart went to heaven in earnest prayer for him as I heard his 
familiar footstep on the threshold. 

The Yankees had been informed that Alex, had buried so many 
boxes of silver and other valuables. He was taken up and threat- 
ened in every way imaginable, but he, his wife, and my cook were 
true as the best of steel, and we saved all, notwithstanding the holes 
that were dug, and even the heavy granite tiling torn up from the 
hearths in the sitting-room and parlor. I did lose my mother's gold 

Mr. Green had been discharged on account of his health, and sent 
home to raise provisions for the Confederate army, he being a large 
planter. His health gave away during the second year — suffered 
from vertigo. As soon as he rallied, he joined his brother's (Wm. 
Green's) company, in Sumter County. He took measles, and was 
sent home again, and that was how he came to be home at the time 
of Sherman's raid. He left only two nights previous to the raid, 
and beat up towards North Carolina, endeavoring to save his and 
his neighbors' stock that was entrusted to his care, which he did. 

On the fifteenth day, I was again at my window, and saw three 
cavalrymen coming into the back yard, the yard enclosure having 
been torn down and burnt up the first day of the raid. My "com- 
panions" and I soon recognized them as my brothers, James and 
Sam Cureton, and Mr. Reeves Wade, who had been sent out as 
scouts. The latter secreted himself behind my large house, 
"watching," for fear of being flanked on the west, while my 
brothers were talking to me. It is needless to say I met them in 
tears as I said, "You three have come, tired and hungry, and not a 
morsel of anything have I to give you ; the little boys are now beg- 
ging for some bread." My brothers drew from their haversacks 
nine dirty, black biscuits, several days old, which they eagerly de- 
voured, without reference to color or age. 

The cavalrymen went to Mr. Wade's, a few hundred yards off. 
My brothers "kept watch" while Mr. Wade talked to his sister and 
her refugees, old Mrs. Benjamin F. Taylor and her daughters, of 
Columbia. They, too, of course, had a deplorable tale to relate. I 
regret to add that Mrs. Wade's servants were not such "steel" as 
ours were. 

The morning of Sherman's raid, Mrs. Taylor, a lady of seventy 
winters, was on her knees, enjoying her "morning devotion," when 
fifty or more entered her room. "Get up, old woman; the 

Reminiscences of Sherman's Raid. 355 

Yankees are on you ; no time to pray," and one of them walked up 
and lifted a pair of gold spectacles from her eyes. 

I neglected to say, while our cavalry returned, "Mammy" Pickett 
ran to her house, got a teacup of fine Java coffee, which had run 
the blockade at Charleston, parched it, and had it made, without any 
sugar, which they enjoyed hugely. She had secreted it under the 
mattress of her husband's bed, who had feigned a severe case of 

The second day after our cavalrymen left us, I reported my con- 
dition to my brother, Dr. Cureton, and he sent me a ham and a few 
pounds of meal and flour. I was then worried to know where to 
keep it ; my companions advised me to hide it in the box, under the 
wood and chips, till we could get an opportunity of enjoying it. 

It was indeed a sad spectacle to see our corncribs, ginhouse, filled 
with over a hundred bales of cotton ; smokehouses, filled with meat 
and molasses (this year Mr. Green made 1,000 gallons of sorghum, 
not only for our own consumption, but to supply our brave Confed- 
erate soldiers), committed to flames in broad, open daylight. 

During their stay with us, my nurse came to me and said, "Miss 
Virginia, is there anything of importance in the baby's trunk? The 
men are about to break it to pieces." I took her back with me, and 
found it as she said. I asked them, "Please don't break the trunk ; 
there is nothing in there but my dead baby's clothes." I unlocked it, 
and propped up the lid. When he saw it, he picked up a garment, 
with a terrible oath of profanity. "I don't want your baby's 
clothes," he said. 

In our community there were several wealthy farmers who suf- 
fered in like manner. My neighbor, Miss Mary Barnes, afterwards 
Mrs. Ervin, being an heiress, and her father holding an important 
office, and killed in the Sharpsburg battle, lost all her silverware and 
valuables. Her servants betrayed her. The Yankees fired her house 
and furniture several times, filled her handsome phaeton with meat, 
and thrust an ax in the back of it, and carried it off several miles, to 
a camp. When I know of my neighbors' unfaithful servants, I feel 
indeed proud of my own "dear companions." May God's richest 
blessings ever rest upon them. 

I neglected to mention the sad fate of "Old Tom." When Mr. 
Green left me, two nights previous to the raid, he said, "Virginia, I 
will leave 'Old Tom,' " a family horse that was quite old, to which I 
and the little boys were much attached. Mr. Green thought I would 
perhaps need a physician, or want to send to mill. Poor "Old Tom" 

356 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

was shot, wended his way to my window, gave one dying groan, 
and fell. 

I've tried to give you a mere statement, and must beg you to 
excuse me from the rest, some of which is too vulgar to recall to 
memory, much less to commit to paper ; and I must beg you to pardon 
the briny tears, which have caused many ugly spots on this paper. 

And may our South never pass through another such a trying 
scene. M. V. Green. 

Lancaster, S. C. 

In the TracK of the Raiders. 

Thirty years is a long time ago. To some of you children it seems 
as long ago as the flood. But your grandfathers, maybe your 
fathers, know all about it. It was to them the greatest, as well as 
the most dreadful, time they ever knew. It was then that all of the 
men in our sunny Southern land — and many of the boys — put on 
bright, new suits of gray and marched proudly and hopefully away, 
to fight the invaders. But those who came back ! Ah ! they were 
dressed in rags ! Painfully and sadly they straggled home, after lay- 
ing many of their brightest and bravest in unmarked graves. 

There were little children then, just as there are now ; and those 
children learned to know suffering and death, when they should 
have known only sunshine and play. 

I will tell you about one little boy of those days who lived in Rich- 
mond, Va., the home of General Lee and President Davis. 

This little boy heard a great deal about fighting Yankees. He 
wondered very much over it all, but, being a very quiet, thoughtful 
little fellow, he did not ask many questions, and consequently he got 
some very queer notions in his little head. You can never guess 
the funny idea he had about the Yankees. He had heard a great 
deal about them, and how dreadful they were, but he did not know 
what they were. So he imagined them to be very queer looking, 
fierce creatures, with two legs, just like enormous chickens, with all 
the feathers picked off. But he learned to know better. One day 
his mother told him there had been a great fight between our men 
and the Northern soldiers, and that very many on both sides had 
been killed and wounded. She said the sick and wounded were in 
the hospital, and that she was going to see them. So she took her 
little boy with her, and then he found out what a Yankee was, and 
what a hospital was, too. 

In the Track of the Raiders. 357 

His mother had a basket in her hand, packed full, and they set out 
on their trip. After a while they came to a big brick house, and the 
lady and little boy went in. There they found a long room full of 
little iron beds, side by side ; a poor, sick man, or sometimes a poor, 
sick boy, lay in each one. And after the beds were all filled, pallets 
were made on the floor, because there were more wounded soldiers 
than there were beds to put them in. That house was the hospital, 
and the sick men were the soldiers. Some of them were our sol- 
diers, who fought for us ; others were Yankee soldiers, who fought 
against us. But all were cared for there. 

The little boy saw his mother open her basket and give soup, jelly, 
and other nice things to the nurse for the poor sick soldiers ; and 
bundles of soft linen, too, to dress their wounds, the places where 
cruel bullets had struck them and torn great pieces out of their 
flesh. Some had a leg shot off; some an arm. Sometimes a poor 
fellow would lose both legs or both arms in battle. 

After seeing those dreadful things, that little boy never forgot 
what a Yankee was, nor what a battle was, either. 

But the two great armies meeting each other and fighting was not 
all of the war ; that was the best and bravest part of it. There was 
a great deal that was mean and low. When the Yankees passed 
through our own little State, they left sorrow and desolation behind 

There were many good, brave men in the Northern army who 
fought because they believed it to be right ; but General Sherman 
was not one of these. There are not words enough in the English 
language to express how wicked and perfidious he was. The best 
man and most perfect gentleman I ever knew always called him "a 
dirty dog." He hated Southern people because they were all that 
he was not. And he said he would like to see every Southern woman 
brought to the washtub. He did all he could to bring them there. 
But General Sherman did not know of what stuff Southern women 
are made. 

He and his soldiers of like type with himself came into our beau- 
tiful capital, Columbia, and only left it when they had reduced it to 
a pile of ashes. His army passed on their march from Atlanta to 
the sea, burning houses, fences, even every pig-sty and cattle pen, in 
their track. They carried off all the horses, and either took with 
them or killed all the other stock they could find. When they dis- 
covered something they could not steal, they managed to ruin it, so 
that it could be of no service to anvone else. 

358 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

They reached one homestead from which the inmates, hearing- of 
their approach, had fled, because the master of that house had been 
one of the signers of the Ordinance of Secession, and was an in- 
fluential member of the Confederate Congress. For him, dead or 
alive, the invaders had offered a large reward. "If we catch him," 
they said, "he won't be alive long." Finding that the family had 
escaped, the ruffianly soldiers wreaked vengeance on the property. 
A large and valuable library vanished in smoke and ashes under 
their hands ; a handsome new piano, which some faithful negroes 
had taken from the house and tried to hide in a thick orchard, was 
discovered and hacked into splinters. 

After helping themselves to all they could carry, they applied 
their ready torch to the rest until, when the owner returned, he found 
not so much as a chicken to crow for day on what had been a rich, 
well-stocked plantation. 

In another place, they found a handsome carpet, which had been 
recently bought, that seemed to excite their vengeful spirit, and 
they searched the house to find oil, vinegar, molasses — anything that 
was liquid — and poured it all together on the carpet ; then, in great 
glee, these brave soldiers stood around and stirred the mess with 
their swords. They set fire to that house, too ; but the lady who 
lived there would not allow it to be burned. She had a little negro 
boy, who one day came crying to her, saying the Yankees had set 
fire to the house. His mistress told him to put it out. "I done put 
it out tree time. Dey say if I put it out agin dey shoot me," replied 
the child. This Southern woman hesitated not an instant. She 
took the pistol in her hand and, accompanied by the boy, walked out 
to where the bluecoat was amusing himself by kindling a fire under 
her house. Calmly she raised the weapon, pointing straight at the 
Yankee. Then, placing herself between him and the boy, she said, 
"Put that fire out; if he shoots, he'll shoot through me." 

But, I am sorry to say, all of the mean, cowardly things were not 
done by the Northern men. We had some blackguards, too ; but 
none of them held the high position, or received the honor in the 
South that was accorded to Sherman and Butler at the North. All 
of my life I have heard of the mean things done by the Yankees ; 
but a few years ago I learned something of the other side of the 
story. I became acquainted with a very nice man from New York, 
who intensely hated Southern people. In spite of his prejudice, we 
became very good friends, and he one day told me how Southern 
soldiers had treated his father. His father was taken prisoner in 

In the Track of the Raiders. 359 

Tennessee. He was ill, and the weather extremely cold. His clothes 
were taken from him, and very poor ones substituted for them. He 
was given no shoes and stockings at all and, barefooted, made to 
walk behind the army for three days, over miles of frozen ground. 
Even when he fell from exhaustion, and his feet had become so sore 
that every step left a bloody track in the snow, he was urged and 
driven forward until they were met by a detachment of the Northern 
army, and he was rescued. 

I felt very bad when I heard that story, and for once was ashamed 
of a deed done by Southern soldiers. But I believe if any of our 
officers had learned of that shameful conduct the perpetrators would 
have suffered for it. 

The children of those days fared very differently from those of 
the present time. They had no candy, unless on some rare occasion 
their mothers would spare a little molasses to make them some. 
Their dolls were made of rags ; their blocks, and other playthings, 
such as they could find for themselves. We had very little money, 
and what we had was almost worthless. It took $150 to buy a pair 
of rough boys' shoes for a young lady who had lost one of her own 
while trudging through deep mud at night, fleeing before Sherman's 
merciless band. 

Our people had scarcely enough to eat after Sherman passed 
through. I will tell you what one lady did, the same who saved 
her home from burning. After the raiders left her place, she went 
and raked up the dirt where they had fed their horses and, washing 
out of it all the corn that had escaped the animals, ground it up into 
food for her family. 

A little girl who opened her eyes upon the world at that time was 
dressed in clothes made from her father's old linen shirts, and rocked 
in a cradle made of fence rails. How different that is from the 
pretty cradles and carriages and the dainty clothes the babies of 
today fall heir to ! 

Those were indeed "the times that tried men's souls," and very 
bravely they stood the trial. Let them never be forgotten, and let 
their children, and their children's children, rise up to honor and 
revere them. Lulah Ayer Vandiver. 

[The congressman whose plantation was destroyed, and upon 
whose head a price was set, was my father, Gen. Lewis M. Ayer, 
of Barnwell. The lady who saved her home and raked up the corn 
was his sister, Mrs. Martha Ayer Aklrich, wife of Judge Alfred P. 
Aldrich, of Barnwell. The Richmond ladv who ministered to the 

360 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

soldiers was my grandmother, Mrs. Thos. V. Moore, wife of Dr. T. 
V. Moore, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Richmond. The 
lady who lost her shoe was my mother, then a bride.] 

Recollections of the War. 

The muttering discontent of two dissatisfied parties, North and 
South, had long disturbed our peaceful nation, and the people of 
South Carolina were in anxious expectancy of the bursting storm. 
Finally, when Lincoln was elected President of the United States, 
and Fort Sumter had been fired upon, war was declared inevitable, 
and our fair Southland was in the throes of a revolution. Despair 
and dismay for a while held sway. The people of the little town of 
Anderson gathered together and, with saddened faces and tear- 
dimmed eyes, would ask each other, "Oh ! do you think there will 
be war?" And the answer would always be, "Yes; war is inevit- 
able." And in groups we women would gather at a neighbor's 
house and debate the coming crisis. All was sad and gloomy, and 
a dark pall seemed to envelop our little town and extend its black 
folds far over our land. We groped about our household work in 
silence and death-like gloom, too sad to take any interest in our 
affairs, for we expected the war cloud to break over us any day. 

Truly, in a few weeks after Lincoln was inaugurated, our execu- 
tive head, Governor Francis Pickens, called for volunteers to hasten 
to Columbia for orders. The order from the Governor reached the 
village on Saturday evening, and by daylight Sunday morning our 
streets were filled with an excited crowd of people from all over the 
country — old men, and young men, riding, walking, hurrying, scurry- 
ing through the streets, anxious for departure to the seat of war. 
The entire day on that eventful Sunday in April was spent in getting 
things ready to send men to Columbia for inspection. 

There was sorrow and weeping among the mothers and 
sisters over parting from their dear ones. Many a brave-hearted 
schoolboy, who had thrown aside his books and left his school, bade 
good-bye to home and its comforts, enlisted for his country's rights, 
and returned no more. 

It was at this time the women of the proud old State showed them- 
selves to be noble, self-sacrificing heroines in the strife. They wiped 
all tears away, set aside all repining, and went to work at once to 
help all they could in assisting the brave soldiers in the cause 
which they knew was right. Sewing societies were immediately 

Recollections of the War. 361 

organized, and the work of making clothing for our men in the war 
commenced. We met once a week in the old Temperance Hall, over 
the storeroom of the late Mr. A. B. Towers, located about where Mr. 
Ab. Kay's store now is, in what was called Granite Row. 

Mrs. Rosa Webb, now deceased, was president of the sewing so- 
ciety. She and Mrs. Daniel Brown, and Mrs. Judge Monroe (now 
both dead) spent two or three days together, cutting out garments of 
gray jeans and cotton underwear, and when the society assembled 
we were each handed a garment to sew on while we remained, and 
our needles and our tongues would do duty for an hour or two as 
we discussed the army and its horrors. In this way we accomplished 
much in making garments. Every month we would send out a box 
of clothing, together with boxes of eatables, to gladden the hearts of 
our soldier boys, who were then in camp in Virginia. 

We spent all of our spare time knitting socks, getting the thread 
spun on the plantations by the negroes ; and we never went out to 
pay a visit without taking our knitting along. It was a common 
salutation, when we met our friends, to say, "Come, bring your knit- 
ting, and spend the day." Sometimes several days would be spent 
in scraping lint to be sent to the hospitals for dressing wounds. 
We would get together all the old, worn-out table and bed linen, 
and scrape it up into a soft down, make it in packages, and send it 
to the army surgeon. Many a poor, sorrowing mother's tears were 
bound up in that downy package of lint as she prayed that her boy 
might be spared in the coming conflict. 

The years passed slowly on. Our clothes began to grow worn and 
thin. All the cloth in the stores was used up. Merchants had 
locked up their places of business, given the key to whom it belonged, 
and departed for the war. We then had to resort to spinning and 
weaving our cloth. Spinning wheels, cards, and cotton looms and 
reels were brought actively into use. Not only did they have to 
clothe the negroes on the plantation, but the white folks had to wear 
home-made clothes. Ingenuity and invention played an important 
part. We searched the woods for barks and roots to dye some pretty 
colors to make our dresses. There was no indigo blue or madder 
red for us to buy, so we used all kinds of dyestuff. We made a 
beautiful red dye from poke berries, setting the color with vinegar. 
Ivy or laurel root made a nice gray color, and red oak bark and 
walnut root a rich dark brown and black. 

We often made trips to old Pendleton factory, then run by Mr. 
Ben Sloan, the same now managed by Mr. Gus Sitton. 

362 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Confederate money got so cheap it was hard to buy thread with 
money. We had to barter tallow, beeswax, leather, and 
sheep's wool for thread. I have often thought what a blessing we 
had a cotton factory then to supply our country and town in thread 
for our use. A neighbor woman would get ready to make a trip to 
the factory in a buggy, sending word around to her neighbors that 
she would carry anything she could for them. So she started off 
in her buggy or one-horse wagon, loaded up with articles for barter 
from many families, and great would be the excitement when she 
returned, bringing the needed requirements for our clothing. One 
bunch of thread would warp about thirty yards. Ladies in the coun- 
try who took in weaving would have to be paid in something more 
valuable than Confederate money. I heard of one woman who had 
thirty yards of cloth woven for a half-pint of castor oil. 

When our shoes were worn out, we made the tops from any scraps 
of jeans we happened to have left from soldiers' clothes. And then 
commenced the weary walking every day for weeks to the old colored 
shoemaker, Elias Caldwell, who had his shoe shop on Whitner's 
creek, at Mr. Leverette Osborne's tanyard, the spot now built up, and 
a new, enterprising cottonseed oil mill nearly covering the place 
where the old tanyard used to be. Elias Caldwell was the only shoe- 
maker in the town, and he was always hard pressed and filled with 
orders ahead. It was hard work to get him to make all the shoes 
we needed. 

We made our own lights. Candles were made by melting tallow 
and pouring into tin molds, made at Mr. Luten Brady's tin shop. 
When the melted tallow cooled, we would draw from the molds 
a half dozen very shapely candles. Our parlor lights were quite 
fancifully made — a long cord, made from several strands of thread, 
was stretched across the yard, six or ten feet, and we then took a 
saucer of hot, melted tallow and beeswax, holding it under the cord, 
and walked along the line, backward and forward, until the cord was 
about the size of a lead pencil ; then the cord was taken and wrapped 
around a bottle, up and down, and across, in a fanciful design, and 
set on the parlor mantel, to be lighted only when company came. 

We made our own gloves, from bits of cloth, or knit them from 
homespun thread. We made buttons out of gourds, cut into molds, 
covering them with cloth of any color or kind. Our bonnets and 
hats were made from the straw hats we had before the war. We 
had but one milliner in our village, and all looked upon her as a 
great genius. Old Mrs. Garrison's house still stands on the corner, 

Recollections of the War. 363 

near the square, and is yet used as a boardinghouse. Mrs. Gar- 
rison ripped up our old hats and bonnets, dyed them, made and 
molded them over. She had but two styles — one she called a droop, 
the other a boulevard — so we had to accept one or the other. The 
droop was a wide-brimmed hat, strapped down with colored ribbon 
or scraps of silk from old silk dresses. A boulevard style hat 
was a small round hat, that turned over the head like a soup plate 
or a bowl, and was usually trimmed in palmetto rosettes, made from 
the native palmetto bark or leaf. With either kind of these hats 
on our heads we sat in church as complacently as we do now with 
our fashionable and richly-trimmed headgear. 

Pins and needles were scarce. A half-dozen pins did duty for a 
year or two, and were stuck away carefully in a secret hiding place. 
Needles were borrowed from each other. One old lady I knew, who 
had but one needle, kept it hid away in the clock — she said from 
meddlesome busybodies. We used ink made from ink balls from 
oak trees ; walnut juice was often used. We used a kind of coarse, 
thin, brown writing paper, made somewhere in the State (I have 
forgotten where). For shoe blacking, elder berries were cooked 
up and strained ; with a little sorghum molasses stirred in the mix- 
ture, a beautiful, glossy blacking was produced. Our substitute for 
coffee was okra seed or rye, parched. Some made coffee from per- 
simmon seed ; it tasted sweet and pungent. Potatoes, peeled and 
dried, were sometimes used as a substitute for coffee ; and I have 
heard some old ladies affirm that they would never buy any more 
coffee from the Yankees, as they had gotten used to the substitute 
and liked it just as well. 

Before the war ended, salt became very scarce, and brought very 
high prices. Many farmers resorted to digging up the ground 
of their smokehouses, the salt having dripped from the meat 
which hung above during the smoking and drying process. The 
ground would be dug up, the dirt put into a hopper like an ash 
hopper, dripped down into a vessel, then taken and boiled down, 
getting the sediment, which was a brown salt, and used for salting 
the stock, and very often used on the table. 

The first vessel that ran the blockade, I think, was the "Ella War- 
ley" (though I am not certain). The vessel brought over some sup- 
plies, both in dry goods and groceries, and were sold at fabulous 
prices in Confederate money. Calico sold for $10 a yard, and went 
like hot cakes. My! my! $100 for ten yards of calico, and ding)-, 
ugly calico at that ! 

364 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

We attended parties and big dinners, where were served roast 
turkey, roast pig, and all kinds of eatables raised in abundance on 
the farms. For dessert we often had fruitcake made of dried peaches 
or grapes, prepared by our good housewives. We wore our home- 
spun dresses, made en train, trimmed in palmetto buttons on the 
shoulders and on the sleeves, a la militaire. We wore these stylish 
dresses to all the social entertainments, and women vied with each 
other in making the most effective homespun costume. Our winter 
cloaks or wraps were made of brown or gray jeans, called the 
Chesterfield style. They were long and close-fitting, something like 
the automobile cloak of these days. Scarfs, made for the neck, were 
knit from colored wool, dyed on the plantation. Many of these 
scarfs we knit and sent to our soldier boys, to keep them warm while 
they stood picket during the cold winter nights. I remember my 
brother wrote home to my mother while in winter quarters : 

"Dear Mar : When the next box is sent here, please send me a 
pair of breeches. The scarf you sent me is all right as far as it 
reaches, but it only covers my neck, while the lower part of me is 
almost naked. My breeches are worn out, and my drawers are only 
pieces of drawers. Two shirts and a thin gray jacket is all I have. 
I am messing with Arch Saddler and Jim West. Each have a part 
of the work to do. I tote water ; West makes up the bread, and Sad- 
dler cooks. If this is all we have until we raid somebody's hen 
house, then listen for squalls, for I'm bound to pull some old hen or 
rooster off the roost, and if they don't surrender quietly I'll knife 
her. That's a fact." 

When any neighbor would receive a letter from a soldier it was 
sent around so we all might read it and keep up with operations of the 
army. As a general thing, all letters were bright and cheerful, and 
showed endurance and a willingness for duty. 

Whenever there was an interval of several weeks between the re- 
ceiving of letters, we knew the army was moving, something in war 
circles which betokened a getting ready for battle, and we awaited 
news with great anxiety whenever the newspapers would report a 
battle had been fought. And if the Fourth Regiment had been en- 
gaged, our excitement and suspense was intense, and many a poor 
mother's heart was rent on reading over the list of casualties. 

During the last two years of the war, we had a hospital established 
in the old Masonic Hall, and many a poor wounded and sick soldier 
was nursed and attended by the ladies of our town. We also had 
a committee of ladies to meet every afternoon train. With pitchers 

Recollections of the War. 365 

of buttermilk, and a bottle of whiskey, we would go through the 
cars, and if any sick soldiers were on board we ministered to their 
wants. I remember on one occasion, when it came my turn to meet 
the train at the depot, Mrs. Marion Allen Hill and I entered the car 
and found several weak and sick soldiers, on furlough, going to their 
homes. We would stand by them, asking the question : "Buttermilk 
or whiskey?" "Whiskey, if you please," would almost invariably be 
the answer. Mrs. Hill's bottle was soon emptied, whilst my pitcher 
was as heavy as it was when I left home. I remember saying on 
one occasion, "Marion, I won't carry another pitcher of milk to that 
depot; if the committee wants me to carry anything to the soldiers 
they must provide me with a bottle, for I see you carry the favorite 
beverage." How we laughed as we wended our way home in the 

At one time during the war a company of Wheeler's Cavalry 
passed through our town. This was a great time for us to turn out 
and show our attention to the brave Confederates. All the young 
ladies went out on the sidewalk and greeted them with waving of 
handkerchiefs and bouquets of flowers. One jolly Reb. rode by 
and, looking mischievously down from his horse to a bright young 
girl, said, "You better be bringing out your meat and bread ; we 
can't eat flowers." This saucy speech caused the girls to realize that 
their flowers were not substantial food for hungry soldiers. 

And so the years rolled by — four years of hardship and suffering 
and sorrow ! Xever in the history of the world did there ever exist 
such a noble, heroic and self-sacrificing people, both men and women, 
as lived in our beloved Southland. They made every sacrifice, en- 
dured every hardship, and carried forward to triumphal success 
every charitable scheme that would enhance the interest and comfort 
of the noble army. Never day so long or night so dark that they 
did not rise in oneness of purpose to assist in maintaining the 
Southern Confederacy. For four long years they toiled and suffered, 
and when the end came, when the great Lee had to surren- 
der to overwhelming foes, the people with bowed heads and break- 
ing hearts accepted the cruel fate and turned at once to work and 
toil to build up their fallen fortunes. We have at last reaped the 
reward in seeing our South arise from its ashes and take its place 
among the nations of the world. 

Mrs. Sylvester Bleckley. 

[Read before the Robert E. Lee Chapter of the Daughters of the 
Confederacy, 1901.] 

366 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

With Stoneman's Raiders. 

It was a clear, beautiful morning, 1st of May, 1865, when all 
nature smiled in kindliness at the approach of Spring, all schools 
had a holiday, and the gay young girls and boys, with their teachers 
and friends, went in big, roomy old rumbling wagons, with mules 
hitched in, to picnic on Rocky River's shady banks, to pull down 
yellow jessamine vines, to search for blue violets, and fish and bathe 
in the flowing stream. There was no thought of a disturbing ele- 
ment to mar the happy, gay laughter with that young crowd, and 
no one gave them a warning note of anything to disturb their 

For a day or two there had been some little anxiety of a Yankee 
raid. But the few older heads, whom we looked to for advice, said, 
"Oh, there's no danger; Anderson is the safest place in the Con- 
federacy." It seemed it was considered so, for many had refugeed 
here from Charleston and other points ; many people sent their 
trunks, with silverware, jewelry, clothing, and anything valuable, 
to be stored away for safe keeping, as our little village had always 
been considered safe from the enemy. So, with the little warning 
we had, we heeded not, and, like the people in Noah's time, we pur- 
sued the even tenor of our way, unbelieving, unexpecting any trouble 
from the enemy, particularly as Lee had surrendered, and all things 
were in a state of adjustment, and it took only time to bring order 
from confusion. On this certain May morning, my little children 
had gone with their nurses and teachers to the picnic and May day 
festival. Mrs. John B. Sloan, a near neighbor, came to see me, and 
together we planned to spend the day with my grandmother, who 
lived two miles from the town, on the Greenville road. We set out, 
walking the distance in a very short time. While we were at the 
dinner table, in the happiest and most unconcerned mood, my Uncle 
Elias John Earle came from the village and told us a cavalry regi- 
ment of Yankees was reported to be on the road between Green- 
ville and Anderson, and that my brother, who had returned a few 
days before from the army, and had left my house that morning, had 
been on a reconnoitering expedition and had come suddenly on a 
squad of the enemy on the road between Anderson and Greenville. 
They had pursued him, but he outdistanced his pursuers, and rode 
into the town and gave the alarm. My uncle said there was 
great excitement in town, and he would advise us to get home as 
soon as possible, for the raiders would certainly be in Anderson 
bv nigfht. 

With StONEMAN's R AIDERS. 367 

Mrs. Sloan and I hurriedly left the table, rushed through the front 
gate and down the road, running with all our speed, to reach our 
homes and be prepared for the raid. Suddenly we heard a mighty 
roaring and clashing, like a wind storm. We looked back and, oh, 
my ! amid clouds of dust and flashing steel, and wild whoops, we 
saw at once we were surrounded by a thousand of Stoneman's 
Cavalry. "Halt!" was the order given. Never women stood so 
still, or hung their heads so humbly. Mrs. Sloan spoke up quickly, 
"We are unprotected women, returning home from a visit ; please 
protect us." An officer then rode up and offered us an escort home, 
and gave the order to proceed. Then commenced that long two 
miles' march, right in the middle of the road, with an officer on each 
side of us. I never can forget the feelings I had ; they were of the 
most bitter humiliation and disgust. I was too afraid to speak — ex- 
cept to answer questions in the most polite manner. 

I had the most unhappy thoughts of the fate of my husband, who 
was in the enrolling service ; of my little children, who were away 
from home ; and how was this military escort to release us ? were 
we their prisoners? and all sorts of horrid things crossed my brain. 
My companion in trouble, Mrs. Sloan, chatted brightly about the war, 
Lee's recent surrender, and how they came here, making this raid 
upon a people who had already surrendered. To all this they had a 
ready response to excuse themselves. As we neared the town, they 
gave the order to halt. We did so immediately. I thought, "We 
are going to be shot sure." They gave an order for us to stand 
aside, as they were preparing to make a charge into the town. We 
opened a gate and entered the yard to the home where Mrs. Lizzie 
Cater now lives. I do not remember who lived there then. There 
was no one at home. We stepped upon the porch ; in an instant a 
large bulldog rushed upon us in the most ferocious manner ; we fled 
again to the street, screaming with fright. One or two dismounted 
soldiers beat the dog away and, laughing, told us we were more 
afraid of bulldogs than Yanks. 

So we remained right on the side of the road and let those raiders 
ride swiftly by, and as the last squad passed us, we set out running 
right behind them, through clouds of dust, taking all the near cuts, 
through patches and gardens, climbing fences, and shouting to our 
neighbors, as we went by, the news of the attack. When I entered 
my back door, it seemed to me a hundred of those marauders entered 
the front at the same time. The house was pillaged from top to 
bottom. In less time than I can tell you, smokehouse, dairy, pantry, 

368 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

everything had been cleaned up. Everybody's house had been en- 
tered at the same time, and all kinds of depredations made. Old 
men were choked and beaten to make them tell where their valuables 
were hidden. Some gave up rather than be so persecuted ; others 
stood it out, and would not give them any information. The women 
and children were frightened nearly to death. 

The picnic crowd had been surprised and their horses and mules 
taken from their wagons and buggies, and parties who had started 
home were left sitting in the road, too much frightened to know 
what to do. Some ladies were so frightened when they saw the sol- 
diers approaching the house that they would rush towards them, 
offering them their watches and jewelry, and begging them to get 
away as quickly as possible. Some had time to hide away their 
things, but were so flustrated as never to remember where they had 
hidden them. 

I remember a Mr. Sam Moore, who had a wooden leg. The leg 
was hollow. He carried six gold watches in his leg for several 
days, which different people had given him to hide for them. Many 
threw their bags of gold and valuables in their wells. Some hid 
them in the chimneys. These marauders took away all guns or fire- 
arms they found about the house, and took away clothing. They 
also ripped up the silks, tied them around their horses' necks, and 
paraded the streets as an aggravation to the citizens. 

We dressed ourselves and children in all the clothes we had, piling 
on two and three dresses at once, and went about looking like stuffed 
animals ; we hid everything else in the way of clothes between mat- 
tresses, to save them from being destroyed by the vandals. 

The men were all taken prisoners as soon as these soldiers entered 
the town. They were locked up in the courthouses and kept secure 
for one night, and then let out on parole and sent by a guard home 
to their families, to remain a few hours. 

These wretches remained in our town two days and nights, 
committing all kinds of depredations, and left us in a deplorable 
state, with nothing to eat, and our homes looted of everything valu- 

Anderson, S. C. Mrs. Sylvester Bleckley. 




The Yankee Raid Through Anderson. 369 

The Yanhee Raid Through Anderson. 

Indelibly impressed on the mind of the writer was the visit of 
Stoneman's raiders. It was May day, 1865. For days rumors had 
come to us that a contingent of the Yankee army was passing 
through the State, and would surely reach Anderson soon. Al- 
though Lee had surrendered in April, and there was no excuse for 
this visitation, Stoneman paid no attention to that, and continued 
his march through the South, accompanied by about two thousand 
merciless invaders, pillaging and destroying everything within reach. 

Early on the morning of this beautiful May day, a party of young 
folks had determined to have their annual May picnic, just on the 
outskirts of the town, and enjoy themselves. Thev were reminded 
that the Yankees might come, but nothing deterred them, and bright 
and early a crowd of sweet young girls and happy-hearted boys were 
off to the picnic. All went well until about twelve o'clock, when a 
messenger came from Greenville, S. C, with positive assurance that 
the Yankees were on the. way, and were destroying as they came. 
Farm houses were entered and rifled of everything valuable, their 
worn-out, sore-backed horses were turned loose, and the horses and 
mules of the farmers taken. What provisions for man or horse they 
could not consume they destroyed. Even featherbeds were taken out 
and ripped open, and cast to the winds. As this news came to the 
town, all was consternation. The picnic was forgotten by parents in 
their anxiety to hide away their valuables. In some cases, silver and 
jewels and other valuables were packed in jars or boxes and buried 
in yard or garden. 

The young folks were overtaken on their return and came in ter- 
rified. By five o'clock in the afternoon we heard the clank of swords 
and tramp of horses, and before we knew it the whole town was 
filled with bluecoats, the first we had seen, as our place was remote 
from the actual scenes of war. Three days of terror followed their 
coming. Every man in town was halted t on being met by the 
Yankees, and instantly robbed of watches or other valuables ; then 
they, without being given any chance to communicate with their 
families, were marched into the courthouse, where they remained 
until everything about them could be found out. By communication 
with their servants, the Yankees found out their names and their 
financial standing. 

The negroes were wild, and could be intimidated into telling any- 
thing. As they had been told that the North was fighting for their 
freedom, they were ready to bow down and worship them. If a man 


370 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

lived comfortably, they told that he was rich, and doubtless had 
plenty of money, and the Yankees believed it all and proceeded to get 
hold of some of this reputed wealth. Many of our best and most 
honored citizens, poor now, in that they had lost their slaves, and 
used all their money to live as plainly as could be, were hung up by 
their thumbs, or choked almost to death, to be made to tell where 
their money or valuables were stored. 

In the meantime, every house was entered and pillaged. Ladies 
were insulted and required to make known the whereabouts of their 
valuables. Rings were stripped from fingers or ears ; watches were 
taken. We were commanded to get supper ready for an indefinite 
number ; this, to many of us, meant taking all that we had. The 
stores around the square were entered and emptied, and the little 
they contained which could not be carried off by the soldiers was 
given to the negroes, or emptied into piles in the middle of the 
streets, where the negroes flocked in droves to help themselves. 
Even the contents of the drug stores were pounded together and 
mixed so that no use could be made of them. 

After this state of things had gone on for a day and night, the 
people, in order to protect themselves from utter demolition, had to 
humble themselves and ask the "gallant commander" of this valiant 
troop for a guard to protect their families from the further insulting 
abuse of the soldiers. The request was most graciously granted, 
but many times, as was the case in our own house, the guard was a 

By this time the soldiers had gained access to a wine cellar, and 
the majority of them were crazed with drink. While our old guard 
was lying stretched on the piazza bench, sleeping off his drunk, the 
house was filled with soldiers, who searched every nook and corner ; 
even bureau drawers and writing desks were entered. The night 
before I had burned up all my letters, and in my desk was found only 
a little silk Confederate flag, which I purposely left there, and it cost 
me dearly, as it only exasperated these wicked men. 

My father, then an old man, was ordered to pull off the only shoes 
he possessed and hand them over. My mother was ordered to "turn 
out them pockets ; we knows you have something hid there." At 
this rude and ungentlemanly treatment, the delicate, nervous, and 
sensitive nature of the dear one all gave way, and she fell into our 
arms, all unconscious of what would pass for several hours. We 
became indignant. Young and hot-headed. I lost all fear, and while 
every drop of blood boiled in my veins, I spoke my mind. They 

The Yankee Raid Through Anderson. 371 

declared they would burn down the house of such a d — d Rebel as 
my father, and all the long hours of the second night we were pack- 
ing and arranging to get out at a moment's warning, expecting to 
see the flames from some part of our town. But it proved to be only 
a threat, and on the evening of the third day our hearts were rejoiced 
at the sound of the marching out of "the enemy." 

They did not leave, however, without the shedding of blood. A 
noble young boy was shot in cold blood as he lingered, with a group 
of friends, near the principal hotel. This filled us with new horror, 
and another sleepless night was added to the three preceding ones. 
During these terrible days and nights, very few ladies had undressed, 
for they knew not what an hour would bring forth. 

The country people along their route fared even worse than people 
in town. As they passed the country home of my uncle, the family, 
not being apprised of their approach, rushed to the front piazza to see 
the cause of such an unusual noise and tramp of horses. As they 
halted, pistols were fired, a ball just missing my uncle, and lodging in 
the body of his daughter nearby. She has always been a sufferer 
from the effects of it. A few miles distant from this, in the town of 
Hartwell, Ga., my uncle's eldest son, a prominent physician, who 
had passed through the war unhurt, lived ; they entered the town 
in his absence, and he soon after rode up to his door to alight ; as 
he did so, he was shot, and died instantly. 

After this, affairs in our Southland quieted down, and all tried 
as best they could to accept the situation bravely. Our cause was 
precious, and as just to us as ever, but we were overpowered, out- 
numbered. The returning soldiers we gladly welcomed home again. 
The loved and lost were talked of at every gathering. Almost every 
home had its hero. The pride of our hearts were our wounded and 
maimed soldier boys. Our greatest delight was to minister to a 
one-armed hero, or come to the help of a soldier on crutches. 

Let me say that while my young life was somewhat shadowed, 
and I was cut off from the privileges of an education, and over this 
there is much regret, still I am glad to have lived through a period 
like this, and believe that what there is in me of womanliness and 
strength of character and endurance is greatly due to the lessons of 
self-sacrifice and helpfulness to others taught me during the war. 

R. C. Hoyt. 

Greenville, S. C. (Mrs. Col. James Hoyt.) 

372 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Incidents of the Anderson Raid. 

It is hardly without the pale of the present generation's memory 
since the roar and thunder of Jackson's gun had ceased to echo 
through our happy Southland. The dying embers of Lee's camp- 
fires marked the places where recently stood watch the chivalrous 
flower of Southern manhood. Sherman had begun his march to the 
sea, and in his wake there was left naught but devastation and sor- 
row. Thanks to the fates that old Anderson was spared a visit from 
this fire fiend. 

It was May I, 1865, that a courier, said to have been a member of 
Wheeler's Cavalry, came dashing down Main street, giving the 
alarm, "The Yankees are coming." In a short while the news had 
spread like wildfire, creating terror and consternation throughout 
the village. One of the leading citizens met the raiders in front of 
the courthouse with a flag of truce, improvised by tying a handker- 
chief on the end of his cane. He claimed that the war was over, 
and demanded of the officer in command protection for the citizens 
and their property. He also informed the officers that they might 
make his house headquarters if they so desired. Protection was 
promised, but the Benson House was chosen as headquarters. 

On this eventful day, there was a picnic party at Silver Brook, 
the pretty little stream that winds its way through the "Silent City" 
near our homes. Just as the merry crowd were ready to enjoy the 
feast spread before them, they were rudely interrupted by the raiders. 
All of the teams were captured, but the picnic party was given the 
privilege of returning to their homes in the wagons. And as the 
Federal soldiers rode on each side of them through the public square, 
it is safe to say that they never guarded fairer prisoners than those 
Southern girls. 

The object of the raid was to capture ex-President Jefferson 
Davis. By some means, the Federals had ascertained that he had 
been in Abbeville. It was also reported to them that a large amount 
of Confederate gold and silver was on the road, having left that 
place. The raiders were commanded by General Palmer, a Ken- 
tuckian, who was candidate for Vice-President during the last cam- 
paign, on the goldbug Democratic ticket. Palmer's command was 
sent in every direction, and especially to all towns and to the bridges 
over the Tugaloo, Seneca, and Savannah rivers, hoping to learn of 
Davis' crossing place, and whether any gold or silver had been sent 
across those rivers. 

Incidents of the Anderson Raid. 373 

Many were the laughable scenes as this family or that rushed 
hither and thither, seeking a hiding place for their valuables or neces- 
saries. One member of the family watched the front door while 
another hid the jewels. Garret and cellar were searched for hiding 
places, and floors and ceilings were ripped from their places to find 
storage for a handful of sugar or a cup of salt, worth anywhere from 
$10 to $100 per pound. 

No doubt there are old wells hereabouts still holding their treas- 
ures, and many family relics bear the mark of hasty concealment. A 
lady who still resides in Anderson owned a very handsome watch, 
and when she received the intelligence that the raiders had come she 
was sorely distressed. In great haste, she secured a tin cup and, 
placing the watch therein, concealed it in the bosom of old mother 
earth, beneath a tree in an immense orchard, and, covering the place 
with grass, she felt that her watch was securely hidden. After the 
raiders had left town, she returned to reclaim her treasure, but, to 
her disappointment, she was unable to locate the tree, and finally 
called out the slaves to assist in the search. 

It may be interesting to mention that located at Johnson Univer- 
sity, now Patrick Military Institute, was the Confederate Treasury, 
or a branch of it. Our government had eighty foreign expert artists 
employed, who were turning out millions of dollars of cheap Con- 
federate money. One hundred and twenty-five dollars in Confeder- 
ate money was worth about one dollar in gold the day before the 
raid. There was a small amount of coin in the treasury. It was 
paid out pro rata to the employees, from officers and clerks down to 
the laborers in the printing department. Most of the books and 
papers were stored in the building now occupied by the Hill-Orr 
Drug Company. This building contained money, books, safes, and 
many valuables that belonged to citizens all over the South, some 
having been shipped from Richmond when the Treasury Depart- 
ment was removed from there. 

At the time of the raid, the dining-room of the Benson House 
was connected by a door with the storage room of the Treasury De- 
partment. When it was rumored that the stores were being broken 
open, some of the citizens, with the assistance of the slaves, set about 
to remove the trunks and boxes into the dining-room. There, under 
a double row of tables, were placed the trunks and boxes. The 
tablecloths were arranged so as to nearly reach the floor. The Fed- 
eral officers who had headquarters at the Benson House ate their 
meals over those boxes of silver, diamonds, gold, and other valuables. 

374 South Carolina Women in the Confederacy. 

Many old slaves would go to the rooms of the refugees, get their 
jewels and hide them, and not once did they betray either native 
or refugee. 

In some instances, most brutal and cruel methods were used by the 
raiders. Mr. Silcox, a wealthy refugee from Charleston, on refusing 
to reveal the hiding place of his wealth, was immediately hung by 
the thumbs and treated in a most uncivilized manner. 

Standing on the corner, where formerly was Crayton's store, 
but now the Bank of Anderson, was a crowd of boys conversing. 
Suddenly eight or ten Federals rode up and shouted, "To what com- 
mand do you belong, and what are you doing here?" Before anyone 
could reply, several shots were fired, and one of the boys, a Mr. 
Parker, was instantly killed. 

A negro man, commonly known as "Happy Dick" Wilson, whose 
broad smile, fiddle and bow made lasting impressions on many of 
our older citizens, was shot down